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IT has been my object, in drawing up the following Treatise, to 
furnish my students, and others, with a useful manual, in a depart 
ment of classical literature to which sufficient attention is not paid 
in many of the country schools of Scotland. 

In the first part of the work, I have endeavoured to state, with 
precision, the various rules which can be laid down for determining 
the quantity of Latin words; and in illustrating this part of my 
subject, I have proceeded upon a principle, the truth of which must 
be generally acknowledged, although, in so far as I am aware, it 
has never been acted upon in books devoted to this topic. Nothing 
is more certain, than that in every language, the pronunciation of 
many words is different at different epochs, and consequently, their 
quantity must be liable to change. We know that this took place 
in Greek ; we know that this has taken place in English ; and we 
shall easily be satisfied upon investigation, that the same was the 
case in Latin also. Yet in the greater number of books upon Latin 
Prosody, we find no distinction made between the writers quoted 
as authorities, whatever may have been their age, the purity of their 
style, or the comparative value of the MSS. upon which the received 
texts are founded. Ennius and Lucilius, Lucretius and Catullus, 
Tibullus and Horace, Statius and Martial, Claudian and Ausonius, 
are all thrown together at random, while no clue is afforded to the 
young scholar, by the aid of which he may thread his way through 
the labyrinth, and judge correctly of the value of their respective 
testimonies. Hence the multitude of doubtful quantities with which 
his memory is burdened, many of them called doubtful, when the 
contending witnesses are Yirgil and Martianus Capella, or Ovid and 
Sidonius Apollinaris. In every case I have taken as the rule, the 
practice of those poets who flourished during the golden age of 
Roman literature. I have not omitted to notice the variations 
from this standard, which are to be found in authors who wrote 
while the language still maintained some degree of purity; but I 
have never called the quantity of a syllable doubtful, when the 
practice of Yirgil and his contemporaries is uniform; and I have 
thought it quite unnecessary to encumber my pages with more than 
a few passing allusions to the trashy verses poured forth by the 


mistaken zeal of the early Christians, which abound with the 
grossest solecisms, and are no more entitled to respect in matters of 
prosody, than the exercises of a blundering schoolboy in modern times. 
But in addition to these, there are some poems, classical in the 
strictest sense, whose evidence cannot be received at all, or must, at 
least, be viewed with suspicion. 

1. We can attach no importance, in controverted points, to those 
early bards of whom nothing has descended to us except short and 
mutilated fragments, such as Ennius, Naevius, Lucilius, and the 
like. It is well known that these scraps are all collected at second 
hand, from the old grammarians and others, who cited them for the 
purpose of proving or illustrating particular points, which seldom 
have any reference to quantity. The quotations, it would appear, 
were frequently made from memory, and therefore subject to every 
kind of change and corruption in the first instance, in addition to 
the subsequent mutilations which they suffered in transcription, 
arising from the strange and uncouth dialect in which many of them 
were expressed. 

2. The comic dramatists, Plautus and Terence, must also be 
excluded, and this for the best possible reason : we are still igno 
rant of the laws by which their verse is regulated, if indeed they did 
think it necessary to confine themselves within the limits of any 
well defined rules. Notwithstanding the labours of such men as 
Erasmus, Scaliger, Faber, Hare, Bentley, Hermann, and a host of 
others, the Latin comic metres are involved in the deepest obscurity, 
and the original text has, in numerous passages, been mercilessly 
mangled by the vain efforts of ingenious men, to force it into 
accordance with their systems. It is more than probable, that 
much time and talent have been wasted in seeking something 
which never can be found ; such at least is the conclusion at which 
we must arrive, if we adopt the opinion of Cicero, who was surely 
better qualified than we can be, to decide such a question. " At 
comicorum senarii propter similitudinem sermonis sic saepe sunt 
abiecti, ut nonnunquam vix in eis numerus et versus intelligi possit; 
quo est ad inveniendum difficilior in oratione numerus, quam in 
versibus." Cicero Orat. LY., 184. 

We may remark, in addition, that the individuals comprehended 
in the above classes, flourished at a period when the Roman tongue 
was still in the process of formation, before the delicacies of its 
structure and pronunciation were fully established and recognized. 

3. We can put no faith in those compositions which are known 
as the Tragedies of Seneca. Granting that they are really ancient, 
and this has been doubted by many able scholars, no one can tell 
who the Seneca was whose name they bear, or when he lived. It 
is certain that they are not all the work of the same person ; it is 


not easy to determine how many different hands have been em 
ployed in making up the collection ; and it is impossible to fix 
the different periods at which they may have been severally 

It will be useful to the student to give a catalogue of the Latin 
Poets ; with the date of the birth and death of each, where these 
particulars can be ascertained, and a statement of their relative 
value as metrical authorities. 

Born. Flourished. Died. 


NAEVIUS, ... 235 201 

ENNIUS, .... 239 169 

PLAUTUS, . . . . 227 184 

CAECILIUS, . . . 179 168 

AFRANIUS, . . . 159 

PACUVIUS, . . . 219 154 130(?) 

TERENTIUS, ... 195 159 

Accius, .... 170 139 alive 103 

LUCILIUS, ... 148 121 103 

LUCRETIUS, ... 95 52 

CATULLUS, ... 87 57 (?) 

YIRGILIUS, ... 70 19 

HORATIUS, ... 65 8 

TIBULLUS, ... 59(?) 18 

PROPERTIUS, . . 51 (?) 15 

OVIDIUS, .... 43 A.C. 17 

Cornelius Gallus, 
Pedo Albinovanus, 
Publius SyruSj 
Marcus Manilius, 
Gratius Faliscus, 
Aulus Sabinus, 
Caesar Germanicus. 

PH2EDRUS, . . . A.C. 48 

SILIUS ITALICUS, . . 25 100 

PERSIUS, .... 34 63 

LUCANUS, .... 38 65 

JUVENALIS, ... 38 119 

MARTIALIS, ... 40 101 



STATIUS, .... 61 96 

SULPITIA, .... 88 * 


Born. Flourished. Died. 

Avienus, . . . . 160(374) 

Dionysius Cato y . 160 

Serenus Sammonicics, . 212 

CommodianuSj ... 265 

Nemesianus, . . . 284 

Calpurnius, ... 284 

Porphyrius, ... 326 

JuvencMS, .... 337 

AUSONIUS, . . . 309 394 

Fcdconia, .... 394 

Prudentius, . . . 348 4... 

CLAUDIANUS, . . . 365 (?) 400 

Numatianus, . . . 416 

Pauiinus, . . . 353 431 

Prosper Aquitanus, ... 463 

Sedulius, .... 450 

ManiertuSy . . . 474 

Sidonius Apollinaris, . 428 484 

Dracontius, ... 456 

Martianus Capella, . . 474 

Avit-us, .... 490 

BoethiuSj .... 524 

Venantius Fortunatus, . 530 

In tlie above list, those wlio precede Lucretius must be thrown 
out of consideration altogether, for the reasons already explained. 
Lucretius himself, although inferior in genius to none of his 
successors, scarcely occupies the first rank in the estimation of the 
Prosodian. For it must be borne in mind that the author of the 
De Rerum Natura thought fit, like our own Spenser, to adopt a 
style much more antiquated than that in actual use among his 
contemporaries; and his poem may be said to exhibit the language 
in its transition state, at a period when much of the ancient roughness 
was removed ; but when it had not yet received the last brilliant 
polish. Yirgil, Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, are our 
great standards, yet even among these, slight differences may be 
perceived. The two former never admit the double i in the geni 
tive of nouns of the second declension in ium and ius, which is 
common in Ovid, and the shortening of final o in verbs, which was 
afterwards extended to nouns and adverbs, first begins to appear in 
the immediate successors of Yirgil. Of the above, Propertius is 
the least valuable, on account of the small number and imperfec 
tions of the MSS., which have, in many passages, bafHed the acute- 
ness of the most practised editors. Of Catullus, also, there are 
very few trustworthy MSS., and hence his text is in several 
passages either certainly corrupt, or, at best, doubtful. 


Next follows a group of seven, all of little moment. The pieces 
attributed to Cornelius Gallus, and Pedo Albinovanus, are by most 
persons deemed spurious; those epistles which bear the name of 
Aulus Sabinus, and the fragments of paraphrases of Aratus, said to 
be by Germanicus, are, at best, doubtful : of Publius Syrus nothing 
remains but some detached apothegms ; and as to the lines on 
hunting by Gratius Faliscus, we are altogether in the dark. The 
Consolatio ad Liviam, and the Dirae in Ibin, which are printed 
along with the works of Ovid, probably belong to this period, but 
the authors are unknown. Critics have not yet decided on the pre 
tensions of the astronomical treatise of Manilius, if that be his name. 
Vossius, in one work, confidently asserts, that he flourished under 
the Emperor Theodosius : while, in another, published afterwards, 
he ranks him among the contemporaries of Virgil. This is the 
opinion of Bentley also ; but even if we admit the justness of his 
decision, which seems to be based on very feeble probabilities, the 
text is so full of corruptions and interpolations, that we can have 
little confidence in any conclusions founded upon it. The same 
remark may be applied to Phaedrus ; the fables are now generally 
received as authentic, but the text is derived from one or two indif 
ferent MSS., and is, consequently, in many places confused and 
unsatisfactory. With regard to those who come after, up to the 
end of the first century, we give it as a rule, that their authority 
may be admitted in points where we can obtain no information 
from purer sources, but must never be placed in competition with 
that of the great masters who went before. All the successors of 
Statius must be considered useless for our present purpose ; if we 
make any exception, it will be in favour of Calpurnius, Ausonius, 
and Claudian, the latter of whom is not more remarkable for the 
purity of his diction, than for the glittering affectation of his tawdry 

In the examples adduced to prove the rules for long final 
syllables, wherever it was practicable, lines have been given in 
which the syllable in question is not Caesural. But this cannot be 
done in every case, without having recourse to indifferent writers, 
and if we find certain syllables, or classes of syllables, uniformly 
long, the legitimate inference is, that this is their proper quantity, 
though they may never happen to occur, except at the beginning 
of a foot. 

In treating of Latin Versification I have endeavoured to explain 
concisely, the structure of all the different kinds of verse employed 
by the best poets, and their combinations with each other, without 
touching, however, on the measures of comedians, since these would 
have required discussions of great length, and of a nature quite 
unsuited to an elementary work. The rules which have been given 


in each instance, are intended as a guide to modern composers, and 
have been deduced from the study of the most approved models : 
"Virgil in Heroic Verse, Ovid in Elegiac, Horace in Lyrics. In this 
part of the work, especially in all that relates to the Elegiac Distich, 
and to the Alcaic and Sapphic Stanzas, I beg to acknowledge the 
great assistance which I have received from various admirable papers 
by one of the first scholars in England, Mr. Tate, formerly of Rich 
mond School, now a canon of St. Paul s. I may take this oppor 
tunity of expressing the obligations which I owe, in various parts 
of this book, to the Aristarchus of Yossius ; and I do this the more 
readily, because I have frequently met with passages transcribed 
verbatim from that invaluable Treatise, without any intimation 
being made of the source from whence they were derived. 


My MANUAL OF LATIN PROSODY having been out of print for 
several years, I have, at the earnest request of many eminent 
teachers, prepared a new edition. The work has been carefully 
revised throughout, and considerably enlarged; the Chapter on 
the History of the Latin Alphabet has been entirely rewritten, 
and a new Chapter has been added on Saturnian Yerses. 

W. K 

GLASGOW COLLEGE, 1st January, 1859. 



Preliminary Remarks, . . 


Rule I. Contracted Syllables, 
Rule II. Diphthongs, 
Rule III. Position, . . . 
Rule IV. One vowel before another 

vowel, . . . . . 
Rule V. Derivatives, . . 

Rule VI. Monosyllables, . . 


Rule VII. Final A, ... 
Rule VIII. Final E, . . . 
Rule IX. Final I, ... 
RuleX. Final O, ... 
Rule XL Final U, . . . 
Rule XII. Final Y, ... 
Rule XIII. Final C, . . . 
Rule XIV. Final D, . . . 
Rule XV. Final L, ... 
Final M, ... 
Rule XVI. Final N, . . . 
Rule XVII. Final R, 
Rule XVIII. Final AS, . . 
Rule XIX. Final ES, . . 
Rule XX. Final IS, . . . 
Rule XXI. Final OS, . 
Rule XXII. Final US, . . 
Rule XXIII. Final YS, . . 
Rule XXIV. Final T, . . 


Rule XXV. Monosyllables in com 
position, .... 

1. Monosyllabic Prepositions, . 
Pro in composition, . . 

2. Inseparable Prepositions, &c., 
Rule XXVI. Polysyllables in com 

position, . . . . 

Page 1 








Rule XXVII. Reduplicating Pre 

terites, . . . . 
Rule XXVIII. Dissyllabic Preter- 




Rule XXIX. Dissyllabic Supines, 
Rule XXX. Polysyllabic Preter 
ites and Supines, 

Quantity of the penult of the third 
person plural of indicative per- 


Quantity of the penult of the first 
and second persons plural of 
the indicative future perfect, 
and the subjunctive perfect, . 

OAESURA, ..... 




General Remarks, . . . 

Class I. Two vowels pronounced as 
one, ..... 

Class II. I pronounced as a conson 
ant, ..... 

Class III. U pronounced as a con 
sonant, .... 

Class IV. Syncope, . 

Class V. Compounds of Iacio y 

Class VI. Certain proper names, . 

Class VII. Words compounded with 

Class VIII. Archaisms, . . 


General Remarks, . 

Synaloepha, . . . . 

Ecthlipsis, . . . . 

Episynaloepha, . . . . 


t7 / 












Synizesis, .... 
Synecphonesis, . 
Syncope, .... 
Diaeresis, .... 
Quantity of the different cases 

proper names in eus, . 
Svstole, .... 


Diastole, .... 




E pen thesis, 




Apocope, , 

Syncope, . 







Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic. 161 

V * 

Caesura in Dactylic Hexameters, 163 
Last word of the Dactylic Hexa 
meter, .... 166 
Dactylic Pentameter Acatalectic, 170 
Eules for its construction, . . 171 
Elegiac Distich, . . . .174 
Dactylic Tetrameter Acatalectic, . 175 


Dactylic Trimeter Hypercatalectic, 176 

Dactylic Trimeter with a base, . 176 

Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, . 177 

Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic, . 177 


Choriambic Tetrameter Acatalectic, 178 
(or Greater Asclepiadean). 

Choriambic Trimeter Acatalectic, 178 
(or Lesser Asclepiadean). 

Choriambic Dimeter* Acatalectic, 179 
(or Glyconian). 

Choriambic Dimeter Catalectic, . 180 
(or Pherecratean). 

Combinations of the above, . 181 

Epichoriambic Trimeter Catalectic, 182 
(or Lesser Sapphic). 

Eules for its construction, . . 183 

Sapphic Stanza, . . . 184 

Epichoriambic Tetrameter Catalec 
tic, ..... 186 
(or Greater Sapphic.) 

Aristophanic Chor. Dim. Cat., . 186 


Anapaestic Dimeter Acatalectic, . 187 

Anapaestic Dimeter Catalectic, . 188 

(or Paroemiac.) 

Anapaestic Monometer Acatalectic, 189 


Ionic a maiore Tetrameter Brachy- 

catalectic, . . . 189 

(or Sotadean). 
Ionic a minore Tetram. Acatalectic, 190 


Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic, . 191 

(or Senarius). 

Choliambus, or Scazon, . . 195 

Comic Iambic Trimeter, . . 196 

Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, . 197 

Iambic Dimeter Acatalectic, . 197 

Iambic Dimeter Hypercatalectic, 198 

Iambic Dimeter Catalectic, . 198 

Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic, . 199 


Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic, . 200 
Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic, . 201 


Greater Archilochian, . . 202 

Alcaic Decasyllabic, . . 203 

Phalaecian Hendecasyllabic, . 203 

Pseudo-Phalaecian, . . . 204 
Choriambico-Trochaic Tetrameter 

Brachycatalectic, . . 204 


Alcaic Hendecasyllabic, . . 205 
Alcaic Enneasyllabic, . . 205 
Alcaic Stanza, . . . 205 


Elegiambic, No. I., . 
Elegiambic, No. II., . 
Priacpean, . . . . 213 


Galliambic Verse, 

VERSE, .... 




I. History of the Latin Alpha 
bet, . . . . 219 
II. Ancient Inscriptions, . 242 

III. On the Ancient Orthography 

of Latin, . . . 255 

IV. On the Pronunciation of Latin, 258 
V. Accent, Quantit}-, Emphasis; 

Metre, Rhythm, Metrical 
Ictus; Arsis; Thesis, 268 

VI. On the Quantity of a Short 
Final Vowel before a word 
beginning with SC, SP, 
SQ, ST, X, Z, &c., . 271 
VII. On the Ancient Form of the 

Declensions, . . 281 

VIII. On the Ancient Form of the 

Conjugations, . . 285 
IX. On Verbs which appear under 

a Double Form, . . 288 
X. On Saturnian Verses, , 291 


Catalogue of the different kinds of 
Verse, and their Combinations, 



Catalogue of the Works of the Latin 
Poets, with references to Table 
I., showing the species of Verse 
in which each piece is composed, 314 




A. E ........................ ~.. Ausonius Epistolae. 

A. E. H ......... - ............... -- Epitaphia Heroum 

A. Ed ............................ - Eclogae. 

A. Eid. ................. ~ ...... - Eidyllia. 

A. Ep ............ ...... .......... -- Epigraramata. 

A. Par. .............. ~ ........... - - Parentalia, 

A. Lud. S. S ................... - Ludus Septem Sapientum. 

A. S. S. S ..................... ~" - Septem Sapientum Sententiae. 

A. Prof. ........ ~ ............... - - Professores. 

A. P ........................... --. -- Praefatiunculae. 

A. V ............................... -- - Ordo nobilium Vrbium. 

Ar. ................................. Arator. 

C ................................... Catullus. 

C. D ............................... Cato, Disticha. 

0. G ............................... Claudianus Gigantomachia. 

C. Eid. ........................... - Eidyllia, 

C. de Cons. M. ..., ............ - de consulatu Mallii Theodori 

Claud. Prob. et Olyb.. ...... - in Probini et Olybrii consulatum, 

Epic. .............................. Epicedion Drusi. 

E. A. or Enn. Ann .......... Ennius, Annales. 

H. ............................... Horatius, Odae. 

H. C. S ____ ...................... - Carmen Seculare. 

H. E. .............................. - Epodae, or Epistolae, according as the abbreviation is 

followed by two or three numerals. 
H. S .............................. - Satirae. 

H. A. P. ...................... -- Ars Poetica. 

1. or I. S ....................... luvenalis Satirae. 

Juvenc ........................... - - luvencus. 

L. .............. .................. Lucretius. 

L. P. ................. .......... Lucanus, Pharsalia. 

Lucil. ............................ Lucilius. 

M .................................. Martialis. 

Man. or Manil. .. ........... Manilius. 

O. H .............................. Ovidius, Heroides. 

O. A ............................. - Amores. 

O. A. A ............................ - Ars Amatoria. 

O.K. A ............................ -- Remedium Amoris. 

O. M. F. .......................... -- Medicaroina FacieL 

O. H. F. .......................... -- Halieuticon Fragmentura. 

O. M ............................. - Metamorphoses. 

O. F. ............................ -- Fasti. 

O. T ............................... -- Tristia. 

O. E. P. ........................... - Epistolae ex Ponto. 

P ......... ^ ........................ Propertius. 

P. S ............ ................. Persius, Satirae. 

Frud. .............................. Prudentius. 

P. P ............................. -- Psychomachia, 

Prud. Ham .................... - Hamartigenia. 

Prud. C. S ...................... - Contra Symmachum. 

Prud. H ........................ -- Hymni. 

Phaed. ........ .. .................. Phaedrus. 

S .................. .. ............... Silius Italicus. 

S. S ............................... Statius, Sylvae. 

S. T. .............................. - Thebais. 

S. A. .............................. - Achilleis. 

Sab. Ep ......................... Sabinus, Epistolae. 

Sed. .............................. Sedulius. 

T .......... ...................... Tibullus. 

V. E ................... ............ Virgilius, Eclogae. 

"V. G ............................... - Georgica. 


V. F. .............................. Valerius Flaccus. 

When the old grammarians are quoted by pages, these refer to the edition of Putschius. 


GRAMMAR, or the art of using words properly, is usually divided 
into four branches : 

1. Orthography, by which we are taught the art of combining 
letters into syllables, and syllables into words. 

2. Prosody, by which we are taught the rules of pronunciation 
and versification. 

3. Etymology, by which we are taught the deduction of one 
word from another, and the various modifications by which the 
sense of the same word is diversified. 1 

4. Syntax, by which we are taught the art of combining words 
into sentences. 

With the two latter, we have no immediate concern in the 
present treatise. 

In regard to Orthography, it will be sufficient to state, that the 
Homan alphabet, in its most perfect shape, consisted of twenty-one 
characters, two of which, however, have a double power. 

The YOWELS (vocales) or open, free-coming sounds, were five in 
number, viz., A, E, I, O, Y. To these Y is sometimes added, but 
it never properly belonged to the Latin alphabet : it was introduced 
at a late period, and was employed only in words transplanted 
directly from the Greek, as the representative of Upsilon. 

The CONSONANTS (consonantes), or sounds produced by compress 
ing the organs of speech, were eighteen in number, viz., B, C, D, 
F, G, H, I, K, L, M, 1ST, P, Q, It, S, T, Y, X. Of these, X is 
called a double consonant, because it was equivalent to OS, GS, or 
KS. The double consonant Z, equivalent to DS, or SD, like 
Y, was not recognized as belonging to the Latin alphabet : it 
was introduced at a late period, and was employed only in words 
transplanted directly from the Greek, as the representative of 

It will be observed that I and Y are placed above among both 

1 See Grammar prefixed to Johnson s Dictionary. 




the vowels and the consonants. The fact is, that each of the?e 
characters has, in some words, the force of a vowel, and in others 
the force of a consonant. 

Thus, IACIO is a word of three syllables, and was, probably, 
pronounced YACIO, the first I having the force of a consonant, 
and the second I the force of a vowel. It is common in those cases 
in which the Latin I has the force of a consonant to represent it 
by J (JACIO), but this character was altogether unknown to the 
Ilomans; and as the employment of it has frequently led to false 
views and statements, it is now generally rejected in printing 
classical texts. 

Again, YOLYYNT is a word of two syllables; the first and the 
second Y have the force of consonants, resembling, probably, in sound, 
our W; while the third Y is a vowel, corresponding, probably, to 
our U, as pronounced in the word full. Hence it is common to 
represent the Latin Y in those cases in which it has the force of a 
vowel by the rounded U ; and although this form of the character 
nowhere appears on the older monuments of the language, the 
employment of it is convenient, and rather obviates confusion. 

L, M, "Ny K, are called LIQUIDS, or SEMI-VOWELS, because their 
sound is more flowing and open than that of B, C, D, F, G, K, P, Q, 
T, Y, which are named MUTES. S, and the double consonant X, 
are generally placed by themselves, and denominated SIBILANTS, or 
hissing consonants. 

Again, consonants are classified according to the quantity and 
force of breath required to articulate them distinctly. Those which 
require most are called ASPIRATES, such are F, H, Y; those which 
require less than the preceding are called MEDIALS, such are B, D, 
G; those which require least are called TENUES or Thin consonants, 
such are C, K, P, T. 

Another classification of consonants is founded upon the consi 
deration of what portions of the organs of speech are principally 
called into operation; those proceeding from the throat and back 
part of the palate are called GUTTURALS, and sometimes PALATALS, 
such are 0, G, H, K, Q, R ; those produced chiefly by the action of the 
tongue upon the teeth are called DENTALS, such are D, T, N; those 
produced chiefly by the compression of the lips are called LABIALS, 
such are B, F, M, P, Y. Sometimes more minute distinctions are 
introduced : thus, some writers designate D, L, I (consonant), as 
palato-dentals ; F as a Idbio-dental; H, L, as potato- gutturals. Indeed, 
since the consonants are formed in a regular progression advancing 
from the lower portion of the throat to the extremity of the lips, 
we might, if it were necessary or desirable, distinguish each letter 
by an epithet denoting the particular portion of the throat or mouth 
which it issued. 


The philological phenomena connected with these natural classi 
fications are so numerous, remarkable, and important, that the 
student ought to make himself master of the relations represented 

in the following table :- 




ASPIRATES, ...,..:>. 


I (consonant). 

F, V. 





C, K, Q. 




K, L. 




S, X. 


\ j* 

If we arrange the vowels in the order of formation, advancing 
from the throat towards the lips, they will stand thus, 

I, E, A O, V, 

it being understood that we give to I the sound of ee in the word 
feet, to E the sound of a in fate, to A the sound of a in father, to O 
the sound of o in hope, and to V the sound of u in full. According 
to the same principle, the liquids would follow each other thus, 

R, L, N, M, 

E. being formed in the throat, L on the palate, N by the tongue 
and teeth, and M by the lips. 

We must remark that H is seldom regarded by grammarians as 
a true letter, but merely as the mark of a strong breathing, and in 
Latin Prosody it exercises no power whatever either as a vowel or 
a consonant. 

For remarks on the History of the Homan Alphabet, and of the 
changes and modifications which were introduced at different periods, 
see Appendix. 

In what has been said above, we have used the expression " organs 
of speech," in the popular sense to denote the throat, tongue, palate, 
teeth, and lips. Those who wish to investigate scientifically the 


mechanism by which articulate sounds are produced, and their 
relations to each other, will do well to study the chapter (Part III., 
3,) on " The Voice/ in Sir John Herschel s celebrated treatise 
upon " Sound/ and the authorities to which he refers. Some most 
curious and original inquiries into the Yowel Sounds, by Mr. Willis, 
will be found in the third volume of The Cambridge PhilosopJiical 

PROSODY 1 comprehends, as we have seen above, the rules for 
pronunciation and versification. 

In order that a word may be correctly pronounced, three things 
are required : 

1. Each letter must be properly enunciated. 

2. Each syllable must have its proper accent. 

3. Each syllable must have its proper quantity. 

Our knowledge of the pronunciation of Latin, in so far as the 
true sounds of the letters and the accentuation of the syllables is 
concerned, is, from the very nature of the subject, exceedingly 
imperfect. The little that we can ascertain with precision, or 
conjecture plausibly, will be found in the Appendix, followed by 
some remarks on the difference between Accent and Quantity. It 
is to Quantity that we must now devote our attention. 

In pronouncing a word, the human voice has the power of 
dwelling upon any of the syllables of which it is composed, or of 
passing over them rapidly. The time during which we dwell upon 
a syllable, is called its Quantity. 

A syllable upon which the voice rests, is called a Long Syllable, 
and is distinguished by the mark [~~] placed over it. 

A syllable over which the voice passes rapidly, is called a Short 
Syllable, and is distinguished by the mark [""] placed over it. 

In a few words, the same syllable is found sometimes long and 
sometimes short, in which case its quantity is said to be doubtful. 

In all that relates to versification, the time occupied in pro 
nouncing a long syllable, is supposed to be just double of that 
occupied in pronouncing a short syllable, or in technical language, 

A short syllable contains one time (tempus mora), a long syllable 
two times. 

Hence, all short syllables are considered equivalent in time, or 
isochronous to each other, and so also all long syllables. 2 

1 Observe that TL^oauliiot, in Greek refers to the accent only in pronouncing a 
syllable. Thus Quintil. I. 0. I., v. 22 Adhuc difficilior observatio est per tenores, 
quos quidem ab antiquis dictos tonores comperi, ut videlicet declinato a Graecis verbo, 
qiri TOVOVS dicunt, vel accentus, quas Graeci Trpotitobtcts vocant. . . , 

2 E0 T0l$ ftSTgWOtS kl^ZVOit %l 071 -ffCCCM fiPCLXSllX. IffY], KXt K&GOt, {AUK^U, iffy}. 

Longin. Proleg. in Hephaest. /d., p. 142, ed. Gaisf. 

Although this is true in versification, the ancient grammarians and rhetoricians, 


Upon this principle, in some kinds of verse, two short syllables 
are substituted for one long syllable, and vice versa, as will be 
explained more fully in the proper place. 

By carefully examining the works of the Latin poets, and com 
paring them with the statements of the old grammarians, we are 
enabled to discover the laws by which their versification is regu 
lated, and the quantity of the syllables in the different words which 
form the lines. Pursuing the investigation, we perceive that, with 
a very few exceptions, the quantity of the same syllable in the same 
words is always the same ; and by classifying those which are ana 
logous, we arrive, by induction, at certain fixed principles, which 
can be embodied in rules applicable to a number of cases. In a 
great many other cases, however, we are unable to detect any 
fixed principle, and we must rest satisfied with saying, that we 
have the authority of the poets for making such syllables long or 
short. It must, of course, be understood, that we depend entirely 
upon the authority of the poets for the determination of quantities 
in every case ; but, according to the usage of prosodians, those 
syllables only are said to be long or short, by authority, which can 
not be reduced to rules. It is probable, that if we were better 

when treating of pronunciation, were in the habit of discriminating with great nicety 
between the comparative length of syllables. They took into account, not merely the 
proportion of two to one in the time of syllables, but distinguished syllables of two 
times and a-half, of three times, and even more, 1 and thus speak of syllables shorter 
than short, and longer than long. Dionysius of Ualicarnassus, in order to exemplify 
this, produces 2 the words oc)0, po^os, r^Gsrof, err^o^o*; in all these the first syllable is 
short ; but he tells us that it is longer in po^os than in oSo?, longer in r^oTrog than 
in 2c0f, and longer in O-T^O^OJ than in T^OTTO^. 

Cicero probably indicates something of the same sort, though more obscurely, when 
he says, 3 

** Inclitus dicimus brevi prima litera, Insanus producta : Inhumanus brevi, Infellx 

Maximus Victorinus has the following curious passage : 4 

" In et con prsepositiones aliquando corripiuntur : sequentibus s vel jHiteris produ- 
cuntur, ut instans, infidus : et ceteris omnibus corripiuntur, ut inconstans imprudent T 

Although our northern organs are not endowed with sufficient flexibility to enable 
us to pronounce the words given by Dionysius in such a manner as to make the 
difference of quantity perceptible to the ear, yet Mr. Foster illustrates the subject 
well, by pointing out such words as folly, dowry, in each of which, the first syllable 
is long, but manifestly much longer in the latter than in the former." 

1 Schol. in Hephaest., cap. I., p. 150, ed. Gaisf. 
1 Htpt Zvvfeusus OvopuTuu, c. XV., p. 87, ed. Reiske. 
3 Orator., cap. 48. 

1 Ars Grammatica, p. 1954, ed. Putsch. 
5 See also Aulus Gellius, II. 17, IV. 17, VI. 15, IX. 6. 

B On Accent and Quantit} T , chap. II., where the topics above alluded to are discussed ( 
at length. 


acquainted with the original forms of the language, we should be 
able to frame rules which would comprehend all syllables whatso 
ever : at least such is the inference we are led to draw from the 
few inscriptions of early date which have been preserved. See 


A II contracted syllables are long, 

As cogo, contracted for coago or conago, tibwen, contracted for 
tibiacen or tibiicen, &c. 


Bis gravidos cogunt foetus, duo tempora messis. V. G. IV, 231. 
Cur vagus incedit tota tiblcen in urbe. 0. F. VI., 653. 


We shall have occasion to refer to this rule so frequently as we 
proceed, that it is unnecessary to enter into many details at present. 
It may be useful, however, to illustrate some common forms of con 
traction, especially those which we shall not be called upon to dis 
cuss hereafter. 

1. The most simple contraction is that by which one of two 
concurring vowels is absorbed by the other, as, 

alms, contracted for aliius. 

demo, deemo. 

gratis, gratiis. 

dls, diis. 

ambages, ambedges. 1 

inddgo, induago. 2 

proles, prooles, from pro and oleo. 

2. h is sometimes dropped when it stands between two vowels, as, 

ml, contracted for mii, for mihl. 
nil, niil, nihil. 

vemens veemens, vehemens. 

3. The letter v is in like manner very frequently dropped when 
it stands between two vowels; as, 

1 Airibe was an ancient form of ami (u,p,$i). See Varro, L. L. VII., c. 3. 

2 Indu, or Endo (ej/oof), for in, is found both simply and in composition in En- 
nius, Lucretius, &c. 















4. Other letters 


bovzbus. 1 


iuvenior, from iuvenis. 

iuvatum, from iuvo. 
iuamentum, iuvamentum, from iuvo. 
moibilis, movibilis, from moveo. 

moimentum, movimentum, from moveo. 

mavolo, from mdgis-volo. 

novenus, from novem. 

noviter, from novus. 












also are occasionally dropped in the same 

decenus, from decem. 

denus, deenus, 

( blqae, biiuqae. 

< 7 > 7 ? f trom luqum. 

[ quadrigae, quaamugae, j 




5. It sometimes happens, when two vowels concur in a com 
pound word, that one of them is elided, or struck out altogether, in 
which case the quantity of the remaining vowel suffers no change, 
thus, in magnopere, compounded of magno opere } the o of magno is 
struck out altogether, and the o in opere retains its natural quan 
tity ; so in semdnimis, gravolens, suavolens, for semianimis, grave- 
olens, suaveolens. Many critics, to prevent confusion, always write 
these words in full magno opere, semi animis, grave olens, suave 
olens, &c., and under this shape we shall have occasion to notice 
them hereafter. 

6. In a few words, the ancients seem either to have blended the 
two vowels into one, or to have struck out one of them at pleasure, 
and hence the quantity of such words is variable. Thus the parti 
ciple, ambitus, from ambio, has the penultimate syllable long, be 
cause it is considered as a contraction for ambeitus, while ambitus, 
the substantive, has the same syllable short, because in this case 
the e was supposed to be elided before the i. Some other examples, 

1 Bourn is the genit. pi. lovium, loium, pronounced to-yum, and hence the quan 
tity remains unchanged. 

Bittus has always the first long in good writers, but Ausonius shortens the syllable 
<Ep. LXII.) : 

Pasce greges procul hinc, ne, quaeso, bubulce, Myronis 
Acs, veluti spiraiis, cum bubus exagites. 

2 See Rule for final T. 


such as D tana and Diana, will be examined in the Hemarks on the 
Rule for the Quantity of one Vowel before another. 


All diphthongs are long, 

As ae, ai, au, ei, eu, oe, oi, in 

a. Cumaeus, aeta-s, Mains, auriga, audit, deinde : Promethei, neuter, 

Orpketij moerens, prolnde and yi, in such Greek words as 


b. The preposition prae, in composition, before a vowel, is ustially 

short, as in praeacutus, praeeuns,praeustus. 1 

c. There is one example in Statius, where it is lengthened, in praei- 

ret. 2 

d. Ovid seems, on one occasion, to shorten the diphthong in Maeotis, 

but it is made long by himself elsewhere, as well as by other 


a. Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas. V. E. IV., 4. 
Exit et in Malas sacrum Morale Kalendas. 0. F. IV., 947. 
Fertur equis aairiga neque ccudit currus habenas. V. G. I., 514. 
Dclnde satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentes. V. Gf. I., 106. 
Caucasiasque refert volucres furtumque Promethel. V. E. VI., 42, 

In neutram partem cultus miser. Hie neque servis. H. 8. II., 

[ii., 66. 

Ilia, quis et me, inquit, miseram, et te perdidit, Orpheu>. V. (r. 

[IV., 494. 

M oerentem abiungens fraterna morte iuvencum. V. G. III., 51 8. 

Prolnde tona eloquio, solitum tibi ; meque timoris. V. ^E. XI., 


Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyla Celaeno. V. JE. III., 365. 
Orithyla tuas, raptae soror Orithylae. 0. M. VII., 695. 

3 Diphthongs never occur before a vowel in Latin, except in the case of the preposi 
tion prae, and in Greek proper names in which they are long. Hence the present 
case seems to fall under the general principle of open vowels. See General Rule IV. 

2 See Vossius Aristarch. II., c. xv. Praeesse is found in Sidonius Appollinaris 
Praeoptare, in Martianus Capella, but such examples are, of course, worth nothing 
See Vossius, as quoted above. 


5. Quas ubi viderunt praedcutae cuspidis hastas. 0. M. VII., 131. 
Nee tota tamen ille prior praeeunte carina. F. jE. V., 186. 
Stipitibus duris agitur, sudibusve praeustis. F. jE. VII., 524. 

c. Proemia cum vacuus domino praeiret Arion. S. T. VI., 519. 

rf. Longior antiquis visa Maeotis hyems. 1 0. T. III. xii., 2. 

Hegna Thoas habuit Maeotide clarus in ora. 0. E. P. III. ii., 59. 
Hesponsis liorrent divum, et Maeotia tellus. 2 F. ^E. VI., 800. 
Quaque fretum torrens Maeotidas egerit undas. 3 L. P. III., 277. 


It frequently happens that the diphthong of a simple word dis 
appears in composition, and is represented by a single vowel. In 
this case the single vowel which represents the diphthong of the 
simple word is long; thus we have ctfedo, concido; cld/iido, includo; 
aequus, imquus ; quaero, inqmro; and the like. 

Some grammarians erroneously rank the combinations ua, ue, ui, 
uo, uu, in which u is followed by a vowel with which it coalesces 
so as to form only one syllable, among the diphthongs ; but in these 
cases, ic seems to have been pronounced like our w : thus, lingua 
(lingiva), ungue (ungwe), sanguis (sangwis), loquor (lo/avor), equus 
(ekwus), have the quantity of their last syllables determined by the 
ordinary rules for the quantity of final syllables to be hereafter 

So also in monosyllables, quis (fams), quid (kwid\ quod (kwod), 
que (fcwe\ &c. 

In some cases, it is true, these combinations are long, not because 
they form a diphthong, but because the vowel with which u happens 
to be united is in itself long. 

As sfifidet, suetus (swddet, swetus). This is clearly proved by tho 
fact, that these words sometimes appear as trisyllables in the older 
poets, in which case the u, considered as a vowel, is short, the o> 
and e are long, suadet, suetus. 

So in the monosyllables, qul (fowl), hmc (hwick), quo (too), &c. 

Moreover, although the sound of u in these cases was modified 
so as to resemble w, it was not regarded as having the force of a 
consonant in so far as prosody was concerned : thus, aqua, nequeo> 
aquila, loquor, equus, pronounced akwa, nekweo, akwila, lokwor, 
ekwus, have all the first syllable short; but if u were here regarded 

: This is the reading of all the best MSS. The changes proposed are purely con 
jectural. See notes in Burman s edition. 

2 So also V. G. III., 349. 

3 So also II. 641, V. 441, VIII. 318 j Prop. II. iii., 11.; III. xi. } 14. 


as a consonant, these syllables must all have been long, as will be 
seen from the next Rule (III). In reality the combination qu 
was regarded as a single letter, as we shall point out in the Hemarks 
on the History of the Roman Alphabet. See Appendix. 1 

In several words u, and the vowel by which it is followed, always 
form distinct syllables, as sud, sues, suis, suds, suus, &c. 

It not unfrequently happens, that the same combination of 
vowels, in the same part of the same word, is considered by the 
poets sometimes as a diphthong, and sometimes as two distinct 
syllables. Thus, we find, Ulyssei, Achillei, in some passages, where 
they must be pronounced fflysset, Achillei; in others, where they 
must read Ulyssei, Achillei, &c. These, and all similar cases, will 
be discussed hereafter, under the heads of Poetical License, Diae 
resis, &c. 


A vowel before two or more consonants, or a double consonant in 
the same word, is long, as respexit, and, in this case, the vowel is said 
to be long by POSITION. 

1. This rule is applicable when one of the consonants is at the 
end of a word, and the other at the beginning of the following word. 
Thus, in the line 

Libert as, quae sera tamen respexit inert em. V. E. I., 28. 

The first e in respexit is long, because it is followed by the two 
consonants sp in the same word : the second e is long, because it is 
followed by x, a double consonant, in the same word ; and the e in 
tamen is long because it is followed by the consonant n, which ends 
the word, and by the consonant r, which begins the next word. 

2. The letter h is not considered a consonant (I.) 2 Thus, in 
tidhuc, the first syllable is short, as, 

Oro, siquis ddhuc precibus locus exue mentem. V. JE. IY., 319. 

And, in like manner, 
Tempora quae messor quae curvus arator haberet. V. E. III., 42. 

Although the word arator ends with a consonant, yet the last 
syllable remains short before h, at the beginning of the next word. 

? The lengthening of a short vowel before qu takes place only in the last age of 
Roman verse, e. g*, 

Suasisti, Yenus, ecce, duas ctyseros ut amarem, 

Odit utraque: aliud da modo consilium. A. Ep. XCIL, 1. 

Frivola utraque et utraque nihit. Prud. Perist., III., 8. 

See Scalig. ad Auson. Ep. XCIL ; Burraan ad Val. Flacc. I., 681 ; and Priscian, 
S>. 543. 

a These numbers (I.), (II.), (III.), &c., refer to the Remarks. 


3. A short vowel at the end of a word, when followed by a word 
beginning with &-4?2*J>&_, is rarely, if ever, allowed to remain 
short, in serious compositions, by the poets who flourished after 
the time of Lucretius, but they generally avoid, with care, such a 
collocation. 1 

4. The quantity of a short vowel at the end of a word is not 
affected by any other combination of consonants at the beginning 
of the following word, except in the writings of Catullus, w^ho, in 
three instances, lengthens a short vowel before a mute, and a liquid 
at the beginning of the following word (III.) Thus, 

Propontida trucemve Ponticum sinum. (Iamb. Trim.) C. IY., 9. 
Et inde tot per impotentia freta. (Iamb. Trim.) G. IV., 18. 
Habebat uncti, et ultima Britannia. (Iamb. Trim.) C. XXIX., 4. 

In each of these cases, the a at the end of Propontida, impotentia, 
ultima, which ought to be short (see below, Rules for the Quantity 
of Final Syllables), is lengthened before tr } fr, Br, at the beginning 
of the words following. 2 

To which we may add an example from Ausonius : 

Unde per loniae populos et nomen Achaeum, 

Versa Graia manus, centum se effudit in urbes. A. Urb. X., 8. 

1 See the Appendix for a full discussion of this much contested -point. 

2 Vossius, who quotes these passages (Aristarch. II., c. xv.), adds another, 

Exspiretque foras in apertd promtaque ccdi. L. VI., 818. 
But, on good MS. authority, the reading is now changed to 

Exspiretque foras in apertum promptaque cceli. 
Another example is sometimes given from the At} T s of Catullus, 

Patria o med creatrix ! patria o mea genetrix. C. LXIIL, 50. 

But that poem, from the peculiar nature of the metre, cannot be received as 
evidence. (See Monthly Review, vol. xxv., p. 13.) We find also 


Jam bellaria adored pluebant, (Phalaecian^ S. S. L, vi. 10. 

But we may attribute to Caesura, in this case, the lengthening of the final a in 

To the same head many refer such lines as 

Lappaequc tribulique interque nitentia culta. V. G. I., 153. 

But as que is occasionally made long before a word beginning with a single 
consonant, it is better to explain all by the application of a single principle. (See 
below, under Caesura.) 


Exceptions to the General Rule of Position. 

A vowel naturally short 1 when followed by a mute, and either of the 
liquids, R, L, in the same syllable, may remain short, 

a. Thus we find tenebris and tenebris, volucris and volucris, flagrans 
smdfldgranSj pharetra and pharetra, retro and retro, patris and 
patris, sdcro and sacro, &c. So also reflexus and reflexus, poples 
d poples, "Atlas and* Atlas, duplex and duplex, &c. 

b. In a few words taken directly from the Greek, a vowel is al 

lowed to remain short before a mute, and either of the two 
other liquids m, n ; hence we have Tecmessa and Tecmessa, 
cycnus and cycnus, Procne and Procne, ichneumon and ichneu 
mon, daphne and daphne, Therdpnaeus and Therdpnaeus, and 
some others, chiefly proper names. 

c. Ausonius, following a license rarely indulged in by the Greeks, 

has shortened a vowel before the two liquids, m and n, in Cly- 

d. Martial, apparently without any justification, has allowed a 

vowel to remain short before two mutes in smardgdos. 

e. But in all cases where a vowel is naturally long, it clearly wouH 

be absurd to suppose that it would be shortened by being 
placed before a niute and liquid, hence, since we have uni 
formly mater, we have always matrem, so creber crebris, saluber 
salubre, &c. 


a. ( Saevit etin lucem Stygiis emissa tenebris. V. G. III., 551. 
( Nocte premunt, quod iam tenebris et sole cadente. V. G-. III. , 40 1. 

Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris. 0. M. XIII., 607. 

( Fldgrantesque dei vultus, simulataque verba. V. sE. I., 710. 
( Nos pavida trepidare metu CYmem.qu.efldgrantem. V. ^E. II., 685. 

1 A vowel or syllable is said to be naturally short, which is always found short in 
poetry when not affected by the rule of Position. Thus the last syllable in the word 
tamen is always short, except when followed by a word beginning with a consonant, 
and is therefore said to be naturally short. On the other hand, the word sic is always 
a long syllable, whether it is followed by a word beginning with a vowel or a 
consonant, and is therefore said to be naturally long. So pater, which has the first 
syllable always short, is said to have its a naturally short, while mater, which has 
the first syllable always long, is said to have its a naturally long. 


( Yirginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram. V. JE. I., 336. 
( Succinctam pharetra etmaculosae tegmine lyncis. V. JE. I., 323. 

( Amnis et Hadriacas retro fugit Aufidus undas. V. JE. XL, 405. 
( Abduxere retro longe capita ardua ab ictu. V. JE. V., 428. 

IsTatum ante ora patris, pdtrem qui obtruncat ad aras. V. jE. 

[II., 663. 

Sive sdcro pavi sedive sub arbore sacra. 0. F. IV., 749. 

/ Et reflexa prope in summo fluitare colore. . IV., 444. 
( Impavidos illam tereti cervice reflexam. V. JE. VIII., 633. 

( Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror. H. S. II., vii., 97. 
( Brachia palpebraeque cadunt, poplitesque cubanti. L. IV., 953. 

f Id metuens solidis pomaria clauserat Atlas. 0. M. IV., 645. 
\ Tempns "Atla veniet tua quo spoliabitur auro. 0. M. IV., 643. 

( Latonaeque genus duplex lanumque bifrontem. V. ^E. XII. , 198. 
Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. V. jE. L, 655. 

b. Forma captivae dominum Tecmessae. (Sapphic.). H. 0. II.,iv.,6. 
Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum. (Sapphic.) H. 0. IV.,ii., 25. 
Donatura cycni si libeat sonum. (Choriamb.) H. 0. IV., iii., 20. 

f Ulterius iusto, Procnen ita velle ferebat. 0. M. VI., 470. 

( Ad mandata Procnes, et agit sua vota sub illis. 0. M. V., i., 468. 

Delectat Marium si perniciosus ichneumon. M. VII., Ixxxvii., 5. 
Et baccis redimita daphne , tremulaeque cupressus. P. A. c. 13 1. 1 

f Prima Therdpnaeo feci de sanguine florem. 0. F. V., 223. 

( Non umquam adfirmat Therapnaeis Ilion armis. S. P. XIII., 43. 2 

c. Vindicem adulterii cum Clytemnestra necet. A. E. H. L, 4. 

d. Sardonychas, smaragdos, adamantas, iaspidas uno. M. V., xi., 1. 

e. f Nee Linus, huicm^erquamvis ? atquehuic pater adsit. F.-5MV.,56. 
( Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere mdtrem. V. E. IV., 60. 

Subtraniturque solum, turn creber anhelitus artus. F.-^.V., 199. 

This is the example given by Vossius, and I am unable to adduce one from any 
better authority of daphne, with the first short. 

Silius makes the second in Therapnaeis short again in VIII., 414, but long in 
Therapne, VI., 303. See, with regard to the shortening of syllables in such posi 
tions, the notes in Burman s ed. of Ovid, Met. VI., 46, and XIII., 430. See also 
Vossius Aristarch. II., c. 16. 


Ilicibns crebris sacra nemus accubet umbra. V. 6r. III., 334. 

f 7 

Utque facis coeptis, Phoebe saluber ades. 0. R. A., 704. 
Idque mihi factum saepe salubre fait. 0. R. A., 316. 


I. Without entering into the question agitated among the ancient 
grammarians, with regard to claims of h to be considered a letter, 
we may observe* generally, that it is not recognized as such in Latin 
Prosody, and exercises no influence whatever on the quantity of 
words, either taken by themselves or when combined with others, 
in the formation of a verse. 1 A word beginning with h, followed 
by a vowel, is, in practice, always supposed actually to begin with 
the vowel in question, and when h is placed between two vowels, or 
combined with consonants, it in no way affects the laws by which 
they would be regulated if it were altogether removed. Thus, homo, 
honor, humanus, anhelans, inhonestus, Phoebus, Phlegethon, and the 
like, are the same, as far as quantity is concerned, as if they were 
written, omo, onor, umamis, anelans, inonestus, Poebus, Plegeton. 
This was at one time doubted ; but all those cases in which h 
appeared to have the force of a consonant, are now explained upon 
a different principle. 

Thus when we read in Virgil, 

Ille latus niveum mol]ifultus hyacintho. V. E. VI., 53. 
Ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi. V. Of. IV., 137. 

The short final syllables infultus and tondebat are lengthened, not 
by Position, but by the Caesural Pause, as will be fully explained 
hereafter. In the later poets, however, such as Ausonius and some 
of the Christian writers, h has occasionally the force of a consonant, 

Tertius horum mihi non magister. (Sapphic.) A. Pref. VIII., 10. 

Sedibus et domibus natum mhabitare necesse est. luvenc. I., SOL 
(Ses Voss. Aristarch. II., c. 15.) 

II. "We sometimes find an Addition to the Rule for Position 
expressed in the following terms : " The letter J has, in uncom- 

1 For the opinions of the ancient grammarians regarding h, see Quintil. I., iv. 9, 
v. 19 ; Aul. Cell. II., 3. ; Chans., p. 238 ; Diomecl., pp. 417, 419 ; Priscian, pp. 540, 
543, 547; Val. Prob., p. 1390 ; Asper., p. 1725 ; Donat, p. 1737 ; Max. Victor., p. 
1945 ; Vel. Long., p. 2217 ; Terent. Maur., p. 2388 ; Mar. Victor., pp. 2452, 2455 r 
2469, &c. See also Burman ad Val. Flacc. VI., 152, and ad Anthol. Lat. VI., 51, 
torn, ii., p. 605. Huscke ad Tibull. II., i., 58. Santen. ad Terent. Maur., p. 389, 
seqq, ed. Trai. ad Rhen., 1825, 


pounded words, the force of a double consonant : thus, in such words 
as cwjuSj JiujuSj ejus, major, pejor, the vowel is always long; but this 
does not apply to the compounds btjugus, quadrijugus, and the like." 
We have already pointed out in the Preliminary Hemarks that 
the character j was altogether unknown to the ancients, but that 
the letter i exercised a double function, being sometimes purely a 
vowel, and sometimes a consonant, answering very nearly to our y. 
The character j was introduced in modern times, into those words 
where i had the power of a consonant, and therefore, of itself, 
when not followed bv another consonant, could not lengthen a, 

v 9 O 

short vowel. But the fact is, that the words in question were origi 
nally all written with a double i, cuiius, huiius, eiius, peiius, maims, 
&c., and were, doubtless, pronounced cui-yus (cwi-yus), hui-yus 
(hwi-yus), ei-yus, pei-yus, mai-yus, the first syllable was therefore 
long in each ; and when the first of the two **s was dropped (a 
process which we shall find took place in a multitude of words), the- 
proper quantity of the syllable was retained, and the remaining i, 
having the force of y, was in after times written as a j. This, of 
course, has no influence on such compounds as bijugus (bi-iwgus), <fcc., 
which have the first short, nor does it account for the first being long 
in reiicio. That word, properly written, is re-iicio, pronounced re~ 
ylcio. But a word of this form, that is, one in which three short 
syllables follow each other consecutively, cannot enter into a 
Dactylic verse, and, therefore, the poets, as will be explained below 
under Poetical Licenses, took peculiar liberties with such combina 
tions. So also armcio is a compound of am or ambe and iado, and 
would properly be written amiicio, and pronounced am-yicio- } but 
one of the i*s is dropped, and it becomes amicio. 

The student will do well to consult on this subject, Priscian, lib. 
I., cap. de numero literarum apudveteres, pp. 544, 545, ed. Putsch.; 
and also lib. X., cap. de vocativo singulari secundae declinationis, pp. 
739, 740. 

III. There can be no doubt that Catullus had the Greek poets 
in his mind when he lengthened a short final vowel before a mute, 
and the liquid r, at the beginning of the next word. But it is 
singular that he should, in every case, have used this license in 
Iambic trimeters, since it is carefully avoided by the Attic writers, 
although common in Homer, &c. See Porson on Eurip. Crest., 64; 
Erfurdt on Soph. Aj., 1120. 

Catullus elsewhere leaves a syllable short at the end of words, 
before a more harsh combination of mute and liquid. 

Quaeque Ancona Cnidumque arundinosam. (Phalaecian.) C. 

[XXXVI., 13. 

IV, This kind of position has been named by the grammarians^ 


weak position (debilis positio). We must carefully attend to the 
three conditions expressed in the rule, in order that the vowel may 
remain short. 

1. The vowel must be naturally short. 

2. The liquid r or I must follow the mute. 

3. They must both be in the same syllable. 1 

But even whun tlc.-se aifc all fululbd, mucli caution w necessary 
when words which fall under this rule are employed in modern 
compositions. "We ought to ascertain the practice of the ancients 
in each particular case, and scrupulously adhere to the example 
set by them; especially, when we cannot determine the natural 
quantity of the vowel, we must never shorten it wibhout express 
authority. Thus, the first, in migro^ is perhaps always long, 
except once in Manilius, 2 as is the first in latro, except once in a 
suspicious line in Phaedrus, 8 neither of whom are satisfactory 
authorities. It is much safer, in general, to lengthen a vowel 
before a mute and a liquid, but we have no example of the 
penult being made long in genetrix, to which, perhaps, we may 
add multiplex, for although the following line occurs twice in 
Lucretius : 

Mulfiplexque loci spatium transcurrere eodem. L. II., 162, and 

. : [IV., 208. 

a great number of the best MSS. in both cases have multvplicis, 
and it is not found elsewhere with the second long. 

We may, however, be too fastidious in these matters; thus, we 
are sometimes told, that the penult is generally short in ludlcra, 
and long in lugubres; this is true, but we need never scruple to use 
ludlcra and lugubris, when we can adduce such unexceptionable 
authority as 

Hue illuc. Neque enim levia aut ludicra petuntur. V. ^E. XII., 


Tarn cari capitis. Praecipe lugubres. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1., xxiv., 2. 

It has been remarked, too, that Virgil and Ovid, for the most 
part, shorten the first syllable in lacrima, but that it is common in 
Horace. The reason is obvious, and does not arise from any pre 
ference for the short quantity. Virgil and Ovid generally employ 
this word in the plural, and we have upwards of 200 examples of 

Voss. Aristarch. II., cap. 16. 2 III. , 79. 

3 V., x. 7. But the line is now corrected by transposing the words, and stands. 

Canem obiurgabat. Cui latrans contra senex. 


lacrimae, lacrimis, lacrimabilis, lacrimosus, lacrimari, lacrimans, 
in tlieir works ; now, not one of these, with the exception of lacri 
mae, could stand in their verse, except with the first short, and to 
make even lacrimae admissible, the diphthong must be elided. In. 
Horace we find, Idcrima, Od. IV., i., 34; Ep. I., xvii., 60, &c., and 
also lacrima, Od. II., vi., 23 ; lacrimis, Od. III., vii., 8, &c. 


A vowel before another vowel, or before a, diphthong, or before h 
followed by a vowel, in the same word, is short, provided the two 
vowels, or the vowel and diphthong, form separate syllables, 

A$fuit, Tyrii, tenuere, tineae, veho. 


a. The penult of the old form of the genitive of the first declension 

is long, as terrdi, auldi, pictai. 

b. The penult of the genitive and dative of nouns of the fifth 

declension is long, as diei. 

But it is common in jftdei or fidei, and rei or rei, and found 
short only in spei. (I.) 

c. The penult in genitives in ius is common ; we find illms and 

illms, ipslus or ipsius, istms or istms, nullius or nullms, totms 
or totms, ullms or ullms, unlus or umus; but alms has the 
psnult always long. There is no good authority for alter ms 
or utrius, with the penult long, and none to determine the 
quantity in solius. (II.) 

d. The first syllable in flo and its tenses is long, except in those 

where r is found, for we h&vefteret, fieri, &c. (III.) 

e. a and e are long in words ending in aius and ems, when each vowel 

is pronounced distinctly; thus, Gains, Veins, Pompei (vocative), 
and the like. (IV.) 

f. The first syllable in Diana or Dmna (V.), ohe or olie (VI.), is 

common, it is long in eheu (VII.), and in^/o (the daughter 
of Inachus). . v /o, the interjection, follows the general rule. 1 

1 Some rank among the exceptions to this rule ei, the dative of is, which occurs as 
a dissyllable, with the first long, in Lucret. II., 1136; III., 555; V., 285, 753; 
VI,, 674, 796. But in these, and all similar passages, it ought to be written di, to 
point out that it is the dative connected with the old genitive eiius. See Kemark II. 
on Rule III. 



g. By far the largest class of exceptions consists of words taken 
directly from the Greek. These are, for the most part, proper 
names; they cannot be reduced to rule, and a knowledge of 
them must, therefore, be acquired by practice. Thus we have 
der, cycrieus, dms, A erieas, Deiphobus, Troes, Medea, and a host 
of others. (IX.) 


TJ rbs antiqua/m*#, Tyrii tenuere coloni. V. JE. I., 12. 
Aut dirum tineae genus, aut invisa Minervae. V. G. IV., 246. 
Classe veho mecum, fama super aethera vectus. V. jE. I., 379. 

a. Terrdique solum subigentes cimus ad ortus. L. I., 213. 
Auldi in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. V, jE. III., 354. 
Dives equum, dives pictdi vestis et auri. V. jE. IX., 26. 

5. !Nunc adeo, melior quoniam pars acta diei. V, jtE. IX., 156. 

jacere indu manus via qua Tfmnit&fidei. L. V., 103. 
Tantum habet eijldei, lures licet et Samothracum. /. III., 

Quis morum fideique modus 1 nunquamne virili. S. S. I., ii.> 

T&ifidei rarum foedus paucisque tribiitum. Man, II., 605. 

( Praeterea rei quae corpora mittere possit. L, I., 689. 
I Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 1 (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., 

[xxiv., 64. 

c. ( Posthabita coluisse Samo; hie illms arma. V, ^E. I., 16. 
Tu faciem illms noctem non amplius unam. V, -47. I., 683. 

J Ipsms Anchisae longaevi hoc munus habebis. V. jE. Y., 535. 
( Nunc ultro ad cineres ipslus et ossa parentis. V. ^E. Y., 55. 

Sancta ad vos anima, atque istms inscia culpae. V v JR. XII., 

Istms tibi sit surda sine arte lyra. P. IV., v., 56. 

f Nullms addictus iurare in verba magistri. H. E. I., i., 14. 
( ISTon te nullius exercent numiiiis irae. V. G. IV., 453. 

f Verum totms ut lacus putidaeque paludis. C. XVII., 10. 
Magnanimosque duces to^^^que ordine gentis. V 6r. IV., 4. 

1 Rei is used as a monosj liable also j e. g. } Lucret. IV., 886 


( ISTon habet in nobis ulims ir& locum. 0. T. V, vi., 34. 
( Adiicias; nee te ullms violentia vincat. V. ^J. XL, 354. 

f Unms ob noxam et furias Aiacis Oilei. V. JE. L, 41. 

( Navibus, infandum, amissis unius ob iram. V. j5Z. L, 251. 

Hen magnum alterms frustra speetabis acervum. V. Gf. L, 158. 
Eastidiret olus qui me no tat. Utrms horum. H. E. L, xvii., 15. 
Docte sermones utrmscpie linguae. (Sapphic.) H. 0. III., viii., 5. 

d. Omnia i&mfient, fieri quae posse negabam. 0. T. I., viii., 7. 
JFfetf enim subito sus horridus, atraque tigris. F. #. IV., 407. 
Anchises, fieret vento rnora nequa ferenti. V. JE. III., 473. 

e. Cinna est Cdtus, is sibi paravit. (Phalcecian.) 0. X., 30. 
Cdftte ut fiat, lulius et Proculus. M. XL, xxxvi., 8. 
Quod peto da, Cai, non peto consiliuni. M. II., xxx., 6. 

Em turn plus minus asse Ctiihno. (Phalaecian.) S. S> IV., ix., 22. 
Aecipe, Pompei, deductum carmen ab illo. 0. E. P. IV., i., 1 
Forte super portae dux Veft&s adstitit arcem. P. IV., x. 31. 

f. ( Exercet Diana choros; quam mille secutae. V. JE. I., 499. 

( Constiterunt, sylva alta lovis lucusve Dianae. V. JE. III., 68L 

Ingerere. Hue appelle. Trecentos inseris ! ohe. H. S. I., v., 12. 
Importunus amat laudari donee ohe iam. H. S. II., v., 96. 
Ohe iam satis est, ohe, libelle. (Phalaecian.) M. IV., xci., 1. 
Eerreus est, eheu, quisquis in urbe manet. T. II., iii., 2. 

g. Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit dera cornu. F. Gr. I., 428. 
Et cycriea mele Phoebaeaque daedala chordeis. L. II., 505. 
Italides quas ipsa decus sibi dla Camilla. F. <ffi. XL, 657. 
Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit et omnem. F. JE. L, 180. 
Deiphobum vidit lacerum crudeliter ora. F. J VI., 495. 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena. F. J L, 172. 

Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet. H. A. P., 185. 

I. With regard to the doubtful quantity of the penult in 


rei, &c., it seems probable that the original form of these words, 

and others belonging to this declension, was nom. fideis, reis, genit. 

fidei-is, rei-is, and afterwards dropping the s [as took place also in 

nouns now classed under the first and second declensions (see Ap 

pendix on Ancient Form of the Declensions)] became fideii, reii. In 

corroboration of this, we find that the best MSS. of Lucretius have 

reii, in Lib. I., 689; YL, 392, 918. See Gifanii Conlectanea; 

fid&ii occurs in an hexameter quoted by Cicero in his Treatise de 


Ille vir haut magna cum re sed 

And after the lapse of many ages, it re-appears in the writings 
of the Christian poets, Paullinus Nolanus * and Yenantius Fortun- 
atus. 2 See Yossius Aristarch. II., c. xiii. 

The i of the diphthong being dropped in the process of time, the 
word either retained its proper quantity, as diei in Yirgil, or 
became subject to the general rule, as rei in Horace. The 
student ought to remark, that the examples c fidei all occur 
in writers of the lower age, with whom it is very common. The 
quantity of spei seems to rest upon Seneca, no very stable founda 
tion. Its form would exclude it from Dactylic verse. Exactly in 
the same way, we may account for the long penult in aulai, terrdi, 
the original form of these words being aulais, terrais (or, perhaps, 
aulaes, terraes), genit. aulai-is, terrai-is (or aulaeis, terraeis), the s 
being dropped, they became aulai-i, terra/i-i, and dropping one of 
the two concurring i s, auld-i, terra-i, the quantity of the diphthong 
ai being retained. These forms, aulai, <fec., were introduced by the 
poets, after the time of Lucretius, very rarely, and for ornament 
only; and thus did not undergo the same change in quantity %&fidei 
and rei. See Appendix on Ancient Form of the Declensions. 

II. The genitives nullms ipsius, &c., had the penult always long 
in prose, as we learn from Quintilian. Hence they were in all 
likelihood once written nullems ipseius, and when the e of the 
diphthong was dropped, they preserved their proper quantity in 
prose, although the poets took advantage of the circumstance of the 
i being followed by a vowel, to bring them, when it suited their 
purpose, under the general rule. 

III. Fio also would anciently be written few, and would have 
the first syllable long in all the tenses without distinction. Some of 
the parts, however, of these tenses, in which r occurs, could not have 

1 Paullinus was Bishop of Nola, and flourished towards the end of the fourth and 
the beginning of the fifth centuries. He was the pupil and friend of Ausonius, and 
several poetical epistles addressed to him by the latter are still extant. 

Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Pictavium, flourished under the younger Justin, 
in the sixth century. 


been used at all in Dactylic verse, if the first syllable had been 
always long; thus, /feres, flerent, cannot stand in any place of a 
Dactylic verse, and not even flerem, fieri, without an elision; hence, 
when the e of the diphthong was dropped, the writers of heroic 
verse introduced this change into the quantity of those tenses where 
it was most necessary, preserving the proper and original quantity 
in the rest. This opinion receives much support from the fact, that 
the comic writers who lived before the prosody of the language 
was very accurately defined, and whose verse required no such 
modification of these words, constantly used jfieret, &c., with the 
first long, 1 e. g. } 

Iniurium st nam si esset unde i&fieret. Terent. Ad. I., ii., 26. 

While in the works of the Christian poets, such as Prudentius, 
Arator, Tertullianus, &c., not only the first syllable in jfierem, &c., 
but inj^o, &c., also is made short, e.g., 

lamque tuus fieri mandas,/^ Cyprianus alter. (Dactyl. Hept. Archil.) 

[Prud. Perist. XIII., 59. 

The account given by Vossius of this matter, which does not 
appear very satisfactory, is founded upon a passage in Priscian; 
they imagine that the imperfect subjunctive w&sfelrem, which, by 
transposing the vowels and separating the diphthong into distinct 
syllables, became fwrem. See Yoss. Aristarch. II., c. xiii. ; but it 
would seem rather to have ~beenfeierem, which, by dropping one of 
the vowels of the diphthong, a process exceedingly common, became 

IV. We have the express testimony of Priscian, 3 that such words 
as Pompeius, Vulteius, Cams, were written with a double i in all 
the oldest MSS., Pompeiius, Vulteiius, Caiius; and in the same way 
from Veii } we should have Veiius. This sufficiently accounts for the 
quantity of the first syllable in these and such words. Hence, the 
vocatives in the passages quoted above are in reality Cdi-i, Pompei-i, 
and this last undergoes another contraction in Horace into Pompei, 
as in like manner Vultei-i becomes Vultel. 

Pompameorum prime sodalium. (Alcaic Hendecasyll.)H. 0. II., vii.,5. 
Durus ait, Vultei, nimis attentusque videris. II. E. I., vii., 91. 

Doctor Carey, in his Latin Prosody, seems to be wrong in ranking 
Grains along with Cains, as a trisyllable with the first long, as it is 
always a dissyllable in good writers. The only authority adduced 
by him is, 

1 See Port Royal Latin Grammar, Bk. X., Rule III. 

2 On the quantity of fio, see Donat. ad Terent, Adelph. I., ii. 26 ; Priscian IX., 4, 26. 
8 Bk. X., pp. 739, 740. 


Ilia domus princeps Troiani Graia belli. Manil. IV., 686. 

But here we have to remark, that the MSS. in this passage are 
in the utmost confusion, that this and the two preceding lines are 
considered by Bentley and other commentators as altogether 
spurious, that many MSS. have Gratia, from which some have 
made out Graecia, but where Graia was found we cannot tell. In 
Bentley s edition it stands, 

Princeps ilia donms Troiani Graecia belli. 
While Scaliger approves of 

Princeps ilia domus Troiani maxima belli. 

Manilius uses the word Grains very often in other passages, and 
always as a dissyllable. 

We may take this opportunity of noticing the quantity of different 
parts of the verb aio, which will exemplify the apparent anomalies 
introduced, by dropping one of two concurring t s. The word was 
originally written aiio, 1 and doubtless pronounced ai-yo. One of 
the ^ s being dropped, the a and remaining i sometimes formed a 
diphthong, as in the original form, and sometimes two short 
syllables. We have mo, amnt, mebam, cuebas, a/lebat, &c.; and on 
the other hand, ais, ait, e. g., 

Servus; Habes pretium loris non ureris dio. H. E. I., xvi., 47. 
Plebs eris; at pueri ludentes, Hex eris, amnt. H. E. i., 59. 
Felicem ! aiebam tacitus. Quum quidlibet ille. H. S. ix., 12. 

sum moechus, a/is. Neque ego, hercule, fur, iibi vasa. H. S* 

[II., vii., 73. 

esse prius, melius nil coelibe vita. H. E. I., i., 88. 

"V. The double quantity in Diana is very easily explained. 
According to the ancient Italian mythology, the deities were gene 
rally paired, male and female ; thus there was I anus, or Sol, who seems 
to be equivalent to the HXtoc of the Greeks, and lana or Luna, 
whom the Romans in later times chose to identify with Aprem^. 
Diana is a contraction for Dea lana, who was thus made into 
Deiana : the e of the diphthong being dropped, gave rise, as in the 
numerous instances explained above, to the double quantity of 
Diana, since it could be brought under the general principle of one 
vowel before another. On I anus and lana, consult Varro, R B. I., 
37 ; Macrob. Saturnal. I., c. 9. 

YI. Ohe, the interjection follows its primitive 0, which, since it 

1 So the word was written even by Cicero. See Quintil. I., iv., 11. 


cannot be elided, is made either long or short when it falls before 
a vowel. See below, article Elision. 

VII. We generally find classed under the exceptions to this rule 
the word Eheu, which is said to have the first long. The existence 
of the word is very doubtful. Wherever it occurs, it is in all 
probability a corruption of Heu, Heu (the ^>eu, 0u, of the Greeks). 
lieu, Heu was abbreviated by the transcribers into Heheu, which is 
common in the MSS., and hence arose Eheu. See Muson, Burman. 
and Heyne, on Virg. Eel II., 58; and Eel. III., 100. 1 

VIII. In all common books of Prosody the quantity of the first 
syllable is said to be doubtful, both in io, the interjection, and 70, 
the daughter of Inachus; but it is always short in the former, and 
always long in the latter. 

Glamat, w matres, audite, ubi quaeque Latinae. V. JE. VII., 400. 
Clamat, w coniux, quocumque in cardine mundi. S. IV., 779. 

And so repeatedly in Ovid, Tibullus, Martial, 2 Silius, &c. Doctor 
Carey, who supposed that it was common, quotes 

Quaque ferebatur ductor Sidonius, lo 
Conclamant. S. XIV., 516. 

But Heinsius, who is followed by Ruperti, upon MSS. authority, 
restored the true reading : 

Parte alia Perseus (puppem hanc Tiberinus agebat) 
Quaque vehebatur Grantor Sidonius lo 

Where Perseus and To are the names of the two ships. 
As to 70, the beloved of Jove 

Ad levem clypeum sublatis cornibus "70. V. JE. VII., 789. 

Gonstiterat quocurnque modo spectabat ad "70 

Ante oculos "70, quamvis aversus habebat. 0. M. I., 628. 

And so repeatedly. To which are opposed 

Quae tibi causa fugae, quid W 70, freta longa pererras. 0. H. XIV., 103, 
Quern memor a sacris mine quoque pellit V 70. Ibis, 624. 

But in the first of these, one MS. gives, instead of quid 70, the 

1 See also Bin-man. ad Antliol. Lat., torn, i., p. 579 ; torn, ii., p. 528. 

2 By a rare license, io seems to be contracted into a monosyllable in 

Clamant ecce mei, io Saturnalia, versus. M. XL, ii. 5. 
pronounced yo ! 


words vel quid; while another has quae, die, freta, either of which 
is a good reading; the second of the above passages is from the 
Ibis, a poem, the authenticity of which is dubious, and the text 
notoriously corrupt; some of the best editors have adopted in this 
particular line, the correction of Heinsius, and substituted Ion 
for To. 

The following collection of examples from writers of the Augustan 
age will probably satisfy the student : 

Y /o (interjection). Virg. JE. VII., 400. Ear. Od. IV., ii., 49, 
50. 8. 1.,iii.,7. A P., 460. Tibull I, i.,24 ; II.,iv., 6; v., 83, 118. 
Ovid. Her. V, 118. Amor. I., ii., 34; vii, 38. A.A.TL 9 l, bis., III.,, 
742. Trist. IV., ii., 51, 52. Fast. IV, 447. Met. III., 442, 713, 
728jIV.,512;V, 625, bis. 

"70 (daughter of Inachus). Virg. J VII., 789. Hor. A. P., 
124. Prop. II., xxviii., 17 ; xxx., 29 ; xxxiii., 7. Ovid. Amor. I., iii., 
21 ; II, ii,, 45 ; xix., 29. A. A. L, 323. Met. L, 584,588, 628, 629. 

In Greek, also, this word is always "Iw. 

IX. Although it is impossible to give any general rule for the 
quantity of one vowel before another in Greek words, we shall be 
much aided if we, in each case, refer to the original language. "We 
shall then find that some are long, because they are written with 
the long vowels, TJ, w, or with a diphthong. 

Thus we can at once determine the quantity of such words as 
Deiphobus, Troes, cycneus, Medea, Alexandria, if we recollect that 
they appear in Greek as Ar)t0o/3oe, Tpwc, KUfcvaoc, 
AAe^avSpaa ; but, on the other hand, in such as aer, dms, 
( arjo, <5toc, Ap>v,) we have nothing to guide us but a knowledge 
of Greek Prosody. 

Again, we frequently find the quantity vary in words taken from 
the Greek, because they appear in the original language under a 
double form, which often depends on the dialect used by the poet ; 
thus, Conopeum and Conopeum, 1 because we have in Greek, /cwvw- 
TTLQV and Kwv(x)7reiov ; 2 ~Eous and "Eous, in Greek 17 woe 3 and 
ityoe; 4 Malea or Malea, from MaAaa 5 or MaXea; 6 Nereides or 
Nereides, from Nr/piftSce* or Nr?paScc; 8 ^^ a or Rhe, from 

1 Many critics, in this case, always write Conopium. See Bentley on Hor. Epod. 
IX., 16. 

2 For XUVUKSIOV and xtoi/UTriov, see Agath. Antholog. iii., 61 ; and Paul. SiL 
Anthol. iii., 91, who are referred to in Maltby s Lexicon. 

3 E. g., Call. Ep. xxi., 1. 4 Soph. Elect, 18. 5 Horn. Od. i., 80. 

Eurip, Orest., 356. 7 Horn II., a., 38. 8 Mosch. Id. /3., 114. 


Pact 1 or Per] ; 2 Daedaleus, Daedaleus, Daedalus, from the triple 
ActiSaAaoc, 3 AcuSaAfo^, 4 AafSaAoc^ 5 &c. 

So, in the accusatives of Greek nouns in ei>, we find sometimes 
Anthea, Orphea, Protea ( Avffea, Op^sa, IIpwrEa), according to 
the common dialect; or Idomenea, Ilionea ( 
according to the Ionic. 6 

Some words would appear to differ in quantity from their arche 
types, thus, in Latin, we have chorea and chorea, while in Greek 
we find ^opaa alone; also platea, which is the feminine ad 
jective TrXaraa ; but we may fairly conclude, that the Homans 
were in possession of authorities unknown to us. As the above 
forms ought to be impressed upon the memory, we shall give the 
authorities for all our assertions. 


( TJt testudineo tibi, Lentule, conopeo. I. VI., 80. 
< Sol adspicit conopeum (Iamb. Dim.) H. E. IX., 16. 
( Foedaque Tarpeio conopea tendere saxo. P. III., xi., 45. 

( ~Eoasque domos Arabum pictosque Gelonos. V. Cf. II., 115. 
( Aut quum sole novo terras irrorat "Eous. V. <ffi. I., 288. 

Praebeat hospitio saeva Malea suo. P. III., xix., 8. 
Nee timeam vestros, curva Malea, sinus. 0. A. II., xvi., 24. 
lonioque mari Maleaeqne sequacibus undis. V. JE. V., 193. 
Qua formidatum Maleae spumantis in auras. S. T., II., 33. 

J Discedunt, placidisque natant Nereides undis. 0. M. XIII., 899. 
( Nereidum Phorcique chorus Panopeaque virgo. 7 V. J2. V., 24(X 

( Collis Aventini silva quern RJiea sacerdos. V. jE. VII., 659. 

< Saepe Ehea questa est toties foecunda, nee umquam. 8 0. F. IV^ 
( [201. 

f lule ceratis ope Daedalea. (Sapphic). H. 0. IV., ii., 2. 

< Daedaleum lino cum duce rexit iter. P. II., xiv., 8. 

Et munire favos et daeddla fingere tecta. V. G. IV., 179. 

1 Callim. H. L, 10; Apoll. Ehod. I., 1139. 2 Callim. H. I., 21. 

3 Eurip. "Frag. Eurysth. ix., 12. * Horn. II., 6., 195. 

5 Horn. II., S., 179. 

6 The prosody of such words will be discussed hereafter under Diceresis; and, at the 
same time, we shall have occasion to notice several others which appear in Latia 
under a double form, in consequence of their variations in Greek. 

7 We may, however, in this line, if we please, consider Nereidum as a trisyllable, 
and so l^Yigeioeg in the passage from Moschus, referred to above. 

8 The persons spoken of in these two passages are different, but the name is the- 
same ; at all events, the double form in Greek is established by the passages in Calli- 
machus and Apollonius, referred to above. 


Prospectum late pelago petit. Anthea si quern. V. JS. I., 181. 
At non Cliionides Eumolpus in Orphea talis. 0. E. P. III., iii., 41. 
Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo. H. E. I., i., 90. 
Idomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretae. V. JE. III., 122. 
Ilionea petit dextra laevaque Serestum. V. jE. I., 611. 

( Desidiae cordi, juvat indulgere choreis. V. jE. IX., 615. 
< Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt. V. JE. VI., 
( [644. 

( Istos qui in plated modo hue modo illuc. (Phalaecian.) C. XV., 7. 
{ Purae smitplateae, m ln 1 ut meditantibus obstet. 1 H. E. II.,ii.,71. 

One or two words deserve particular notice, as they have given 
rise to some controversy. 

Academia ought to have the penult considered long. 

Inque Academla umbrifera nitidoque Lycaeo. Cicero de Divin. Lib. 


Atque Academiae celebratam nomine villam. Laur. Tullius. 2 

Which decide the question in so far as the practice of the golden 
age of Roman literature is concerned. 
To these are opposed only, 

In Latium spretis Academia rnigrat Athenis. C. de Cons. M. I., 94. 
Obviet et quanquam totis Academia sectis. Sid. Ap. XV., 120. 

It is always long in the Greek authors, 8 e. g., 

VTTO rai^ /^opta^c a7ro0^^c- (Anap. 
[Tetram. Cat). Aristoph. Nub., 1001. 

Aicaci?ju7ac r/jcovcra Xoywv. (Anap. Dim. Acat.) Epicrat. Comic. 

[Ap. Athen. Lib. II., p. 228, ed. Schweigh. 

Orion. In some grammars, Orion is said to have the second 

1 There is nothing to set up against these authorities, except such as Prudentius, 
who uniformly makes it Platea, e. <?., 

Nudus plateas si per omnes cursitans. (lainb. Trim). Prud. Perist. X., 164. 

So also Perist. II., 157 ; IV., 71 ; XIL, 57 ; XIV., 49. Advers. Symmach. II., 

2 In a poem quoted by Pliny, XXXI., 3. He was the freedman of Cains 
Antistius Vetus, who became the possessor of the Academia of Cicero, after the death 
of the orator. 

3 So says Herman in his note on the passage of Aristophanes, quoted below. I do 
mot much admire his way of scanning the line from Cicero, namely, making demia a 
dactyl, leaving the a unel-ided before umbrifera. 

The whole question is discussed at length in the Classical Journal, vol. xi , p. 123. 


syllable common ; but it is always long in eveiy good Latin writer, 1 
alt-hough it is common in Greek. On the other hand, the first 
syllable is common in Latin, but always long in Greek; and the 
third syllable, in the oblique cases, is common in Latin, and long 
in Greek. 2 

Armatumque auro circumspicit ~0riona. V. JE. III., 517. 
Cum subito adsurgens fluctu nimbosus "Orion. V. jE. I., 535. 
Aut Helicen iubeo, strictumve Orlonis ensem. 0. M. VIII., 207. 

Catullus uses a different form, ~0arwn. 
Proximus Hydrochoi fulgeret "Oarwn. C. LXYI., 94. 

Geryon. Scheller in his grammar says, that the second syllable 
in Geryon is common. It is always short, 

Geryone extincto, Tirynthius attigit arva. V. jE. VII., 662. 

So also Lucret V. 5 28. Virg. M. VIIL, 202. Hor. Od. II., 
xiv., 8. Prop. Ill, xxii., 9. Ovid. Her. IX., 92. Silius I., 277; 
III., 422; XIII., 201. Sidonius Apollinaris, indeed, makes one 
of his numerous false quantities in this word, when he says, 

]STulla tamen fuso prior est Geryone pugna. S. A. XIII., 13. 

But a few lines farther on (v., 19) he has 
Geryones nos esse puta monstrumque tributum. 


Derivatives follow tlie quantity of the words from which they are 

1. This rule applies strictly to the modifications which words 
undergo in declension, comparison, and conjugation, in so far as 
those syllables are concerned which are not affected by the 

Thus, since the first syllable in dries is short in the nominative, 

1 In the Erythraean index to Virgil, we find quoted, 

Debilis Orwnis dextram minitatur inermem. Claud. Prob. et Ohjb., 28. 
But in all modern edd. it stands, 

Debilis -" Orion dextram miratur inermem. 

2 In Greek, we find "flg/fiwa, Horn. II., <r ., 488. 9 nfav, Eurip. Ion., 1150; 
and in Callim. H. III., 265, the form borrowed by Catullus, TLa^iuv. Possibly the 
original shape of the word in Greek was Oi/^6jy, which gave rise to the legend, this 
was made into O^/ay ; and the Latins, by dropping the v, got O^/ou/, with the 
first short. See Ovid. Fasti. V., 535. 


it remains short in drietis, arieti, &c., since its form does not change 
with the inflexions; but the same cannot be said of the last syllable, 
which is long in the nominative > although in the oblique cases the 
corresponding syllable is short, arietis, arieti, &c. In like manner 
monosyllables retain in the genitive and oblique cases, when formed 
regularly, the quantity of the nominative, e. g. t sol, solis; ver, veris; 
fur, fur is; mr, viri. 1 

So also from tmtis comes mitior, from durus, durior, durissi- 
ymis, &c. 2 

In like manner, the first syllable in lego being short, it remains 
short in all the tenses which are formed from the present, as legebam, 
legam, legerem, &c. ; and, on the other hand, the first syllable in 
the preterite legi being long, it will be long in legeram, legerim, 
legissem, &c., and all other parts of the verb formed from the 
preterite. 3 

2. The rule applies to all words which are clearly and distinctly 
formed from other words, by the addition of certain terminations or 
suffixes, according to well established analogy. 

Thus, from animus we have ammosus, 

ndtura ndturalis, 

rosa rosetum, 

viola vwlarium, 

sangumis sangumeus, sangumolenlus, 

pulveris pulverulentus. 

labor Idborifer, Idboriosus, 

and this will be found to hold good generally. 

But when two words are merely connected together by derivation 
from a common root, we cannot, even when they resemble each 
other in structure, with any certainty infer that the quantity of 
the corresponding syllables will be the same; for, although this 

1 Observe, however, that lar, par, pes, sal, make in the genitive laris, paris, pedis, 
sails, but par in the older forms of the language had paris in the nominative, and the 
three others seem to have been originally lars or larts, peds (pedis), and sals (salsus* 
salsugo), so that the naturally short vowels were lengthened by position, and some 
thing of the same kind happens in such words as mamma, qffa, signum, tignum, which 
give the diminutives mamilla, ofella t sigillum, tigillum. 

2 But secus gives sedus. 

3 When we speak of certain tenses being formed from the present, and others 
from the preterite, these expressions are used in reference to the convenient arrange 
ment adopted in most grammars; if we examine the matter more closely, we shall, 
of course, find that the preterite itself is formed from the present. The difference of 
quantity between the first syllable of the present and the first syllable of the preterite 
in the above and similar instances is easily accounted for, but we have nothing to do 
with that in the meantime. 


happens much oftener than otherwise, yet the exceptions are too 
numerous to admit of the principle being broadly stated. 
Some of these exceptions deserve particular attention. 
Several kindred verbs which have two forms, one active and the 
other neuter, or which differ otherwise in meaning, differ also in 

pldcare pldcere. 

sedare sedere sidere, sedes. 

legare legere. 

dicare dlcere. 

labare Idbi. 

Not that such distinctions are by any means universal, for we 
have cldrare and cldrere, rlgare and rigere, fugare amdfugere, idcere 
and idcere, &c. 

Observe the following : 

j llquitur. 

j liquare, liqiiet, liquesco, lique/acio. 
( llquens, liquor, liquidus, or liquens, liquor, liquidus. 

"Words which differ in meaning, but which are spelt in the same 
way, often differ in quantity, which arose possibly from the pronun 
ciation being purposely varied, so as to prevent confusion, so, 

duds from duco, duds from dux. 

regis (regius, regalis) rex, regis rego (regula,) 

legis lex, legis lego, 

voces vox, voces 1 voco. 

Upon the same principle we may explain sedes the verb and sedes 
the substantive, the short quantity reappearing in sedile. So also 
we have Idem in the nom. masculine, and idem in the nom. neuter, 
the original form of these words having been probably isdem and 
iddem. The word suspido, in common with aspicio, conspwio, 
despicio, &c., has the antepenultimate syllable short, but suspido 
the substantive has the antepenultimate long in Martial 

Oblinitur si qua est minimae susplcw rimae. XL, xlv., 5. 

Educo of the first conjugation has the penult short, while educo 
and all the other compounds of duco which retain the conjugation 
of the simple verb retain its quantity. 

We subjoin a few words which are apparently connected etymo- 

1 It can scarcely be said that the quantity in reyis, legis, vocis, arise? from the 
original form of the nominative legs, reys, vocs, for that would apply equally to dues, 
which gives duds ; the genitive in such words appears to have been formed by 
inserting z before the final s of the nominative. (See Appendix on the Declensions.) 


logically, but which exhibit variations in the quantity of their 
corresponding syllables, and this list the attentive student will 
easily enlarge i 1 

deer dcerbus, aldcer, dcesco, dcetum, dcidus. 

dreo arista, arena. 

coma como. 

dlcere dicax. 

far -farina. 

homo humanus. 

humus, humilis, humare humidus, humens, humesco. 

iugum iugerum, iugis. 

lateo laterna. 

lux, lucis, luceo, lumen lucerna. 

mdcer, mdceo, mdcies macero. 

moles, molior molestus. 

notus nota, noto, notabilis. 

persono persona. 

qudter qudtuor. 

sdgax saga, praesagio, praesagium. 

soleo solennis, sblers. 

sopor, sfyorus, soporifer, soporo sopio, sopitus, but semisdpitusJ 3 

stips, stipisstipo, stlpendium. 

tego, teges tegula. 

tot, totidem, toties totus. 

vddo vddum, vddosus. 

* - * * * 

f$deS)fidelis,fuleliter, perfidus, perfidia* 

fldo,fldus,flducia t infldus, &c. 

vox, vocis, vocalis, vociferor. 

voco, vocabulum, avoco, revoco, &c. 

In many cases where the etymological connection is unquestion 
able, variations in quantity admit of easy explanation. Thus, for 
^ Odium we must look to the obsolete present "Odio, not to the pre 
terite odi, fluo givesfluvius, but we fm&flumdus in Lucretius, which 
we oiight to connect with a preterit efluvi. undflumen is probably a 
contraction offluvimen, as semen (sero) is of sevimen, and exdmen of 
exagimen from ago. Lastly, glomero has uniformly the first syllable 

1 Let him be careful, however, to exclude all far-fetched and purely fanciful 

2 See Rule XXVI. on Polysyllables in Composition. 


short, which is certainly at variance with the quantity of glomus in 
the Lucretian line 

!Nam, si tantumdem est in lanae gl&mere, quantum. L. L, 354. 

But, on the other hand, we read in HOT. Ep. L, xiii., 14, 
Ut vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanae. 

Therefore, if the readings are correct, we must conclude in this, 
and similar cases, that the ancients themselves were not agreed as 
to the true pronunciation of the word in question. 

The foregoing rules are frequently termed General Kules, because 
some of them apply to all the syllables in a word without distinction, 
and others, to all except the last. Those which follow are more 
limited in their character, and, for the most part, refer to one 
syllable only. Those regarding compound words, ought, strictly 
speaking, to be placed among the general rules, but practically it 
will be found more convenient to discuss them after we have 
become acquainted with the xaws which regulate the quantity of 
final syllables. 

4 t 






Monosyllables are long, 

As d, ne, si, pro, tu, sic, qum, par, vcr, fas, vas (vasis), pes, vis, os, 
(oris), tus, &c. (I.) 


a. Monosyllables ending in b, d, I, t, are short, as sub, sed, vel, et. 

But sal and sol follow the general rule. 

b. The following monosyllables are short : 

The enclitic particles que, ve, ne (interrogative), ce, te, &c., 
which are attached to the end of words, as in 
rapidive, tanta^e, liosce, tute, &c. 1 (II.) 

c. To these &dd,fdc, nee, an, in,fer,per, ter, vlr, cor, quis (nomina 

tive), 2 bis, cis, is (the pronoun) es (from sum). (III.) 

d. Hie, the pronoun, is found short, but is generally long. (IV.) 

Ipsius ante oculos ingens d vertice pontus. V. <ffi. I., 114 

1 We ought perhaps to class with these, the demonstrative enclitic, ci, as it appears 
in hunccuie, hiscfne, and the like. 

Multormn, ignosces, alias loquar. Ilunccme solem. II. S. I., ix., 73. 
Hiscine versiculis sperasti posse dolores. H. &. I., ii., 109. 

r QMS (dative or ablative) for queis or quibus^ is long. 

Quis angusta malis cum moenia vexarentur. C. LXIV., 80. 
Quis ante ora patrani Troiae sub moenibus altis. V. <dS. I., 95. 


JN"on metus officio rie te certasse priorem. V. JE. I., 584. 
Quern s r i fata virum servant si vescitur aura. V. JE. I., 546,. 
Pro molli viola pro purpureo narcisso. V. E. V., 38. 
Concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divoin. V. JE. I., 79. 
Sic oculos, sic ille maims, sic ora ferebat. V. JE. III., 490. 
Imperium sine fine dedi, qmn aspera luno. V. ^E. I., 279. 
Ludere par impar equitare in arundine longa. H. S. II. , iii., 248, 
Hie ver assiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas. V. G. II., 149. 
Iiividia est 1 et nos/as extera quaerere regna. F. &. IV., 350. 
Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis. H. S. I., iii., 56. 
Pete etiani et camuris hirtae sub cornibus aures. V. G. III., 55. 
~0s Imnierosque deo similis namque ipsa deeoram. V. &. I., 589. 
Angulus iste feret piper et tus ocius uva. H. E. I., xiv., 23. 

a. At si non fuerit tellus foecunda sub ipsum. V. G. I., 67. 
Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere sed illos. V. G. I., 225. 
Prima vel auctumni sub frigora cum rapidus sol. V. G. II., 321. 
Exit et obducto late tenet omnia limo. F. G. I., 116. 
Non sal oxygarumve caseusve. (Phalaecian.) S. S. IV., ix., 36. 
Sal, oleum, panis, mel, piper, lierba, novem. 1 A.Ep. LXXXVI., 2. 
Per duodena regit mundi sol aureus astra. F. G. I., 232. 

b. Arma virui&que cano Troiae qui primus ab oris. F. JS. I., 1. 
NQ tenues pluviae rapidiv^ potentia solis. F. G. I., 92. 
Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia nostri. F. J$. I., 132. 
Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius hosce secutus. H. S. I., iv., 6, 
praemisso, de rebus tute loquaris. P. III., xiv., 25. 

c. Haec/ac et exiguo tempore liber eris. 0. A. II., ii., 40. 

Incidit; ast alii subeunt, nee saxa, nee ullum. F. jE. II., 467. 

Qui genus ? unde domo ? pacemne hue fertis, an arma. F. jE. 

[VIIL, 114. 


1 These are the authorities given by Vossius for the quantity of sal, and I am i 

unable to add others from purer writers. 



Deucalion vacuum lapides iactavit m orbem. V. 6f. L, 62. 

"Vade age, et ingentem factis/er ad aethera Troiam. V. jffl. IIL 9 

Ipse ter adducta circum caput egit liabena. V. ^E. IX. 587. 

Effoetos cinerem immundum iactare j?r agros. V. G. I., 81. 

Hie vtr, Me est, tibi quern promitti saepius audis. V. dS. YL, 


Molle cor ad tiinidas sic liabet ille preces. 0. T. V., viii., 28. 
Aptemus : dolus an virtus quis in lioste requirat? V. *sE. II., 390. 
Apta quadrigis equa : te bis Afro. (Sappli). H. 0. II., xvi., 35. 
Yestrum praetor, $s intestabilis et sacer esto. H. S. II., ill, 181. 
Quisquis es, haud credo invisus coelestibus, auras. V. ^E. I., 387. 


I. Ne, the interrogative, is always attached to other words as an 
enclitic. In ordinary conversation it was abbreviated by dropping 
the e, even before a consonant. Thus, in the dramatic writers we 
find constantly the forms, viden , airi, satin , and the like, for 
videsne, aisne, satisne, where, it will be observed, the s also is 
dropped so as to make interrogations more short and sharp. 

II. Vas, vadis, a surety, is, in many books on Prosody, said to 
be short, but it does not occur in the nominative in any passage 
which decides the quantity. 

Os, Ossis, a bone, appears to be short, from its compound exos, 
which will be noticed below. "We have also the testimony of 
Augustinus de Grammatica, p. 1980, ed. Putsch., who tells us that 
os, oriSj is long; os, ossis, short. 

III. Fac. Ybssius says that/ac is always long, and cites 

JLocfac Armenios, haec est Danaeia Persis. 0. A. A. I., 225. 
Durius incedityfac ambulet, omne papillae. 0. R. A., 337. 

But Heinsius, upon unexceptionable MS. authority, restored in 
the first, 

Hocfacito Armenios, haec est Danaeia Persis. 

And in the second, 

Durius incedit, fdc iwambulet, omne papillae. 

In almost all cases where fac is followed by a vowel, the MSS. 
vary between fac and face; the attempt of Vossius to establish a 


distinction in the quantity of these words, seems unworthy of the 
usual good sense of that excellent grammarian. 1 

Vir and cor are frequently said to be common; the former on 
the authority of 

De grege nunc tibi vir, et de grege natus habendus. 0. M. I., 660. 

Which is now corrected, and stands, 
De grege nunc tibi vir, nunc de grege natus habendus. 

The latter, also on the authority of Ovid : 
Molle meuni levibus cor est violabile telis. 0. H. XV., 79. 

But the best editors have adopted 
Molle meum levibusque cor est violabile telis. 

Bis. The quantity of bis has been considered doubtful> 
In the Aldine ed. of Manilius, we find, IV., 451, 

Bis undena nocens, et bis duodena nocentes. 

Which seems to be a misprint for bisque; at least, the latter is 
adopted, without remark, by all modern editors. Vossius quotes 

Bis aether, bis terra dedit, confusaque rursus. (7. 6r., 61. 
But all edd. and MSS. which I have ever met with give 
His aether, Ms terra dedit, &c. 

Cis is usually ranked among short monosyllables; but I do not 
remember any passage which decides its quantity, 

j from edo, is said to follow the general rule; but authorities 

are wanting. 

III. Hie and hoc deserve particular notice. 
Ilic, the adverb, is always long; as, 

Hue pater, O Lenaee, tuis hlo omnia plenis. K (7. II. , 4. 

Ilic, the pronoun, is short in the two following lines from 
Viril : 

Solus Me inflexit sensus animumque labantem. V. SE. IV, 22. 
Hie vir Me est, tibi quern promitti saepius audis. V. ^E. IV, 792. 

and in the poem entitled Laudes Herculis, sometimes erroneously 
ascribed to Claudian, 

Illi unuin ferro : eminos Me inermis et unus. 

1 With regard vo FaCj see Heins. and Burman. on Ovid. Heroid. II., 98 ; and Voss, 
Aristarch. II., 29, 


But is in most cases long, as in 
Haec finis Priami fatorum, hie exitus ilium. V. JE. II., 554. 

With regard to Hoc, no example can be quoted, except from the 
comic writers in which it is found short ; or from the collection of 
the Anthology, which, for the most part, cannot be regarded as any 
authority; but it is often long, as, 

Dicendum tamen est, hoc est, mihi crede, quod aegra. 0. H. XX., 109. 
Hoc deus et vates, hoc et mea carmina dicunt. 0. H. XXI., 235. 

These are the facts; the opinions expressed by the old gram 
marians respecting the quantity of these words differ widely from 
each other. Yelius Longus and Priscian seem to think that hie 
and hoc are both naturally short, and that in all passages where 
they are found long they ought to be written hicc, hocc, and 
considered as abbreviations of hicce, hocce. 1 

Terentianus Maurus, Marius Yictorinus, Probus, Charisius, and 
Martianus Capella, on the other hand, assert that in these words 
c has the same force in pronunciation as a double consonant ; that, 
consequently, hie and hoc ought always to be long, and that Virgil 
was guilty of an inaccuracy in changing the pronunciation and 
quantity of hie, in the two passages cited above. 

Yossius says that hoc is used short in the nominative and 
vocative; but he is unable to bring any better authority than that 
of two anonymous poets in the collections : 

Et vos hoc ipsum quod moriamur invitat, 
Propter hoc, atque aliis donis des cuncta roganti. 2 

See Priscian, p. 958. Yelius Longus, p. 2219. Marius Yictorinus, 
p. 2471. Probus, p. 1390. Charisius, pp. 4, 5. Terentianus Maurus, 
v. 1657. Martianus Capella, lib. iii. Yoss. Aristarch., lib. ii., c. 29. 
Classical Journal, vol. ix., p. 339. 

Si qua, ne qua, num qua, are abbreviations for si aliqua, ne aliqua, 
num aliqua, ought to be written in one word siqud, nequa, numqua, 
and will then fall under the next rule. 

1 Zumpt says " The nominative hie, and the neuter hoc, although the vowel is 
naturally short, are commonly used long, because the pronunciation was hicc and hocc, 
as a compensation for the ancient form hice, hoce." 

2 This line now stands in the ed. of Meyer 

Proque hoc atque alieis donis des digna merenti. 







A. final is short, 

As navitd, musd, alma, Hectord, nomind, &c. 


A final is long in the following cases : 

a. In the ablative singular of nouns of the first declension, as in 
picturd inani, altd mente, &c. (I.) 

1). In vocatives of the first and third declensions from nominatives 
in as, as Aened, Palld, Atld. 

But vocatives in a from nominatives in es, follow the general 
rule, as Orestd, Polydectd, Thyestd, Aeetd. (II.) 1 

c. In the imperative of the first conjugation, as praemonstrd, 

conservd. (III). 

d. In all undeclined words, 

As circa, citrd, contra, extra, frustrd, infra, iuxtd, supra, 
ultra, anted, posted, postilld, praetered, proptered, the numerals 
as trigintd, &c. 

But eid, ltd, quid, follow the general rule, and also alpha, beta 
the names of letters. 


These are all Greek forms. 



Navita turn stellis numeros et nomind fecit. V. r. L, 137. 
Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso. V. JE. L, 8. 
Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere terram. V. 6f. L, 7. 
Hectoris hie magni fuerat comes, Hectord circum. V. JE. VI., 166. 

a. Sic ait atque animum picturd pascit inani. V. JE. L, 464. 
Exciderant animo; manet alta rnente repostum. V. M. L, 26. 

b. Aened, vigila, et velis immitte rudentes. V. JE. X., 229. 
Teque iuvat, Palla ; sed bellis acer Halesus. V. JE. X., 411. 
Tempus, Atld, veniet tua quo spoliabitur auro. 0. M. IV, 643. 
Fecerunt Furiae, tristis Orestd, tuae. 0. T. L, v., 22. 

Te tamen, parvae rector, Polydectd, Seriphi. 0. M. V., 242. 
Tereos, aut coenam, crude Tliyesia, tuam. M. IV., xlix., 4. 
Amplexus, Aeetd, dares fletusque videres. V. F. VIIL, 11. 

c. Incorrupta mei conservd foedera lecti. P. IV, iii., 79. 
Currenti sp&tium praemonstra, callida Musa. L. VI., 93. 

d. Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. (Choriamb. ) H. 0. L, 

[xviii, 2. 

Dextera diriguit, nee citra mota, nee ultra. 0. M. V., 186. 
Contra non ulla est oleis cultura neque illae. V. G. II., 420. 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniquus. H. E. L, 

[xix., 36. 

Frustra nam scopulis surdior Icari. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., 

[viii., 21. 

Infra Lucili censum ingeniumque tamen me. H. S. II., i., 75. 
Imperio accitos alta intrd limina cogit. V. ^., XL, 235. 
Ut iuxtd genitorem adstat Lavinia virgo. V. JE. VII., 72. 
Frigidus est etiam fons, supra quern sita saepe. L. VI., 880. 
i Quos alios muros, quae iam ultra moenia habetis. F. JE. IX, 782. 


TJbi iste, post Phaselus, anted fait. (Iamb. Trim.) C. IV., 10. 
Petti, nihil me, sicut antea, iuvat. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. XL, 1. 
Interea magno misceri murmure pontuin. V. ^E. I., 124. 
Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. V. ^E. XL, 78. 
Praeclaram mundi naturam, proptereacpic. L. V., 157. 
Nee sibi postilla metuebant talia verba. G. LXXXIV., 9. 
Mentula liabet [instar] triginta iugera prati. C. CXV., 1. 
Et numquam visis triginta clara mamillis. 1 I. S. XII., 74. 
Ferret ad aurigerae caput arboris, Eiti per ipsum. V. F. VI II., 110. 
Incolimus; sed vos, si fert itd corde voluntas. V. ^E. VI., 675. 
Sed quia non aliter vires dabit omnibus aequas. V. G. II., 286. 
Quod alpha, dixi, Codre, paenulatorum. (Scazon.) M. V.,xxvi., 1. 
Dicas licebit beta me togatorum. (Scazon.) M. V., xxvi., 4. 


L The ablative singular of the first declension is long, because it 
is a contraction ; the original form of the ablative of penna was 
yenna-e, contracted penna, and so in all others. See Appendix on 
the Original Form of the Declensions. 

II. The Romans here follow the example of the Greeks, from 
whose poets they borrowed all these proper names ; thus we have 
uniformly Atvaa, IIovAuSajua AaoSa/^a, but OpEcra, Guecrra, &c. 

III. Here again we have a contraction, ama is contracted for 
ama-e, just as doce is contracted for doce-e. See Appendix on the 

IV. I consider circa, citra, contra, extra, frustra, infra, intra, 
iuxta, supra, ultra, to be imperatives of verbs of the first conjugation, 
of which frustro, intro, super o (cont. supro), are still in use, and thus 
we can satisfactorily account for the long quantity of the last 

It is not easy to give an explanation of antea, postea, interea, 
praeterea, postilla, as these at first sight appear to be compounds of 
the prepositions ante, post, inter, praeter, with the accusatives plural 
of is and ille, in which case the last syllable ought undoubtedly to 
be short. An ingenious writer in the Classical Journal (Mr. 
Carson of the Edinburgh High School, I believe) has endeavoured 

1 Triginta occurs in Virgil, JE. L, 268 ; III., 391 ; viii., 44, but in all these the last 
syllable is in Caesura, and therefore I have preferred quoting the two examples given 


to show, that ea and ilia in these words are in the ablative case ; 
but I feel disposed to agree with the author of a very able article in 
the Journal of Education, vol. i., p. 106, who supposes them to be 
formed from ante earn, post earn, &c., the correlatives antequam, 
postquam, still retaining the final letter. 

Contra is said to have the last syllable sometimes short, upon the 
following authorities : 

Contrdqne Lethaei quassare silentia rami. V. F* VIII., 34 

Which is the reading of the Junt. and Aid. edd., but all the good 
MSS. give the reading now universally received 

CunctaqiiQ Lethaei quassare silentia rami. 

We find also, 
Contra iacet cancer patulam distentus in alvum. Man. II., 253. 

The MSS., however, vary, and from the reading as it stands in 
the oldest of them, Bentley, with great ingenuity, makes out, 

Strata iacent, cancer patulam distentus in alvum. 

But a writer like Manilius, whose age is uncertain, and whose 
text in so many places is hopelessly corrupt, cannot be received as 
an authority in a matter of this sort. 

Lastly, we have a scrap from some ancient anonymous poet, 

Quis pater, aut cognatu volet nos contra tueri. 1 

Which is worth nothing. But when we come down to Ausonius, 
it forms one in the long catalogue of barbarisms common among 
the writers of that period. 

Saepe mora est quotiens contra parem dubites. A. P. I., 16, Praef. 


Posted. It may be difficult to adduce a satisfactory example of 
this word, without having recourse to the comic writers; but there 
is no reason to suppose that it differed in quantity from antea. We 
find, indeed, 

Postea mirabar cur non sine litibus esset. 0. F. I., 165. 

But the difficulty is easily avoided by taking it as two separate 
words, Post ea, or by pronouncing it as a dissyllable, Postea. (See 

1 This is a line quoted by Varro, L. L. Lib. VII., 12, ed. Mull., when dis 
cussing the meanings of tueri. A quotation which immediately precedes it is from 
Ennius, whence this verse also is supposed to belong to that poet. See also a quota 
tion from Ennius, ap. Serv. ad Virg. Aen. viii., 361, in which we 

Contra carinantcs, verba atque obscena profatus. 


below, under Poetical Licenses.) As to posteaquam, cited from 
Victorinus, it is utterly unworthy of notice. 

Postilla. A better example of this word is given in the Port 
lloyal Grammar. 

Hypsipyle nullos postilla sensit ainores. P I., xv., 19. 

But in this line, postilla is a conjectural emendation of G. Fab- 
ricius, which has not been generally received. 

Triginta. Many prosodians in their love for doubtful quantities, 
assert that the final a in the numerals is either long or short. In 
support of this position, they bring forward 

Ter triginta quadrum partes per sidera reddant. Man. II., 322. 

Even if we admit the evidence of Manilius, his testimony will 
avail but little in this case. In all the oldest MSS. of the classics, 
numbers were expressed by marks, not by words ; hence, when the 
transcriber found LXXXX. in his copy, he ignorantly rendered it 
by Ter triginta, instead of Nongentae. (See Bentley s note.) This 
is rendered still more probable by the circumstance, that Triginta 
occurs six lines lower down, with its true quantity. 

Triginta duplicat partes, pars tertia deerit. 

With regard to quinquaginta, we have, 
Mutua quod nobis ter quinquaginta dedisti. M. III., xl., 1. 

But several MSS. give quinquagena. Again, 
Sexaginta teras cum limina mane senator. M. XII., xxvL, 1. 

In which passage Sexagena is probably the true reading. See 
Voss. Aristarch. Schrevil. not. ad loc. 

"We have Sexaginta in Martial VII., ix., 1. Septuaginta is found 
in the Anthology (IV., 283, 314), and Ausonius shortens Nonaginta. 

Nonaginta dies et quatuor et medium sol. A. Ed. IV., 1. 

Quid. Notwithstanding the frequent occurrence of this word in. 
the best writers, by whom the last syllable is uniformly made 
short, 1 Dr. Carey pronounces it doubtful, on the suspicious authority 
of a single line in Phaedrus. 

Ego primam tollo nominor quia leo. P. L, v., 7. 

1 In reading over the Latin poets, previous to editing the present work, I had the 
curiosity to mark how often quia occurred in the best writers with the last syllable 
short, The following is the result: In Lucretius, 107 times; in Virgil, 7 or 8 
times, besides quianam, jE. V., 13, X., 6, and quiane, JK. IV., 538 ; in Horace, 34 
times; in Tibullus, once; in Propertius 10 times; in Ovid, 125 tunes; but not once 
in any of these authors with the a long. 


But almost all editors agree in considering tlie line corrupt, and 
most of them read 

Ego primam tollo quoniam nominor leo. 
In Ausonius indeed we have quid, 

Sed quid nostro docuere in aevo. (Sapph.) A. Prof. YIII., 7. 
See also Plaut. Bacch. IV., iv., 29. 

S6me except from the imperatives of the first conjugation, Puta, 
used parenthetically, as in 

Hoc, puta, non iustum est, iHud male, rectius illud. P. S. IY., 9. 

To which we may add, Mart. IX., xcvi., 5, and XL, xcv., 2; but 
in all these instances many MSS. give puto, which makes the matter 

We find in most editions of Catullus, 

Istos commoda, narn volo ad Serapin. (Phalaecian.) C. X., 26. 

The line, however, is generally supposed to be corrupt, -although 
the learned are not agreed as to the emendation which ought to be 


E final is sliort, 
As exemplar e y bone, foedere, Calpe, 1 Praeneste, ille, vertere, sine, 

impune, rite, &c. 

E final is long in the following cases : 

a. In words of the first and fifth declensions, and in adverbs derived 

from the latter, 

As Aegle, crambe, Thisbe, Nymplie, Melpomene, Alcide, 
Actoride, die, fide, fame, quare, kodie, &c. (I.) 

b. In contracted plural cases of the third declension, in words 

transplanted from the Greek, 

1 Calpe, in the example quoted from Juvenal on the next page, must be the ablative 
from a nominative, Calpes or Calpis, of the third declension, although in other passages 
(e. if., Plin. H. N. TIL, prooem.) the nominative Calpe is found, and is generally 
considered to belong to the first declension. 


As cete, mele, pelage, tempe, &c. ; i. e., icrjrta, jueXea, TreXcryea, 
, contracted fcrjrr?, jueXrj, TreXayrj, TjU7rrj. 

a In the second person singular of the imperative of the second 
conjugation, as gaude, salve, vale. (II.) 

But cave has the last syllable either long or short. (III.) 

t In adverbs formed from adjectives of the first and second 
declension, as probe, late, longe. 

But bene, male, inferne, superne, follow the general rule. (IV.) 

e. In the adverbs ferme, fere, olie. 

Temere is not found in any good writer except before a word 
beginning with a vowel. (Y.) 


Exemplar e. dare et vestigia notitiai. L. II., 123. 
Consulis, o bone rex : cuncti se scire fatentur. V. jffi. XI., 344. 
Des, pater, et pacem hanc aeiernofoedere iungas. V. JE. XL, 356. 
Aequora transiliet, sed longe Colpe relicta. /. S. XIV., 279. 
Dum tu declamas Bomae Praeneste relegi. II. E. L, ii., 2. 
Ille mihi ante alios fortunatusque laborum. V. JE. XL, 416. 
Vertere, Maecenas, ulmisque adiungere vites. V. G. L, 2. 
Queis sine nee potuere seri nee surgere messes. V. G. L, 161. 
Et saepe alterius ramos impune videmus. V. G. II. , 32. 
Ergo rite suum Baccho dicemus honorem. V. G. II., 393. 

a. Aegle Naiadum pulcherrima, iamque videnti. V. E. VI., 21. 
Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros. /. S. VII., 154. 
Saepe tit constiterant, hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc. 0. M. IV., 71. 
Daphnidis Idaei quern NympJw pellicis ira. 0. M. II., 77. 
Quern, tu Melpomene semel. (Choriamb?) H. 0. IV., iii., 1. 
Te precor, Alcide, coeptis ingentibus adsis. V. ^. X., 461. 
Quantus in Aeacide, A ctorideque fuit. 0. E. P. II., iv., 22. 
Libra die somnique paris ubi fecerit horas. V. G. L, 208. 
Forte die solemnem illo rex Areas honorem. V. ^E. VIII., 102. 


Eifare ; iussas cum fide poenas luain. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. 

[XVIL, 37. 

Arnissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque. V. G. IV., 318. 
Quare per divos oratus uterque penates. H. S. II. , iii., 176. 
Muneribus servos corrumpam, non hodie si. H. S. I., ix., 57. 

Quae mens est hodie, cur eadem non puerofuit. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 

[IT., x., 7. 

b. Dum cete ponto innabunt, dum sidera coelo. S. VII., 476. 
At Musaea mele per chordas organicei quae. L. II., 412. 
At pelage nrnlta et late substrata videmus. L. VI., 620. 

sylvae oingunt super impendentes. (7. LIV., xiv., 287 

c. Gaude, quod nulla est aeque formosa, doleres. P. III., viii., 35. 
Salve magna parens frugum Saturnia tellus. V. G. II., 173. 
Fa?e, Sabine, iam valete formosi. (Scazon.) V. C. VII. , 7. 
Imperiosa trahit Proserpina vive valeque. II. S. II., v., 110. 

Cave, Cave! namque in malos asperrimus. (Iamb. Trim.) 

[H.E. VI., 11. 

Lucum ligna? cave ne portus occupet alter. H. E. L, vi., 32. 
Tu cave ne minuas, tu ne maius facias id. H. S. II., iii., 177. 
, cave, defendas, quamvis mordebere dictis. 0. T 7 . L, i., 25. 

. Suffenus iste, Vare, quern probe nosti. (Scazon.) C. XXII., 1. 
Directaeque acies et late fluctuat omnis. V. Gf. II., 281. 
Aequora transiliet, sed longe Calpe relicta. 7. XIV., 279. 
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quidquam. V. JE. IV., 317. 
Insequitur, cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenae. V. G. L, 105. 
]STe tibi sit fraudi quod nos in/erne videmus. L. VI., 187. 
Kemorum recta est, et recta superne guberna. Z. IV., 440. 

e. lamque/b-e sicco subductae littore puppes. V. jE. III., 135. 
Vin&fere dulces oluerunt mane Camoenae. H. E. L, xix., 5. 
Ranis enimferme sensus comniunis in ilia. 7. &. VIII., 73. 
Mobilis ot varia est fermv natura malorum. 7. S. XIII., 236. 
Importunus amat laudari donee ohe iam. H. S. II., v., 96. 



I. In all such, words zsAegle, Thisbe, Nymphe, Melpomene, Alcide, 
Actoride, the e is long, because it represents the Greek TJ, as it does 
also in cete, mele, pelage, Tempe. 

But these words, which are transplanted without change from the 
Greek, must not be confounded with those which, although Greek 
in their origin, are altered in such a manner as to be declined after 
the Latin model, and consequently adopt the quantity of Latin 
words: thus we have Achilles declined regularly as a noun of the 
third, and therefore Achille in the ablative has the last short. 

Et tumidas proavo fregit Achille 1 domos. P. IV, xi., 40. 

and so in similar instances. 

The e is long in genitives and ablatives of the fifth, because it is 
a contracted syllable, as may be seen by referring to the Appendix 
on the Original Form of the Declensions. 

II. In like manner e is long in the second person singular of 
the imperative of the second conjugation, because that also is a 
contracted syllable, salve being contracted for salve-e, <fec. See 
Appendix on the Conjugations. 

III. With regard to the double quantity in cave or cave, the 
most simple explanation is that given by Vossius II., c. xxv., who 
supposes that anciently two forms of the verb were in use, one 
belonging to the second, and the other to the third conjugation, just 
as we find both/era) smdferveo,fulgo axidfulgeo, oleo and olo, 2 &c. 

Besides cave or cave, we find it frequently asserted, that vale, 
vide, responde, salve, have the last syllable common; but it will be 
seen that there is little evidence to prove this. 

Vale occurs very frequently in Virgil, Horace, and Ovid, and 
always long except in the following line, 

Idque quod ignoti faciunt vale dicere saltern. 0. T. I., viii., 21. 

but it is manifest that vale here, if separated from dicere, cannot be 
looked upon as an ordinary imperative, and cannot, from the manner 
in which it is employed, be regarded as subject to the common laws 
of quantity. In other passages, where vale is combined with dico, 
it is loog, as Ovid, Met. XL, 460; XIIL, 948; F. III., 563; Trist. 
I., iii., 57. 

In addition to the above instance we have, 

1 Vossius makes a curious mistake here, in supposing that Achille is the vocative 
abbreviated for Achilleu, from a nominative Achilleus. 

<J For a full account of these verbs, see Struve, ueber die Lateinische Declination und , 
Conjugation, p. 189. 


Et longum, formose, vale, vale, inquit, lolla. V. E. III., 79. 
Yerba locus; dictoque, vale, vale, inquit, et Eclio. 0. M. III., 501. 

In these and like passages, the shortening of the e in vale is 
caused by the hiatus, as will be explained hereafter in the proper 
place, and is quite independent of the proper quantity of the 

Vide. The supposition that the last syllable in vide is sometimes 
shortened, rests upon 

Auriculas, videsis, ne maiorum tibi forte. P. S. I., 108. 

where videsis is a colloquial phrase, pronounced quickly and sharply 
as one word; and upon the insecure foundation of a line in Phaedrus, 

Videne dolone collum compungam tibi. (Iamb. Trim,.) P. III., vi.,3. 

This is certainly the reading of the MSS., such as they are, and 
is defended by Bentley, who refers to the above passage in Persius, 
and to Terent. Adelph. IV., ii., 11. Burman reads 

Vide dolone ne collum pungam tibi. 
The Bipont editors give 

Vide dolone collum ne pungam tibi 
In addition to the above, 
Incumbens Odrussa mero : vide lata comantem. V. F. V., 595. 

but many of the oldest edd., and some MSS., have viderialta, which 
has been adopted by Heiiisius, Burman, and all the best modern 
editors. To conclude, 

Hoc vide ne rursum levitatis crimine damnes. C. D. IV.. xxv., 2. 

but these apothegms, which go under the name of Cato, are now 
universally considered spurious. 

Si, quando veniet, dicet : responde Poeta. M. III., iv., 7. 

The oldest edd., however, and MSS. vary, many having respondeto. 
Eespondere, indeed, is found in Manilius, but there too the reading 
is doubtful. 


Lector, salve; taces dissimulasque, vale. M. XI., cviii., 4. 
This reading is defended by Vossius, but the Bipont and other 


standard editions have solve, which is preferable in every point of 

view. 1 

The following is a list of the examples commonly quoted to 
prove that e is occasionally shortened in the second person singular 
of imperatives of the second conjugation. Several of these we 
have examined above, and it will be a useful exercise for the 
student to examine the remainder. 

Vide. Phaedr. III., vi., 3. Cato Distich. IY, 25. On Viden, 
see Burm. ad Yal. Flacc., Y, 595. Husck. ad Tibull. II., i., 25. 
Videsis. Pers. S. L, 108. Cave. Catull. LXL, 151; see Heindor 
ad Hor. Satt. II., iii., 38, 177. Epp. I, iii., 19. Mane. Catull. X., 
27. Fave. Ov. Amm. II, xiii., 21. Grat. 462. Vale. Ov. 
Trist. I., viii., 21. Have. Ov. Amm. II., vi., 62. Misce. Anthol. 
Lat. Y., 135, 18. Extorque. Prudent. Peristeph. Y., 60. Per cense. 
Prudent. Hamart., 624. Responde. Mart. III., iv., 7. Salve.. 
Mart. XI., cviii., 4. 

IY. Ausonius has interne. 

Distinctas interne vias mirere deorum. A. U. XI Y., 14. 
Implicitum quamte nostris interne medullis. A.E. Y. ; 21. 
and we find in him the barbarisms 

Quum vere obiurgas, sic inimice iuvas 

Quum falso landas tune et amice noces. A. S. S. S. Tliales. 

Y. Fere has the last short in the later writers, e. g., 
!N"am tecum fere totus ero quocumque recedain. A. Up. OY, 5. 

It is said to be short in the comic writers also, see Terent. Heaut. 
L, L, 70. 



L final is long, 

As-frumentt, led, scrilendi, nulll, orll, fallaci, narravl, nofa, 
laetarlj arceri, describl, partm, upi, &c. 

1 There is a long and learned note by Daumius, on the subject of shortening e in 
imperatives of the second conjugation, in Artzenius s edition of the Disticha of Cato, 
p. 289, 



, I final is short in the following cases : 

a. In all nouns transplanted from the Greek, which in the original 
have i short; as Minoidi, Phyllidi, Daphni, Pari, Adorn, 
Amarylli, Chlort, Sidonl, Cecropi, &c., and in Latin words 
declined according to the Greek model, such as Tibri; but this, 
of course, does not apply to such words as Danalj Simol, where 
i represents a diphthong, these being in the original Aavao, 

. (I.) 

b. In nisi and quasi. (II.) 

c. I final is doubtful in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi. (III.) 

d. In the older poets, the s in short final is, is sometimes dropped 

before a word beginning with a consonant, in which case the i 
is short. 

Paullatim et sulcis frumentl quaereret herbani. V. G. I,, 134. 

led beatis nuiic Arabum invides. (Alcaic Hendec.) H. 0. I., 

[xxxix., 1. 

Garrulus atque piger scribendl ferre laborem. H. S. L, iv., 12. 

Nulli cura fuit externos quaerere divos. P. IY., i., 17. 

Pectora, terrarum qui in orbl sancfca tuetur. L. Y., 75. 

ISTec fraus te incolumem/a^acl perferet Auno. V. JE. XL, 717. 

Ah quoties iuvenum narravi potus amores. 0. H. XYL, 241. 

Noll nobilibus, noli te offerre beatis, P. II., xxiv., 49. 

Hanc quisquam lacryniis laetarl credit amantum. 0. A. III., x., 1-5. 

Concilio possent arcerl tempore iniquo. L. L, 184. 

Si quis erat dignus describi quod malus aut fur. II. S. L, iv., 3. 

Nee signare quidem ami partirl limite campum. V. G. L, 126. 

Miscet numen utl Graecia Castoris. (Choriamb.) H. 0. IY., v., 34. 

a. Morte ferox Theseus, qualem Minoidi luctum. (7. LXIY., 248. 
Phyllidi Demophoon patria dimittit ab urbe. 1 Sab. Ep. II., 1. 

1 Some editions read, 

Hanc tibi Demophoon patria dimittit ab urbe. 


Insere, Daphnt, piros carpent tua poma nepotes. V. E. IX., 50. 
Dux Pari Priamide, damno formose tuorum. 0. H. XIII., 43. 
Ferret, Adorn, fui? Nee grates immemor egit. 0. M. X., 682. 
Mirabar quid moesta decs, AmarylU vocares. V. E. I., 37. 
Et te Chlori decet, filia rectius. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., xv., 8. 
Sidom, sic fueras adspicienda lovi. 0. F. V., 610. 
Impia funeribus, Cecropi terra, tuis. 0. H. X., 100. 
Haud procul a ripis, advena Tibri, tuis. 0. F. III., 524. 

b. Nee veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent. V. JE. XL, 112. 
Sed quasi naufragieis magneis multeisque coorteis. L. II., 553. 
Quid was? natali cum poscit munera libo. 0. A. A. L, 429. 

c. ( Non miM si linguae centum sint oraque centum. V. G. II., 43. 
< Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. V. JE. L, 574. 
( Quare monendus es m%, bone Egnati. (Scazon.) C. XXXIX., 9. 

Haud obscura cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes. V. G. L, 229. 
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret. V. G. I., 343. 
Quare refectus maximas tibi grates. (Scazon.) G. XLIY., 16. 
pallor luteus. (Iamb. Dim.) H. E. X., 16. 

lam sibi turn curvis male temperat unda carinis. V. G. L, 360. 
Quod quisque minxit hoc solet sibi mane. (Scazon.) C. 

[XXXIX., 18. 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., 

[xvi., 21. 

( Aut ibi flava seres mutato sidere farra. V. G. L, 73. 
< Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum. V. JE. II., 792. 
( Aut in materiam ligni pervenit, ibi iam. L. IV., 149. 

Nosque ubi primus equis oriens adflavit anhelis. 1 V. G. L, 250. 
Instar veris enim vultus ubl tuus. (Choriamb.) H. 0. IV, v., 6. 
Delos ubl nunc, Phoebe, tua est, ubl Delphica Pytho. T. II., 

[iii., 26. 

d. Te nunc sancta precor Venus et genetrix patrC nostri. E. A. 

[L,frag. 9. 

At fixus nostris tu dabi supplicium. C. CXVL, 8. 

Virgil uses ubl upwards of forty times, but never lengthens the second syllable. 




I. Some Greek nouns in the dative contain three short syllables 
in succession, as, Thetidi, Paridi, Tyndaridi, and consequently 
could not find a place in Dactylic verse, without the elision of the 
last syllable, if it retained its proper quantity. Such syllables are 
frequently lengthened in the poets by the force of Caesura, as will 
be explained hereafter in the chapter on Caesura. Thus we find, 

Turn Thetidl pater ipse iugandum Pelea sensit. C. LXIY., 21. 
Dulcior ignis erat Paridl cum Graia per arina. P. III., viii., 29. 
Tyndaridi poterat gaudia ferre suae. P. III., viii., 30. 
Et Zephyris Glaucoque bovem, Thetidicpie iuvencam. V. F. I., 190. 
Quam Thetidl longinqua dies Glaucoque repostam. V. F. II., 286. 

To which add, 

Thetidi. G. LXIY., 337. 0. H. XX., 60. M. XL, 221. E. 433. 
Paridt 0. H. VIII., 22; XIII., 74; XVL, 161. R. A. 711. 
Capyi. 0. F. IV, 45. 

II. Nisi, according to Dr. Carey, has the last sometimes long, 
and he gives an example, 

His parvus (Lechiae nisi vetarent). (Phalaecian.) S. S. IV., iii., 59. 

He ought to have mentioned at the same time, that the MSS. are 
in this place hopelessly corrupt ; that the line, as given by him, is 
a conjectural emendation, and that scarcely two editors read the 
passage in the same way; the Bipont has 

His parvus, Lecheo nihil vetante. 

"We have, it is true, in Sidonius Apollinaris, 
Sint tantum penitusque nisi nihil esse probentur. C. XV., 104. 

but if such an authority were worth anything, we might here plead 
the force of the Caesural pause. 

Quasi, also, is said to have the last doubtful on the authority, 

Proinde quasi fieri nequeat, quod pugnat uterque. L. V., 728. 
Et devicta quasi, cogatur ferre patique. L. IL, 291. 

But in the first of these, the best MSS. give, 
Proinde quasi id fieri nequeat, quod pugnat uterque. 

And in the second, the lengthening of the i may fairly be attri- 


"bntecl to the force of the Caesura, especially since we find quasi 
twice in Lucretius IV, 1011, and VI., 972. 

III. The compounds of ibi, ubi, and uti, deserve particular 
attention, as the practice of the poets seems to be singularly capri 
cious. Ibi, as we have seen, has the last common, but in alibi, 
ibidem, the i is never found short/ e. g., 

!Nec tarn praesentes alibi cognoscere divos. V. E. I., 42. 
Crebra ferit : demissae aures, incertus ibidem. 1 V. G. III., 500. 

Ubi also has the last common, but in necubl, sicubi, ubmam, 
ubwis, the i is always short ; in ublque it is always long : while in 
ubicunque it is doubtful, e. g., 

Sicubi magna lovis antiquo robore quercus. V. Gf. III., 332. 
Necubi suppressus pereat gener. O bene rapta. L. P. X., 958. 
Non ubwis coramve quibuslibet. In medio qui. H. S. I., iv., 74 
Yictoresque cadunt Danai : crudelis ublque. V. JE. II., 368. 

Clamat, lo matres, audite ubicunque 2 Latinae. V. jE. VII., 400. 
< Servor ulncunque est, uni mea gaudia servo. 0. M. VII. , 736. 
( Te, Dea, munificam gentes ubicunque* loquuntur. 0. A. III., x., 5. 

In uti the i is always long, so also in velutl; but it is always 
found short in sicuti, utmam, utique, e. g., 

Sicutl quadrupedum cum primeis esse videmus. L. II., 537. 
O ictmam tune cum Lacedaemona classe petebat. 0. H. I., v. 

The doubtful quantity in miki, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi, &c., and the 
consequent variations in their compounds, may perhaps be accounted 
for in the following manner. These words originally ended in the 
diphthong ei, mihei, tibei, sibei, ibei, ubei, and under this shape they 
are frequently found in inscriptions and MSS., especially those of 
Lucretius. One of the vowels of the diphthong being dropped, 
which, as we have already seen, frequently took place, they would 
sometimes appear as mike, tibe, sibe, &c., and sometimes as miki, tibi, 
sibi, &c. ; in the former case, final e being short in Latin words, 
except under particular circumstances, the last syllable would be 
made short by the poets ; in the latter case, final i being long in. 

1 Ibidem perhaps occurs in the comic writers, 

Quid quod dedisti scortis? llldem ui;a traho. P. T. II., iv., 10. 

2 Heyne reads here ubiquaeque. 

3 We have ubicunque in H. 0. III., xvii., 13, and H. S. L, ii., 62. 


Latin words, the syllable would retain its original quantity, as it 
probably always did in prose. 



O final is always long in datives and ablatives of the second declen 
sion; in adverbs derived from them; in words transplanted from the 
Greek, which have a) in the original, and in all other cases not specified 
in tJie following paragraphs : thus we have praecepto, verbo, prisco, 
magno ; tuto, crebro, vero, consulto ; Sappho (2a7r^w), Argo 
, Clio (KAaw); lo (interjection), ultro, &c. 

a. final in nominatives of the third declension is, with very few 

exceptions, long in the writers of the Augustan age, and their 
predecessors, 1 as, imago, virgo. (I.) 

In proper names, however, of the third declension, o final is 
common even in the best writers, in whom we find, Pollio, 
Scipio, Curio, Virro, and the like. 

b. final in verbs is very rarely shortened by writers of the Au 

gustan age, and their predecessors, except in scio, nescio, puto, 
void, which are, for the most part, used parenthetically. (II.) 

c. final in the gerund (III.), and in the following words : ambo, 

ergo, ideo, immo, porro, postremo, quando,, vero, is perhaps 
never found short except in writers posterior to the Augustan 
age. (IY.) 

d. final is always short in the following words, in good writers : 

cito, duo, ego, octo, modti the adverb, and its compounds, dum- 
modo, postmodo, quomodo, tanlummodo. 2 (Y.) 

Nee tamen huic nimium praecepto credere tutum est. 0. R. A., 349. 

1 In no case is the influence of time upon Latin Prosody more conspicuous than in 
the case of final o, the practice of the earlier and later ages being in marked opposition 
to each .other. Diomedes asserts (p. 430) that the older Romans uniformly lengthened 
o final. 

2 To these we may perhaps add endo, the old form of in. 

Quod genus endo mari Aradio fons dulcis aquai. L. VI., 891. 
But many editors, both here and elsewhere, always write indu. 


Audisti corain nee verbo parcius absens, //. E. I,, vii., 38. 
Prised si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino. H. E. L, xix., 1. 
Vim subitam tolerare, ita magno turbidus imbri. L. I., 287* 
Tuto res teneras erffert in luminis oras. L. I., 180. 
Tempora nee numera, nee crebro respice Komam. 0. R. A., 223. 
Xon manifesta tamen; cum vero sustulit acre. 0. M. XV., 579. 
Extenuantis eas consults ; ridiculum acri. H. S. L, x., 14. 
Sappho puellis de popularibus. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. II., xiii., 25. 
Argo funestas pressa bibisset aquas. 0. A. II., xi., 6. 
ClioqviQ et curvae scita Thalia lyrae. 0. F. V., 54. 
Id triumplie, tu moraris aureos. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. IX., 2L 
Ultro contemtus rogat, et peccasse fatetur. P. II., xxv., 19. 

a. Quorum quantula pars sit imago dicere nemo est. L. IV., 175. 
Victa iacet pietas; et virgo caede madentes. 0. M. I., 149. 
Et consulenti Pollio curiae. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. II., i., 14. 
Contiguus poni, Scipio magne, tibi. 0. A* A. III., 410. 
Curio 1 legitimis mine Fornacalia verbis. 0. F. II., 527. 

Si quoi, Virro, bono sacer alarum obstitit Lircus. G. LXXL, 1. 

b. Sed tarnen esto iam quantovis oris honore. L. IV., 1167. 
Ago, meum quod non es ulta peccatum. (Scazon.) C. XLIV, 17. 
Interea mixtis lustrabo Maenala Kyrnpliis. V. E. X., 55. 

Laudo manentem si celeres quatit. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., , 

[xxix., 53. 

Me servasse fidem, sifallo, vipera nostris. P. IV, vii., 53. 
Ipse mihi Mavors, commendo moenia, clixit. 0. F. VI., 53. 
Kunc scio quid sit amor, duris in cotibus ilium. V. E. VIII., 43. 
Hoc sat erit, scio me Danais e classibus unum. V. jE. III., 602. 
Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et exerucior. G. LXXXV., 2. 

Hie mihi nescio quod trepido male immen amicum. V. JE. 


1 The Curio Maximus. 



At, puto, sic urbis misero est erepta voluptas. 0. E. P. I., viii., 39. 
]STam quasdam volo cogitationes. (Phalaecian.) C. XXX Y., 5. 1 

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. V. E. YIIL, 71. 
Et voluisse mori, et moriendo poriere sensus. 0. T. I., iii., 99. 
Plurimus Me aeger moritur vigilando } sed ilium. 7. III., 232. 
Quae nosti meditando velis inolescere menti. A. E. CXLI., 2. 

Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo. V. E. YIL, 4. 
Ambo propositum peragunt iter urbis aventes. H. S. II., vi., 99. 
Matronae peccantis in ambo iusta potestas. H. S. II., vii., 62. 
Ambo pii, carique ambo; nequeam ipse priorem. S. T. YL, 374. 
Amplius j ambo truces, ambo abscessere minantes. 2 V. F. YIL, 


Ergo non hyemes illam, non flabra neque imbres. V. G. II., 293. 
Ergo Quinctilium perpetuus sopor. (Choriamb.) ff.O.I., xxiv., 5. 
Ergo velocem potuit domuisse puellam. P. I., i., 15. 
Ergo, duni Stygio sub terris gurgite labor. 0. M. Y., 504. 
Ergo paid voto gessisti bella iuventus. L. P. IX., 256. 
Impune ergo mini recitaverit ille togatas. 7. L, 3. 
Sed tanien esse tuus dicitur, ergo potest. M. L, xv., 6. 

f Ac ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes. 3 77. E. L, xix., 26. 
( An ideo tantum veneras ut exires. (ScazonJ) M. I., i., 4. 

Frustra 1 immo niagno cum pretio atque malo. C. LXXYIL, 2. 
Adeo bene emit? inquis : immo non solvit. (Scazon.) M. YIIL, 

[x., 3. 
Yendere, nil debet, foenerat immo niagis. N. L, IxxxvL, 4. 

( Sed dicam vobis vos porro dicite niultis. 4 C. LXYIIL, 45. 
Atque anima est animae proporro totius ipsa. L. III., 276. 

( Multos ^07T<5 vides, quos saepe elusus, ad ipsum. 7. & XL, 9. 
-< Spirat adhuc pinguisque meo, tu porro sequeris. S. T. YIL, 

Et Scauros et Fabricios postremo severos. 7. S. XL, 91. 

Chommoda dicebat si quando commoda vellet. C. LXXXIY., 1. 
Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber. V. G. L, 259. 
Festorum herboso colitur si quando tlieatro. 7. S. III., 173. 

1 Add to these, Catull. XVIL, 3 and 23. 

2 These two quotations overturn the doctrine that ambo has the o always long when 
masculine, and short only when neuter. 

3 Ideo occurs three times in Virgil, viz., G. II., 96; III., 212; ^. IV., 228; 
but it is unnecessary to quote these, since in Dactylic verse the last syllable must be 
long if not elided. 

4 Porro is the Greek K 


Heu sero revocatur amor seroqtce iuventus. T. L, viii., 41. 
Sera respicitur tellus, ubi fune soluto. 0. A. II., xi., 23. 
Haec animo ante tubas. Galeatum sero duelli. I. S. I., 169, 
Sero dedit poenas. Discerpi noxia mater. M. V. Ixvii., 5. 
Sero memor thalami, moestae solatia morti. S. T. I., 596. 

( Hie vero victus genitor se tollit ad auras. 1 V. ^E. II., 699. 

Tu potior, Thebane, queri, nos vero volentes. S. T. II., 187. 
( Quod petimus, sin vero preces et dicta superbus. F F. V., 322. 

d. ( Quicquid praecipies esto brevis, ut cito dicta. H. A. P., 335. 
< Nee cito credideris, quantum cito credere laedat. 0. A. A. III., 
( [685. 

( Consule Pompeio primum duo, Cinna, solebant. C. CXIIL, 1. 
J Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit. F. E. III., 44. 
{ Vel duo, vel nemo, turpe et miserabile, quare. P. I., 3. 

Saepe ego, quum flavis messorem induceret arvis. F. G. L, 316. 

ISTon modo non omneni possit durare per aevorn. L. II., 604. 
Hie inter densas corulos modo namque gemellos. F E. L, 14. 
Herculisritu modo dictus Plebs. (Sapphic.) II. 0. III., xiv., 1. 
Nam modo, vos animo, dulces reminiscor aniici. 0. E. P. I., 

fviii 31 

T JULX * t/ JL 

Dummodo ne totum corrumpas luminis orbem. Z. III., 411. 
Foenum habet in cornu, longe fuge, dummodo risum. II. S. L, 

[iv., 34. 
Cum victore sequor. Maecenas quomodo tecuni. H. S. L, ix., 43. 

Postmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locuto. II. 8. II., vi., 27. 
Postmodo quae votis irrita facta velit. T. II., v., 102. 
Insequere et voti postmodo compos eris. 0. A. A. I., 486. 
Proximus esse. Velis tantummodo, quae tua virtus. //. S. L, 

[ix., 54. 

Sed regione nepae vix partes octo trahentis. Man. V., 339. 
Sic crescit numerus, sic fiunt octo mariti. /. S. VI., 229. 
Vix octo uummis annuluni unde coenaret. (Season.) M. II., 

pvii., 8. 


I. Homo is found short in Catullus, nemo and leo in Ovid, mentift 
in the Satires of Horace ; but it was not until the age of Lucan 
that the practice of shortening o final in nouns of the third 
declension became general; in his writings we find cardo, pulmo, 

1 Kiero occurs very frequently in Virgil; the o always long. 


tiro, turbo, &c. ; and in Martial and his contemporaries it is perhaps 
oftener short than long. 

( Nemone in tanto potuit populo esse, luventi, C. LXXXI., 1. 
( Silenus quamvis nemo vocaret adest. 1 0. F. VI., 324. 

Qui? non est homo bellus? inquies ; est. 2 (Phalaecian.) C. XXIV., 7. 

) Nunc leo y nunc arbor, nunc erit hirtus aper. 0. A. A. I., 762. 
( Gaetulusve/ko,frangerepersequor. (Choriamb. ) H. 0. I., xxiii.,10. 

Lividus et mordax videor tibi 1 mentio siqua. H. S. I., iv., 93. 
Car do tenet Tethyn, vetitae transcurrere densos. L. P. IV., 73. 
Aeris alternos angustat jo^mo nieatus. L. P. IV., 327. 
Tiro rudis, specta poenas, et disce ferire. L. P. V., 363. 
Turbo rapax, fragilemque super volitantia malum. L. P. V., 595. 

II. No example occurs in Lucretius, in Virgil, or in the Odes of 
Horace, of the final o in a verb being left short, except in sdo and 
nescio; which, as well as puto, volo, rogo, credo, do not form real 
exceptions, for these words were either used parenthetically, or in 
colloquial formulae enunciated rapidly; we find indeed, 

Spondeo digna tuis ingentibus omnia coeptis. V. d2. IX., 296. 

But the celebrated Mediceo-Laurent. MS. has Sponde, and even 
if we insist with Heyne in reading Spondeo, I have but little doubt 
that it was pronounced as a dissyllable, Spondyo. In like manner, 
it is not impossible that the two last syllables in scio and nescio, the 
latter of which two verbs occurs so frequently in the parenthetic 
phrases, nescio quis, nescio quid, nescio qui, &c.,may have been thrown 
together, and the words pronounced skyo and neslc-yo; this, however, 
will not apply to the example, 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. (Choriamb.) H. III., xxiv., 64. 

where nescio must be a trisyllable. 

The shortening of the final o in verbs is very rare in Catullus, in 
Tibullus, in Propertius, and in Ovid; it gradually becomes more 
common in the writers who follow them, and when we come down 
to the age of Statius and Martial it is to be found in every page. 
The following, it is believed, is nearly a complete collection of the 
examples that can be found in the Roman poets who flourished 
before the reign of Tiberius : 

1 To these add, Nemo, H. S. I., i., 1 ; ix., 45, both extra Caesuram. 

Nemo, 0. A. L, viii., 43. T. II., 348. E.P. IT.,iii., 16. M, XV., 600. 
2 Add H<mV, C. CX V., 8. 


Verbs ending in short 0. 

Catullus. Volo, VL, 15; XVIL, 8, 23; XXXV., 5. 
Tibullus. Desino, II., vi., 41. 

Nescio, I., vi., 55. 
Horatius. Veto, S. I, i., 104. ZtorS, S. I, iv., 104. 

Ed, S. I, vi., 119. 

Void, S. I, ix., 17. 

Propertius. Void, II., x., 9. ^MM#, III, ix., 35. ^VWo, L, iv., 7. 
Ovidius. Addd, EL, VL, 73. 

.7?0<70, H. XL, 127 (probably interpolated). 

Peto, H. XII., 197 ; XVI, 35 ; A. A. II., 10; T. L, ii., 

[77 ; M. VI, 352. 
" Rependo, H. XV, 32. Dabo, H. XVIL, 260. 

Desino, H. XVIII., 203. 

Nego, A. L, x., 64. Volo, A. II., v., 54. 

Odero, A. III., xi., 35 (interpolated). 

Tolls, A. III., ii., 26. 

Amd, A. III., xiv., 39 ; R A., 648. 

Conferd, E. P. I., i., 25. 

Credo, E. P. L, vii., 56 (parenthetically). 

CanS, E. P. III., ix., 35. Esto, T. IV., iii., 72. 

Ero, T. IV., x., 130. 

Puto, occurs about thirty-three times. 

The student will do well to consult the learned annotations of 
Lennep. on Ov. Ep. XV., 32, who gives most of the above 
examples; he omits, however, addo, esto; and when he asserts that 
110 instances are to be found either in the Fasti or Metamorphoses, 
except nescio andj9tt#,he has overlooked peto in Met. VI., 352; he 
also neglects the same verb in Trist. L, ii., 77. 

As to the practice of the later poets, take the following line : 

Prandeo, poto, cano, ludo, lavo, coeno, quiesco. Anthol. Lot. III., 

[Ep. lix. 

For the opinions of the old grammarians, see Charisius, pp. 5, 6 ; 
Diomedes, p. 430 ; Marius Victorinus, p. 2472. 

III. Scholars seem now very generally to agree in the doctrine 
here laid down on the quantity of the final o in gerunds. Two 
passages are sometimes quoted against it, 

Aufer et ipse meum pariter medicando dolorem. T. III., vi., 3. 

which is found in some MSS. Heyne, supported by others, gives 
medicande, but probably neither is the true reading. The second 
passage is, 

Fortunam vultus fassa tegendo suos. 0. H. IX., 126. 


The MSS. are in great confusion here, and the line is universally 
allowed to be corrupt. Many of the MSS. have tegente. 

Those who desire further discussion on this subject may consult 
Valerius Probus, p. 1388; Broukhusius on the above line from 
Tibullus; Heinsius on that from Ovid; Burman. Anthol. Lat. torn. 
I., p. 298,, II., p. 722; the notes of Perizonius on the Minerva of 
Sanctius; Wagner on the Elegy to Messala, &c. 

For other examples of the gerund with o long, extra Caesuram, 
.see Lucret. L, 399; II. , 1059, 1108; III., 490, 706, 961, 1103. 
1100 (V, 1170; VI., 693); IV, 641, 705, 1098; VI, 686. Catull. 
LXIV, 268. Proper! I., i., 9; iv., 1; II, xxiv. 31 (IV, ix., 9). 
Ov. Her. VII, 129. A. A. II, 197, 217. T. I, iii., 99; IV, vii., 
25. E. P. III., v., 11 ; IV, v., 17. Fast. Ill, 307; V, 299. Met. 
X, 496, 547; VI., 425; VIII, 878; X., 582, 602; XL, 107; XIII, 
374; XV, 380, 434. V. E. VEIL, 71, 86. G. Ill, 65. M. VI, 
660, 847; VII, 182. Those within brackets are participles in dus. 

In later writers the practice of shortening o final in the gerund 
is common, e. g., 

Plurimus hie aeger moritur vigilando sed ilium. I. S., Ill, 232. 

IV. There is such a want of precision in the rules commonly laid 
down regarding these words, that it will be necessary to say a few 
w^ords regarding some of them. 

Ergo. A foolish distinction is made by some ancient, 1 and almost 
modern grammarians, between ergo signifying on account of, and 
-ergo signifying tJierefore, as if the two meanings were not the "same, 
the word being pyoj, the dative of the Greek noun. They say. 
moreover, that the final syllable is long when the word means x a 9 Lv i 
and short when it is equivalent to ovv. In reality it is always long 
in the best writers. Doctor Carey, indeed, in his Prosody, quotes 
Virgil against this, 

Ergo metu capiti Scylla est inimica paterno; 

but he forgets to mention that this example is taken from the Ciris, 
386, which few suppose to have been the work of Virgil, and which 
is notorious for the impurity of its text. Heyne s remark on the 
above line is " Iterum inepti monachi acumen ex margine illatum, 
sed valde obtusum. Metus saltern disertius erat exponendus. Bar- 
thius non male emendat Ergo turn capiti. Puto tamen interpolatorem 
scripsisse. Ergo itenmi capiti. Hoc idem Heinsius coniicit." 
In the Gradus we find, 

Ergone solicitae tu causa, pecunia, vitae es. P. Ill, vii., 1. 

1 Marius Victorinus, and Festus, 


But tlie best MSS. and editions give, 

Ergo solicitae tu causa, pecunia, vitae es. 

There is one passage in Ovid where it is short, according to the 
received reading, 

Votis ergo meis alii rediture redisti. 0. H. V, 59. 

But there may perhaps be some corruption here, since he lengthens 
it uniformly elsewhere. (Sea below.) 

The following are examples of Ergo, extra Caesuram, in addition 
to those already given from Virgil : 

Lucretius, L, 73, 365, 446, 527, 539, 620, 963 ; II., 20, 495, 519, 

625; III., 143, 176, 456, 667; IV., 82, 160, 544, 

562, 609, 950 ; V., 261, 1086, 1135, 1185 ; VI, 180, 


Tibullus, III., ii., 9 ; iv., 75; vi., 51. 
Horatius, Od. L, xxiv., 5. Epod. XVII., 27 ; S. I., x., 7 : II, 

iii., 192. 
Propertius, I, i., 15; II, viii., 13; III, iii., 29 ; vii., 1 ; xx., 25; 

xxiii., 1. 
Ovidius, Her. XXI, 31. Amor. I., vi., 21 ; ix., 31 ; xv., 31. !Nux., 

53, 149. Trist. I, vi., 17; II, 543; III, vii., 19, 31; 

x., 77 ; xi., 63 ; IV., x., 115 ; V, viii., 33. E. P. I, 

ii, 129; II, xi., 19 ; III, vii., 7 ; IV, xvi., 47. Fast. 

I, 451. Met. II, 105; V., 504 ; X., 437 ; XI, 224; 

XV, 173. 

To this array of authorities nothing is opposed except the line 
quoted above. Another apparent exception used to stand in Trist. 
I, i., 87, but the passage is now corrected. 

Immo is usually ranked among those which have the o always 
short. It is, however, long in the passage quoted from Catullus, but 
in Caesura. It is found six times in Virgil, always at the beginning 
of a line, and always before a word beginning with a vowel. I am 
not aware of any example before the age of Martial, where it appears 
with the final vowel short. 

Postremo. I do not remember any passage which determines the 
quantity of the final vowel in postremo, except that quoted from 
Juvenal; but since it is evidently the ablative of the adjective 
postremuSj there can be little doubt that the earlier writers would 
lengthen it as well as the other adverbs belonging to the same 

Quando. The compounds of quando differ from each other in 


Aliquando, like the simple quando, lias the o long in the earlier, 
and common in the later writers, e. g., 

Orbatura patres aliquando fulmina ponat. 0. M. II., 391. 
Et bene, die neutrum, die aliquando male. M. X., xlvi., 2. 

Quandoque and Quandocunque have the o uniformly long ; in 
Quandoquidem it is always short. 

Indignor quandoque bonus dorniitat Homerus. H. A. P., 359. 
Quandocunque precor nostro placata parenti. 0. T. III., i., 57. 
Dicite, quandoquidem in molli consedimus herba. V. E. III., 55. 

Ego is said to have the final o common. The fact is, that there 
are many hundred instances in writers of all ages in which ego is 
found with the last short, and three or four at most in decent 
metrical authorities where it is found long; but even here in every 
case, if I mistake not, under suspicious circumstances. (See next page.) 

Hunc ego, iuvenes, locum villulamque palustrem. CXIX., i. 


Sed quid ego revoco haec? omen revocantisabesto. 1 0. H. XIII., 135. 
Turn supplex luno, neque ego nmtare laborans. 2 S. XYIL, 357. 

Ausonius, indeed, uses ego frequently with the last long, extra 
Caesuram, as may be seen by referring to the examples quoted by 
Yossius, Arist. II., c. 27. See also Broukhusius on Propert. I., 
viii., 31; IV., ii., 3; and Drakenborch on the above passage from 
Silius Italicus. 

Modo, the adverb, in like manner, is found with the final syllable 
short in a multitude of passages, but it is very difficult (unless 
indeed we have recourse to Seneca and such authors) to find an 
example of it long, even in Caesura; there is one in Lucretius. 

Una moddj caussas abeundi quaerat honestas. L. IY., 1177. 

It is long by position, in 
Hoc quid putemus esse ? qui modo scurra. (Scazon.) C. XXII, 12. 

Catullus seems, however, to lengthen the last syllable in quomodo, 
lam Bithynia quomodo se haberet. (Phalaecian.) C. X., 7. 

Care must be taken not to confound modo, the adverb, with 

1 The reading in this line is, however, much disputed, and, ii" ccnect, is the only 
example in Ovid. 

2 Some of the best editions have, 

Turn supplex Juno, neque ego haec mutare laoorans. 


y the dative, or ablative of the substantive, which has the final 

always long. Indeed, it is not improbable that the necessity of 
distinguishing these two words produced a difference in their 
pronunciation, and therefore in their quantity. 

It may serve to set at rest the question with regard to the quantity 
of the final o in ego and modo (the adverb), if I state, that I have 
marked 532 examples of ego with the o short in Ovid alone, 9 1 in 
Propertius, 90 in Horace, 64 or 65 in Virgil, 53 in Tibullus, 27 in 
Catullus, and 5 in Lucretius, in all 862; while in the same authors 

1 have been unable to find more, with the o long, than the two 
quoted above: one of these from a poem, which although often 
placed among the works of Catullus, is found in no MS. of that 
author, and is now left out by the best editors; the other from 
Ovid, in a line where the MSS. afford half a dozen different 
readings. I am aware that other examples are to be found in 
old editions, but they have all disappeared upon a careful exami 
nation of the MSS., e. g., Prop. I., viii., 31; IV., ii., 3, &c. 

Such being the evidence, I feel justified in reversing the judgment 
pronounced by Broukhusius, Drakenborch, and Ruperti, and in 
laying down the rule as given above. 

With regard to modo (the adverb), I have marked 363 examples 
in Ovid, 48 in Propertius, 22 in Horace, 13 in Virgil, 6 in Catullus, 

2 in Lucretius; in all of these (454) the final o is short ; against 
which there is one in Lucretius, where it is lengthened in Caesura. 
The same holds good of its compounds, with the single exception 
given above from Catullus. 



U final is long, 

As cornu, metu, partu, Panthu, vitatu, diu. 


Indu, the old form of in, and nenu for non, both Lucretian words, 
have the u short. 


Cornu decorum, leniter atterens. (Ale. ffendec.) If. 0. II., xix., 30. 
Parce metu Cytherea, manent immota tuorum. V. ^E. I., 257. 


Eumenidesque satae, turn partu terra nefando. V. G. I., 278. 
Quo res surama loco, Panihu, quam prendimus arcem. V. jE. II. r 322. 
Aiebat; sapiens vitatu quidque petitu. H. S. I., iv., 115. 
Servatura diu parem. (Choriamb.) H. 0. IV., xiii., 24. 
Nee iacere indu manus, via qua munita fidei. L. V., 103. 
Nenu queunt rapidei contra constare leones. L. IV., 714. 


U in the dative and ablative of the fourth declension, is a 
contraction; thus, in the above examples, metu is for metui, and 
partu for partue; the quantity of u in the nom. ace. and voc. of 
neuter nouns, was supposed by Diomedes and some other ancient 
grammarians to be short. It is difficult to find examples to set the 
question at rest; some produce 

Praeterea lumen per cornu transit, et imber. L. II., 388. 

But the last editions have cornum. 

The u in Panthu represents the diphthong ou in the original 
Greek word. 

Diu is the ablative of dius y an old form of dies; this is clear from 
the common phrase, diu noctuque. 

In the older poets, the s in short final us is frequently dropped 
before a word beginning with a consonant, in which case the u is 
of course short, e. g., 

Versibu quos olim Eauni vatesque canebant. E. A. VII., frag. 220. 



Y final is short , 

As molij, Chely, Coty, Tiphy. 


Holy vocant superi, nigra radice tenetur. 0. M. XI Y., 292. 
Cedamus,67i&7, iamrepone cantus. (Phalaecian.) S. S. IV., lii-, 
O Coty, progenies digna parente tuo. 0. E. P. II., ix., 38. 
Ars tua, TipJiy, iacet si non sit in aequore fluctus. 0. T. IV., iii., 77. 




C fined is long, 
As ilUc, illuc. 

C final is short in donee. 


Illlc, officiant laetis ne frugibus herbae. V. G. L, G9. 
lonios fluctus postquam illuc Arrius isset. C. LXXXIV., 11. 

Donee eris felix multos numerabis amicos. 0. T. L, ix., 5. 


Illic and illuc, used adverbially, seem to be the same word as 
illoc, the ablative of illic, the old form of ille. 

Adhuc is ad hoc, and falls under the rule for monosyllables in 

Donee is an abbreviation of domcum, which occurs often in 
PlautuSj and donicum is clearly an adjective in the neuter gender. 


T) final is short, 
As aMd, illud. 


Sic alid ex alio peperit discordia tristis. L. "V., 1304. 
Nee sopor illud erat, sed coram agnoscere vultus. V. ^E. III., 173, 



TJ final is short, 

As Hannibal, semel } nihil, procul. 




Hannibal, et stantes Collina turre mariti. /. S. VI., 291. 
Quum semel liaeserunt arvis aurasque tulerunt. V. G. II., 422. 
Yersando terrain expert!, nihU iniprobus anser. V. G. L, 119. 
Arboris acclinis trunco, procul aerea ramis. V. JE. X., 835. 


We must attribute to the force of Caesura the lengthening of the 
final syllable in mhil, in the two following examples :- 

In superis opis esse nihil, at in aedibus ingens. 0. M. VII., 644. 
Morte nihll opus est, nil Icariotide tela. 0. E. P. III., i., 113. 

Nil is long, being a contraction. (See above, Eule I.) 


M final, in the poets of the Augustan age, and their successors, is 
always elided before a vowel; but in the older writers, when not cut 
off, it is short both in monosyllables and polysyllables, e. g., 

Vomerem, atque loceis avertit seminis ictum. 1 L. IV., 1268. 
Nam qnodjluvidum est, e levibus atque rotundis. L. II., 466. 
Sed dum abest quod avemus, id exsuperare videtur. L. III., 1095. 

The quantity of final m appears also in the compounds circumago, 

Circumagi, quemdam volo visere non tibi notum. H. S. I, ix., 17. 
Cuius non hederae circumiere caput. 2 P. II., v., 26. 



N final is short, 

As agmen, forsitdn, tamen, viden\ (I.) 

1 Many of the best editions have Vomeris. 

2 Many editors write uniformly circueo, instead of circumeo. 



The only exceptions are in words transplanted from the Greek, 
in which regard must always be paid to their quantity in the 

a. An is long in nominatives masculine, as Paean (Ilamv), Titan 


b. An is long in the accusative of the first declension from a long 

nominative; and, vice versa, thus, 

Aenedn (^Aiveiav), from Aeneas (^Aivttag), but Maian from 
Maid, Cyllan from (Jylla, &c. (II.) 

c. En is always long, since it represents the Greek rjv, as in Hymen 

( f Yjur)i>), attagen (arrayrjv), Anchisen ( Ay^cr^v), Mysten 
(Muarrjv), &c. 

d. In and yn are short in such words as commonly occur, Daphnm 

(Aa^vtv), Thyrsm (9i>p<nv), Capyn, chelyn (yjt\vv), Ityn 
(ITVV), but would be long in delphm (SgX^Tv), Salamm 
(SaXa/.uv), Phorcyn (Qopicvv). (III.) 

e. Oft is short when it represents ov ; it is long when it represents 
wv : tlmsDelon (ArjXov), Cypron (Kvirpov), Troilon (TpotXov), 
Hum ( iXiov), but Acron (AKOMV), Triton (Tptrwv), Babylon 
(Ba/3vXwv), Chalybon (XaXupwv), &c. (IV.) 


Explicuit legio et campo stetit agmen aperto. V. G. II. , 280. 
Forsitan et scrobibus quae sint fastigia quaeras. F. #. II., 288. 
Sed tamen alternis facilis labor, arida tantum. V. Gr. I., 79. 
Yirgo adest, viden 9 ut faces. (Glycon.) C. LXI, 77. 
Educet. Fic^m ut geminae stant vertice cristae. F. JE., VI., 780. 

a. Dicite lo Paean, et lo bis dicite Paean. 0. A. A. II., 1. 
Quantum si culmos Titan incalfacit udos. 0. F. IV., 919. 

b. Sic memorat, simul Aenean in regia ducit. F. J, I, 631. 
Maian et Electran Taygetenque lovi. 0. F. IV., 174. 

Me Tenedon Chrysenque et Cyllan Apollinis urbes. 0. M. XIII., i 




. Hymen, O Hymenaee Hymen ades, O Hymenaee. C. LXIL, 5. 
^N"on attagen lonicus. (Iambic Dimeter. ) H. E. II., 54. 
Troiamque et AncJiisen et almae. (^Uc. Enn.) H. 0. IV., xv., 31. 
Mysten ackmtum : nee tibi vespero. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. II., ix., 10. 
Thracen, acpede barbaro. (Ckoriambic.) H. 0. III.,xxv., 11. 

d. Thrysin et attritis DapJinin arundinibus. P. II., xxxiv., 68. 
Ant Capyn ant celsis in pnppibus arma Caici. V. JE. I., 183. 
Sed chelyn et vittas et amantes tempora lanrns. S. S. IY., vi., 98. 
Tantaqne nox animi est, Ityn hue arcessite, dixit. 0. M. YI., 652. 

e. jN"atalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1.,xxi., 10. 
Sperne dilectam Cypron, et vocantis. (Sapphic.) H. 0. 1., xxx v 2. 
Troilon aut Phrygiae sorores. (Ale. Dec.) H. 0. II., ix., 16. 
lunone Divis, Ilion, Ilion. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., iil., 18. 
Acron Hercnleus Caenina dnctor ab arce. P. IY., x., 9. 
Prosequitnr cantn Triton omnesqne marinae. P. IY., vi., 61. 
Nee Babylon aestnm nee frigora Pontus liabebit. 0. E. P. II., iv., 27. 
lupiter ! nt Chalybon omne genus pereat. C. LXYL, 48. 


I. Videri deserves particular notice, because it is a colloquial 
form of videsne; the change in quantity resulted, in all probability, 
from its being employed as a sharp, short interrogation. So Satlri 
for Satisne, is very common in the comic writers. 

II. There is some doubt with regard to the accusative in an 
from short a in the nominative, since some examples occur in which 
it is made long. In all of these, however, the syllable is in Caesura, 
and we may therefore safely pronounce it to be naturally short, e. g., 

Qui legis Electrdn et egentem mentis Orestem. 0. T. II., 395. 
So also Andromedan. Ov. Met. IY., 756. 

But OritJiyian, Ov. Met. YI, 707. Ossdn, Prop. II, i., 19 ; Ov. 
Past. I., 307. Iphigenidn, Ov. E. P. III., ii., 62, &c. 


III. By Caesura, also, we must account for the lengthening of 
the final syllable in Tethyn, by Martial and Silius. 

Et viridem Tethyn, Oceanumque patrem. M. X., xliv., 2. 
Intima ab occasu Tethyn impellit et ortu. S. XVII., 244. 

IY. Care must be taken not to confound Orion ( Qpaov), and 
Orion, the Greek accusative of Orios ( Opaoc). 

Depressitque duos, Brotean et Orion, Orio 
Mater erat Mycale, &c. 0. M. XII, 262. 

The later Latin poets make constant blunders in words borrowed 
from the Greek, which in the original end in o>v, thus : 

Durn daemon invictum Dei. (Iambic Dimeter.) P. P. II, 505. 
Hie chalcedon hebes perfunditur ex hyacinthi. P. Psych., 857. 

But daemon, chalcedon, are ocu/UAtv, ^aXfc^Swv, and therefore 
must have the on long. 



K final is short, 

As calcdr, audidr, oleaster, iter, glorier, super, color, acrior, con- 
templator, queror, turtur, robur, caeditur, calcentur, eluctabitur, &c. 


a. E. final is long in words transplanted from the Greek, which 
in the original end in TJQ, and increase in the genitive, as aer 
, aether (aiOrip atflepoc)? crater 

But pater, mater (Trarrjp-Trarpoc 

B.emark also Hector, Nestor, Castor, from c E/crwp, 

Celtiber has the last long in Catullus, and short in Martial. 
Wherever the simple Iber occurs, it has the la st long. 


Crescit et immensum gloria calcdr habet. 0. E. P. IV, ii., 36. 
Trans ego tellurem, trans latas audidr undas. 0. T. IV, ix., 23. 

1 In no respect, however, could pater and mater be regarded as words transplanted \ 
from the Greek. They doubtless existed in that earlier tongue from which both 
Greek and Latin were offshoots. 


Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaris. V. G. II., 314. 
Angustum formica terens iter, et bibit ingens. V. G. I., 380. 
Fratre magis, dubito, glorier, anne viro. 0. F. "VI., 28. 
Saeva sedens super arma et centum vinctus aenis. V. JE. I., 295. 
Sen plures color ille vias et caeca relaxat. V.G. L, 89. 
Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adurat. F. (7. L, 93. 
Contemplate item quum nux se plurima sylvis. V. G. I., 187. 
Sed memor unde abii, queror, O iocunde sodalis. 0. 2?. P. L, viii., 2-5. 
Nee gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. F. .#. L, 59. 
"Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri. V. 6r. I., 162. 
Caeditur et tilia ante iugolevis altaque fagus. V. 6r. I., 173. 
Ad plenum calcentur, aqua eluctabitur omnis. V. G. II. , 244. 


a. Aer, a tergo quasi provehat atque propellat. L. VI., 1025. 
-4e^ 3 et longi volvent Titana labores. L. P. I., 90. 
Inde mare, inde aer, inde aether ignifer ipse. L. V., 499. 
Summus inaurato crater erat asper aeantho. 0. M. XIII. , 701. 
Est mini namque domi pater, est iniusta noverca. V. E. III., 33. 
!N"on iam mater alit tellus viresque ministrat. V. <JE. XI., 71. 
Hector erat : turn colla iugo candentia presses. 0. M. XII., 77. 
Cum sic Nestor ait, vestro fuit unicus aevo. 0. M. XII., 169. 

Infamis Helenae Castor ofFensus vice. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. 

[XVII, 42. 

Nunc Celtiber es, Celtiberia in terra. (Scazon.) G. XXXIX., 17. 
Ducit ad auriferas quod me Salo Celtiber oras. M. X., xx., 1. 
Si tibi durus Iber, aut si tibi terga dedisset. L. P. VI., 255. 
Omnis Iber, omnis rapidi fera Gallia turmis. S. L, 656. 



As final is long, 

As terras, vestrds, tempestas, aetas, tractas, debeas, cedas, veniebds. 


As final is short in the following cases : 

a. In the nominative singular of words transplanted from the 

Greek, which make aSoc in the genitive, and in Latin words 
formed upon their model, as Pallas (IlaXXac aSoc), Areas 
( Apicac--aSoc)j Pelids (DrjXtac aSoe), Daulias, Appias, &c. 
But Pallas antis, Galchas antis, and the like, follow the 
general rule. 

b. In the accusative plural of nouns of the third declension, 

transplanted from the Greek, wJien this case retains its Greek 
form, as heroas (iipwac), lampadds (Xa/iTraSac) delphinds 
, Cyclopas (KufcXwTrac), &c. 

c. In anas, a duck. 


Turbabat coelo, nunc terras ordine longo. F. &. I., 395. 
Vestras, Eure, domos; ilia se iactat in aula. F. M. I., 140. 
Porte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris. F. JE. I., 377. 
Acriter elatrem, pretium aetds altera sordet. H.E. I.,xviii., 18. 
Tractds, et incedis per ignes. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. II., i., 7. 
Quid debeds, O Roma, Neronibus. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. IY.,iv., 37. 
Cedas; obsequio plurima vincit amor. T. I., iv., 40. 
Dure, quid ad miseros veniebas exsulis annos. 0. T. III., xiii., 3. 

a. Quum Palldsusto vertit iram ab Ilio. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. X., 13. 
Porte die solennem illo rex Areas honorem. F. j$. VIII., 102. 
Transeat Hectoreum Pelids hasta latus. 0. H. III., 126. 
Concinit Ismarium Daulias ales Ityn. 0. H. XV., 153. 
Non illas lites Appias ipsa probat. 0. R. A., 660. 
Tela manusque sinit : Hinc Pallas instat et urget. F. JE. X., 433. 
Quam postquam reddit Calchds ope tutus Achillis. 0. R. A., 473. 

6. Permixtos lierods, et ipse videbitur illis. F. E. IV., 16. 
Lampadds igniferis manibus retinentia dextreis. L. II., 25. 


Orpheus in sylvis, inter ddpliinds Arion. V E. YIIL, 56. 
Exsulat, Aetnaeos vidit Cydopas Ulixes. V, &. XL, 263. 

c. Et pictis anas enotata pennis. (Phalaecian.) P, A,, frag. 1 


As is long in the accusative plural, because it is a contraction for 
aeSj thus terras, vestras, were anciently terra-es, vestra-es, or perhaps 
rather terra-eis, vestra-eis. 

As in the nominative of the third declension was long by posi 
tion, in the older form of the language, thus, tempestas, voluntas, 
and the like, were tempestats, voluntats, and the t which was dropped 
in the nominative, reappears in the genitives tempestads, voluntatfis. 

The as in tract as and the like, is a contraction for ais, &c., as 
;may be seen by referring to the Appendix on the Conjugations. 

"With respect to Greek words, when adopted without change, 
the Latins generally adhere to the quantity attributed to them by 
the Greek poets. 

We find Xiphias, a sword-fish, with the last syllable long in 

Ac durus Xiphias, ictu non mitior ensis. 0. Hal, , frag. 97. 



Es final is long, 

As sedes, series, stirpes, fortes, vides. pulses, esses, pones, iurares, 
&c. (I.) 

Es final is short in the following cases : 

a. In the nominative singular of nouns of the third declension, 

which increase with a short penult in the genitive, as Ales- 
Ztis, dives-vtis, hospes-ltis, miles-Uis, praepes-etis, seges-etis, &c. 

But aries, abies, Ceres, paries, and the compounds of pes," 
follow the general rule. 

b. In words transplanted from the Greek, which in the original end 

in : to this class belong 

1 This is the example given by Vossius, and I am unable to produce one from a 
less exceptionable authority. 

2 See below "Monosyllables in Composition," for the compounds of pes which have 
ihe last long, and the compounds of es which have the last short, as in potts, ades, &c. 


Neuters singular, where the Latin es represents the Greek 
, such as, cacoethes (KaicoijOce), hippomanes (tTTTTOjuavEc), &c. 

and nominatives and vocatives plural under like circumstances, 

asAtlantides ( ArAaiTtSec), Arcades ( ApfcaSee), Troes (Tpwec), 

Troades (TpwaSce), &c. 

But where the Latin es represents the Greek r/e, it is, of 

course, long as in Alcides, Brontes, Palamedes, from 

Bpovrrj, IlaAajUTjSr]^. (II.) 



Sedes Atlanteusque finis. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. I., xxxiv., 11. 

Annorum series et fuga temporum. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., xxx., 5. 

Deposuit sulcis, hie stirpes obruit arvo. V. G. II., 24. 

Fortes invertant tauri, glebasque iacentes. V. G. I., 65. 

Tides ut alta stet nive candidum. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. I., ix., 1. 

Iratis precibus, tu pulses onine quod obstat. H. S. II., vi., 30. 

Esses lonii facta puella maris. P. II., xxvi., 14. 

Pones iambis, sive namnia. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. I., xvi., 3. 

Boeotum in crasso iurares aere natum. H. E. II., i., 244. 

a. Namque volans rubra fulvus lovis ales in aethra. V. JE. XII. , 


Talein dives arat Capua et vicina Yesevo. V. G. II., 224. 
Immo age, et a prima die, liospes, origine nobis. V. ^E. I., 753. 
Myrrnidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi. V. ^E. IL, 7. 
Acer, anhelanti similis, quern praepes ab Ida. V. dE. V., 254. 
Urit enim lini campum seges urit avenae. V. G. I., 77. 

b. Creditur, ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. V. E. III., 95. 
Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis. V. E. VII., 66. 
Flava Ceres alto nequidquam spectat Olympo. V. G. I., 96. 

Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas. (Choriamb.) H. 0. IV., 

[v., 18. 

Hie farta premitur angulo Ceres omni. (Scazon.) M. III., Iviii., 6. 
Votiva paries indicat uvida. (Choriamb.) H. 0. I., v., 14. 


Barbiton laic paries habebit. (Ale. Decas.) H. 0. III., xxvi., 4. 
Scribendi cacoethes et aegro in corde senescit. J. S. VII., 52. 
Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur. F. G. L, 221. 
Ambo florentes aetatibus Arcades ambo. F. jE . VII., 4. 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena. F. ^ L, 172. 
At procul in sola secretae Troades acta. F. ^. V, 613. 
Alcides aderat, taurosque hac victor agebat. F. J^. VIII. , 203. 
Brontes 1 et Steropes Acmonidesque solent. 0. F. IV., 288. 
Mallet et infelix Palamedes esse relictus. 0. M. XIIL, 56. 

c. Quern penes arbitrium est, et ius, et norma loquendi. H. A. P. 72. 
Me penes est unum vasfci custodia mundi. 0. F. L, 119. 


I. With regard to long es in the indicative present of the second 
conjugation, which is a contraction for e-is, see Remarks on the 
Conjugations in the Appendix. 

II. Martianus Capella, Lib. III., cap. de Nomine, makes a sad 
blunder with regard to these words : he says, 

" ES terminatus in Graecis nominibus brevis est, ut Anchises" 
on which Vossius remarks, " Sed locutus Capella ex sensu sui seculi, 
quo ea etiam quae Graece in H2 desinunt corripiebant, ut Thales, 
Lyristes, Ganymedes. 

Thales, e-yyva, Trapecm 8 arrj, protulit. Aus. Lud. S. S. I., 18. 
Alcaeo potior Lyristes ipso. (Phalaecian.) Sid. VIII., ep. xi., 25. 

Aut tradat Gfanymedes ipse nectar. (Phalaecian,) Gaelius Firmian. 


Some, however, read in the above passage from Ausonius, 
Thales sed, gyyua ?rapa 8 arjj, protulit. 


Is final is short, 
As VomiSj ruris, inutilis, TantaUs, Sarmatis, terrebis, mayis. 

1 Some edd. have Brontesque. 


Is final is long in the following cases : 

a. In plural cases in is, as rugls, terrls, noils, vobls, tills, amarls; 

quails, humills (accusatives plural). (I.) 

b. In the second person singular present indicative of verbs of the 

fourth conjugation, as sentls, per sentls, fastidls. (II.) 

c. In the second person singular of the present subjunctive, as 

adsls, possls, malls, noils, veils. (III.) 

d. In nouns of the third declension increasing with a long penult in 

the genitive, as Samnls-ltis, Salamls-lnis, Quirls-itls. 1 (IV.) 

e. In the adverbs, gratis, ingratls, forls. (V,) 

f. In Greek nouns which have the termination long in the original, 

as Simols 

"With regard to the second person singular of the future perfect 
and subjunctive perfect, see Remarks (VI.) 


Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri. V. G.H., 162. 
Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci. V. G. I., 156. 
Excoquitur vitium atque exsudat inutiUs humor. V. Gf. I., 88. 
Aut ego Tantalidae Tantalis uxor ero. 0. H. VIII., 122. 
Sarmatis est tellus quam mea vota petunt. 0. T. I., ii., 82. 
Seu durat magis et venas adstringit hiantes. V. G. I., 91. 

a. Rugis et instanti senectae. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. II., xiv., 3. 
Secernunt coelumque a terris omne retentant. L. II., 729. 
Nolils est ratio, solis lunaeque meatus. L. I., 129. 
Abstulit omne Phaon quod vobls ante placebat. 0. H. XV., 203. 
Pinguia concipiunt, sive illls omne per ignem. V. G. I., 87. 
Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intuba fibris. V. G. I., 120. 
Quails Eurotae progignunt flumina myrtos. (7. LXIV., 89. 
Vix humills apibus casias roremque ministrat. V. G. II., 213. 

1 1 cannot, however, quote any example of Salamis and Quiris which decides the 
quantity of the nominative. 


b. Sentis, ac veluti stet volucris dies. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., 

[xxviii., 6. 

Naturam rerum, ac persentls titilitatem. L. TV., 25. 
Pocula, num esuriens fastidls omnia praeter. H. S. I., ii., 

c. Adsls O Tegeaee favens oleaeque Minerva. V. G. I., 18. 
Possls et inagriam niorbi deponere partem. 1 H. E. L, i., 35. 
Me quoque velle veils, anne coactus amem. 0. A. III., xi., 50. 

d. Samnls in ludo ac rudibus caussis satis asper. Lucil. ap. Cic. de 

[Orat. III. 

e. Gratis anhelans, multo agendo nil agens. (Iamb. Trim.) Phaed. 

[II., v., 3. 

Effugere hand potis est^ ingratls haeret et angit. L. III., 1082. 
biberis dilutsi, forls est pronius et atrum. H. S. II., ii., 16. 

Hie tibi sit Simols, liaec mea castra puta. 0. A. A. II., 134. 

I. Plnral cases in es and is were anciently written -with tlie 
diphthong ei,f oriels, stirpeis, illeis, amareis, which acconiits for the 
long quantity, and for the double form of the accusative plural of 
the third declension, which is sometimes is and sometimes es, 
.according as the e or the i of the diphthong was dropped. 

II. The second person singular of the present indicative of the 
fourth conjugation is contracted, sentis, audis, &c., are for senti-is, 
audi-is, &c. 

The Christian poets make constant false quantities in these 
Terbs, e. g., 


Pervems ad Christum, sed Christus pervenit ad te. Sed. Op. PascJi. 


Esuris ad faciem, saturamque cadavere iusti. AT. Hist. Ap. II. 
Nescis amare deum. AT. Hist. Ap. II. 

In the Erythraean index to Virgil, we find quoted, 
Nescis an exciderint mecum loca, venimus illuc. 0. II. XII., 71. 

1 Adsis and possis, properly speaking, fall under the Eule for Monosyllables ia 



Which is found in some old editions. The true reading is, 
Nostiri an exciderint mecum loca ? venimus illuc. 

III. The best MSS. of Juvenal read in S. V., 10, 
Tarn ieiuna fames ? quum possis honest ius illic. 

But almost all editors agree in thinking that the correction possit 
(sc. aliquis) is indispensable. 

IY. Samnis would originally be Samnits in the nominative. 

Y. Gratis and ingratis are contracted datives for gratiis, in- 
gratiis, which are found in the open form in the comic writers. 
Foris is the ablative of fora, a door, the same as forw of the third 

"We must consider the quantity of the termination ris in the 
indicative future perfect and subjunctive perfect, as common. 
Almost all the examples in which it is found long are in Caesura ; 
but there is at least one instance in the Alcaics of Horace, which 
cannot be explained upon this principle. 

Si ture^acam et homa. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. III., xxiii., 3. 

As doubts have been expressed upon this subject by some pro- 
sodians, a number of references are given below, which will enable 
the student to form a judgment for himself : 

Bis Short. 

Abscesseris? L. I., 409. 
Acceperis, H. S. II., iii., 67. 
Accesseris, Y. J&. III., 441. 
Adv&neris, Y. M. I, 388. 
Coeperisj H. S. II., iii., 126. E. 

I., xx., 12. 

CorrexeriSj 0. T. Y., xiii., 13. 
DecusseriSj P. IY., i., 141. 
J)etorseris, H. S. II., ii., 55. 
Dixeris, H. S. I., iv., 41 ; II., 

iii., 220; II., vi., 39. A. P., 47. 
Duraveris, H. S. II., iv., 72. 
Egeris, 0. E. P. IY., iv., 39. 
Impleveris, O. T. II., 323. 
Iitsseris, C. XXXII., 4. 
luveris, Y. M. X., 33; H. S. 

II., iv., 91. 

Moveris, P. II., xxx., 33. 
Permiseris, O. E. P. III., vi., 57. 
Perveneris, H. E. L, xiii., 11. 
Piaveris, P. III., x., 19. 
Promiseris, P. IY., v., 33. 
fieseraveris, O. E. P. IY., iv., 23. 
Respexeris, Y. E. YIIL, 102. 
JRuperis, H. S. II., iii., 319. 
Scripseris, H. A. P., 387. 
Senseris, O. A. A. I, 716. 

iSj H. O. I., xviii., 1. 
Suspexeris, Y. G. IY., 59. 
Veneris, O. A. L, iv., 13. K. A, 


Videris,y. G-. Ill, 465 ; IY. } 414. 
Vitaveris, II. S. II., ii., 54. 
Vocaveris, Y. G. L, 157. 

1 Some edd. have Recesseris. 



Eis Long. 

Abfueris, O. E. A., 247. 

Abstuleris, O. A. I, viii., 101. 

Audieris, O. M. X., 560. H. S. 
II., v., 101. 

Biberis, *0. A. I, iv., 32. 

Cognoris, L. VI. , .534. 

Contuleris, 0. E. P. IV, x., 21. 

Credideris, O. H. XXL, 189. 

Dederis, *P. II. , xv., 50. O. A. 
IL,ii.,16. A. A. 1,447; IL, 
ii., 337. R A., 671. *T. V., 
v., 40; V.,xiii., 9. F. I., 17; 
VI., 215. H. O. IV., vii., 20. 

Fueris, O. A. A. III., 661. *F. 
II., 674. H. E. I., vi., 40. 

Miscueris, H. S. II. , ii., 74. 
Noris, *0. T. IV., x., 2. *F. 

I., 116. 
Nesderis, O. H. VII, 53. *A. 

A. I, 222. 

Perdideris, O. M. xv., 94. 
Poteris, *0. A. A. L, 370. 
Praestiteris, O. A. I., viii., 105. 

E. A., 635. 

Quaesieris, O. M. XIIL, 756. 
Reddideris, O. A. L, iv., 31. 
Respueris, T. IV., i., 8. 
Steteris, 0. H. X., 126. 
Tentaris, 0. A. A. L, 389. 

In those passages which are marked with an asterisk, the ris is 
found long in the division of the Pentameter. 



Os final is long, 

As custos, ventos, iactatos. 


Os final is short in the following cases : 

co. In words transplanted from the Greek, which have oc in the 
original, as epos, lotos, Samos, Chios, Rhodos, Phasidos, Tethyos, 
from 7roc> Xwroc? Sajuoc? XtO, ToSoc? ^aa-tSoc? TrjOuoc- 
But those words in which the Latin os represents the Greek 
> retain their original quantity, as herds, Minds, from i? 

b. In Compos and Exos. 

Custos, amatorem trecentae. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. III., iv., 79. 


Ventos et varium coeli praediscere morem. V. G. I., 51. 
His accensa super, iactatos aequore toto. V. JE. I, 29. 

a. Facta canit, pede ter percusso, forte epos acer. H. S. I., x., 43. 
Terret, et horrendo lotos adunca sono. 0. F. IV., 190. 

Homae landetur Samos et Chios, et Rhodos absens. H. E. I., xi., 

Phasidos ad fluctus et fines Aeetaeos. C. LXIV., 3. 

Tethyos has neptes Oceanique senis. 0. F. V, 168. 

.Herds Aesonius potitur, spolioque superbus. 0. M. VII., 156. 

In dubio est. Doleo quod Minds hostis amanti est. 0. M. VIII. . 


6. Insequere et voti postmodo compos eris. 0. -4. A. L, 486. 
et exsanguis tumidos perfluctuat artus. Z. III., 721. 


The os in custos, and such words, is long, because the nominative 
was originally custods, the e# which was dropped reappearing in the 
genitive custodis. 

Os, in the accusative plural of the second declension, is a con 
traction for oes or oeis, ventos, iactatos, having been originally ventoeis, 
iactatoeis. See Appendix on the Declensions. 



Us final is short, 

As taurus, tempus,cultus, improbus, solibus^saltibuSyTebus, quibus, 
prius, scindimus, intus, &c. 



Us final is long in the following cases : 

a. In the genitive singular, and in the nominative, accusative, 

and vocative plural of nouns of the fourth declension, as 
luctus, sensus, saltus. (I.) 

b. In nominatives of the third declension, increasing with long 

u in the genitive, as tellus, virtus, palus. (II.) 


c. In words transplanted from the Greek, in which us represents 
of the original, as Panthus (HavOov^), Amathus 
, Mantus (Mavroue, contractedfor Mav7OO), 


Taiwus, et adverso cedens Canis occidit astro. V. G. I., 218. 
Tempus humotegere et iamdudum inciimbere aratris. V. G. I., 213. 
Conveniat, quae cura bourn, qui cultus habendo. V. G. I., 3. 
Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas. V. G. I., 66. 
Saltibus, in vacuis pascant et plena secundum. V. G. Ill , 143. 
Improbus, et duris urgens in rebus egestas. V. G. I., 146. 
Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis. V. G. I., 206. 
At prim ignotum ferro quam scindimus aequor. V. G. I., 50. 
Eursus inobliqnum verso perrumpit aratro. V. G. I., 98. 

a. Scilicet immunis si luctus nna fuisset. Epic. 55. 

Sensus ante ipsam genitam naturam animantis. Z. II., 937. 
SaUtis, et satnri petito longinqua Tarenti. V. G. II., 197. 

5. Tellus in longas est patefacta vias. T. I., iii., 30. 

Et modo, Caesar, avum, qnem virtus addidit astris. 0. E. P. 

[IV., viii., 63. 

Atqne hinc vasta palus hinc ardua moenia cingunt. V. JS. XII., 


Dis iuranda palus, oculis incognita nostris. 0. M. II., 46. 

c. Panthus, Othryades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos. V. JE. II., 319. 
Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphus atque Cythera. V. ^2J. X., 51. 
Fatidicae Mantus et Tusci filius amnis. V. -^7. X., 199. 


I. Us in the genitive of the fourth declension is a contraction for 
iris, and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural for ues 
or ueis, and therefore in both cases long. 

II. The original form of the nominative in salus was saluts; in 
tellus it was tellurs; in palus, paluds; which may account for the 
last syllable remaining long, when one of the consonants was 


Horace, very unaccountably, shortens the us in palus, 

Regis opus, sterilisque diupalus aptaque remis. H. A. P. } 65. 

See the observations of the commentators, ancient and modern,, 
upon the passage. 

"We may at first sight be astonished by 

Polypus an gravis hirsutis cubet hircus in alis. H. E. XII., 5. 
Delectant, veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnae. H. S. I., iii,, 40. 
Polypus liaeret, et hac eludit retia fraude. 0. H. F. 31. 

Since polypus seems to be the Greek 7ro\v7rov. But the 
Dorians made use of a form, TrwAuTroc, as we find in Athenaeus, 
Lib. VII., who quotes from Simonides, wwXvTrov Si^/nevog, and 
a line of Archestratus 

H(*)\VTTOI Iv Gaorw /ecu Kapta tlinv 

See Yoss. Arist. II.. c. 36. 


So the Greeks used both OlSr/rouc-oSoc and 


Ys final is short, 
As Capys, Dictys, Lilys, Tethys, Tipliys. 


Sed Capys ante fuit ; regnum Tiberinus ab illis. 0. M. XI Y., 614, 
Dictys ait quo non alias conscendere sumnias. 0. M. III., 615. 
Hoc Lilys, hoc flavus, prorae tutela, Melanthus. 0. M. Ill, 617. 
Tethys et extremo saepe recepta loco est. 0. F. Y., 22. 
Tiphys et Automedon dicar amoris ego. 0. A.A.I., 6. 


In the Halieutics we find Chrysophrys in Caesura. 
Chrysophrys imitata decus, turn corporis umbrae. 0. H. F., 111. 

In Senec. Oedip. 644, Erinnys seems to be a contraction for 





T final is short } 

As imperdt, movet, elicit, audiit, caput. 

a. There are no real exceptions to this rule, but some contracted 
words, ending in t, have the last syllable long, according to 
Eule I. 

Thus, disturbdt for disturbavit, It for iit or ivit, petit for petiit, 
obit for obiit, &c. 

There are some other apparent exceptions, which will be noticed 
in the Chapter on Caesura. 


Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arvis. V. G. I., 99. 
Hinc movet Euphrates, illic Germania bellum. V. G. I., 509. 
Elicit ilia cadens raucum per levia murmur. V. G. I., 109. 
Audiit et si quern tellus extrema refuso. V. jffi. VII., 225. 
Nunc caput obiectare fretis nunc currere in undas. V. G. I., 386. 

a. Disturbdt urbeis, et terrae motus obortus. L. VI., 587. 

Dum trepidant U hasta Tago per tempus utrumque. 1 V. JE. 

[IX., 418. 

Sceptra Palatini sedemque petit Evandri. 2 V. JE. IX., 9. 
Magnus civis obit etformidatus Othoni. /. S. VI., 559. 

1 Heyne reads iit, * See various readings. 






THE general rule is, that monosyllables, in composition, retain their 
natural quantity. It will be convenient to consider the different 
cases separately. 

A. When the monosyllable forms the first part of the compound 

1. Monosyllabic Prepositions in Composition. 

The prepositions db, ad, ob, m, per, sub, which are short, retain 
their quantity in composition before a vowel. 

The prepositions a, e, de, which are long, retain their quantity in 
composition before a consonant; but before a vowel de follows the 
general Rule IY., and is short, while e before a vowel becomes ex. 

As dbigo, ddoro, meo, obambido, peredo, subigo; dvreto, depono, 
eludo, but deosculor, dehisco. 

Ob, in composition, sometimes drops the b before a consonant, in 
which case the o remains short, as in omitto. 1 

Trans frequently drops the two last letters in composition, but 
preserves its proper quantity, as in trano (transno), trdduco 
(transduco), trado (transdo), &c. 

Pro will be considered separately. 


Nubilaque induco, ventos abigoquQ vocoque. 0. M. YIL, 202. 
Bella gero : et quisquam numen lunonis adoret. V. jE. I., 48. 
Prima leves meunt siquando praelia Parthi. V. G. IY., 314. 
Ille quidem totam frernebundus obambulat Aetnam. 0. M. XI Y., 188. 

1 Some rank ad along with o&, giving aperio as an example. The etymology, 
however, of aperio and operio is by no means certain. 



Longa dies molli saxa peredit aqua. T. I., iv., 18. 
Arvina pingui, subiguntqnv in cote secures. V. JE. VII., 627. 
Quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras. V. jE. IV, 106. 
"Avia turn resonant avibus virgulta canoris. V. G. II., 328. 
De grege non ausim quidquam deponere tecum. V. E. III., 32. 
Increpuit mails morsuque elusus inani est. V. JE. XII., 755. 
Hos amplectitur, hos deosculatur. (Phalaecian.) M. YIII., Ixxxi., 5. 
Sed mini vel tellus op tern prius ima dehiscat. V. JE. IV,, 24. 
Pleraque diiFerat et praesens in tempus omittat. II. A. P. 44. 
Ilia fretus agit ventos, et turbida tranat. V. jE., IY., 245. 
Atque satas alio vidi trdducere messes. V. E. YIII., 99. 
Tradit equum comiti, paribusque resistit in armis. V. JE. XL, 710. 

Pro in Composition. 

Pro is, as we have already seen, long in its simple form, and in 
Latin compounds it usually retains this quantity before a consonant ; 
as in prodoj prScudo, procursus, procurvus, &c. Before a vowel it 
follows the general Hule IY., as inprohibeo. 

But in words transplanted from the Greek, where it represents 
Trpo, the vowel in the original being short, remains so ? as in 
Prometheus (npo/irj0uc;), Propontis (IIpoTrovrt^), Procyon (IIpo- 
KVWV\ but Propoetides (IlptoTromScc) 

There are, moreover, some Latin words in which it is uniformly 
short, viz., the compounds of cello, fanum, fari,fateri,festus,fugio, 
fundOjfundus, nepos, neptis, torvus; as procello, procella, profari, 
profano, prof anus, profiteri, profestus, prqfugio, pr&fugus, prof r undo, 
profunduSy pronepos, proneptis, prvtervus, protervitas, to which add 
proficiscor, profectus, profecto. 

The following have the pro doubtful propago (both noun and 
verb), propino. To which some, without sufficient grounds, add 
procumbo, procuro } propello, which have the first always long in the 
best writers, and prof ari, prof undo, in which it is always short. See 



Prodere voce sua quemquam aut opponere morti. V. jE. II. , 127. 
Maturare datur, durum procudit arator. V.G.I., 261. 
Procursu rapido, coniectis eminus hastis. V. jE. XII., 711. 
Exoritur procurva ingens per littora fletus. V. JE. Y., 765. 


Permittit patria? hospitio prohibemur arenae. V. JE. L, 540. 
Caucasiasque refert volucres furtumque Promethei. V. E. VI., 42, 

Pas quoque ab ore freti longaeque Propontidos undis. 0. T. III., 

[xii., 41. 

Ostendit ignem, iam Procyon furit. (Ale. Sendee.) H. 0. III., 

[xxix., 18. 

Stint tamen obscaenae Venerem Propoetides ausae. 0. M. X., 238. 
Turbinis immanem vim pro vomit atque procellat. L. VI., 447. 
Talia iactanti stridens Aquilone procella. V. jE. I., 102. 
Turn breviter Dido, vultum demissa, profatur. V. ^E. L, 561. 
Scilicet omne sacrum mors importuna profanat. 0. A. III., ix., 19. 
Adventante Dea, procul, o procul este profani. V. jE. VI., 258. 
etiam veros parce profitemur amores. 0. A. A. II., 639. 

e etprofestis lucibus et sacris. (Ale. Nendec.) H. 0. IV., xv., 25. 
Sed trepidus profugit chelas et spicula Phoebus. Col. X., 56. 
Italiam, fato profugus, Lavinia venit. V. jiE. I., 2. 
Deurn profundit ante ternpla sanguinem. (Iamb. Trim.) C. XX., 15* 
Vix ea, quum lacrimas oculis luturna profudit. V. ^E. XII., 154. 
Complentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi. V. 6r. II., 391. 
Est Neptunus avus, pronepos ego regis aquarum. 0. M. X., 607. 
Iam reliqua ex arnitis, patruelis nulla, proneptis. P. S. VI., 53. 
Tliersites etiam per me haud imp\me,protervis. 0. M. XIII., 233. 
TJrit grata protervitas. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1., xix., 7. 
TJt proficiscentem docui te saepe diuque. H. E. I., xiii., 1. 
Hinc ilium Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede prqfectum. V. JE. VII. , 209* 
Turn memorat, ne vero, hospes,ne quaere profecto. V. JE. VIII., 532. 
Sylvarumque aliae presses propaginis arcus. V. Gf. II., 26. 
Sed truncis oleae melius, propagine vites. V. G. II., 63. 
Sit Homana potensltala virtute propago. V. JE. XII., 827. 
Propagare genus possit vitamque tueri. L. I., 19G. 
TJt propagando possint procudere secla. L. V., 848. 
Ecficis ut cupide generatim secla propagent. L. I., 21. 



Nec potuisse propaganda procudere prolem. L. V, 854. 
Imperet aeternum, et populis seclisque propaget. S. II., 52. 
Hi propagandi ruerant pro limite regni. C. de L. St. I., 373. 
Crystallinisque myrrhinisque propinat. (Scazon.) M. IIL,lxxxii.,25. 
Praestare iussi, nutibus propinamas. (Scazon.) M. III., Ixxxii., 31. 
Hiscere tamquam habeas tria nomina : Quando propinat. I. S. V., 127. 


Propontis. Doctor Carey says, "Manilius IV., 439 [680 is the 
true reference], by a bold violation of Greek quantity, has made 
the pro long in Propontidos." 

Aequora, et extremum Propontidos Hellespontum. 

He ought, however, to have added, that both Scaliger and 
Bentley agree in rejecting this line as altogether spurious. Manilius 
uses Propontis in two other passages of the same book, in both 
cases with the true quantity. 

Truditur invitum, faucesque Propontidos arctas. M. IV., 617. 
Ilium etiam venerata colit vicina Propontis. M. IV., 749. 
Profari. Doering, in his edition of Catullus, has admitted 

Talia prof antes quondam felicia Pelei. 

Carmine divino cecinerunt omine Parcae. C. LXIV., 383. 

But the true reading, as given by all the best MSS., is praef antes. 
Profantes is an emendation first proposed by Passeratius in his 
Commentary, published in 1608, and is quite unnecessary. 

Proficiscor, Prqfectus, Profecto. Observe that Proficio and its 
tenses, &c., have the pro long, according to the rule; as, 

Profeci, extrema moriens tamen adloquor hora. V. E. VIII., 20. 

Propino or Propino. The doubtful quantity of the pro in this 
case may have arisen from its being treated sometimes as a Latin, 
and sometimes as a Greek word. The Greek form, 
is used by Martial, V., Ixxviii., 3. 

Non deerunt tibi, si soles Trpoirivtiv. (Phalaecian.) 

In addition to the examples quoted above, we may refer to pro- 
pinatj Mart. I., Ixix., 3; propinavit, VIII., vi., 13; propinas, X., 
xlix., 3; propinabisj XII., Ixxiv., 9; propinas, II, xv., 1; pro- 
pinabit, VI., xliv., 6. 

Procumbo. The idea that the first syllable in procumbo was 
sometimes short, originated in the line* 


Brachia paipebraeque cadunt, poplitesque procumbunt. L. IV., 953. 

As it stood in most edd. before the time of Wakefield: but that 

t * 

editor, supported by all the MSS., restored 

Brachia paipebraeque cadunt, poplitesque cubanti 
Saepe tama submittuntur, vireisque resolvunt. 

Procumbo occurs very frequently in Virgil, Ovid, and other 
poets, and uniformly with the pro long. 

Pronepos. Sidonius Apollinaris makes a double false quantity 
in this word. 

Cernat et in proavo sibimet quod pronepos optet. Sid. Ap. Carm. 

[XL, 133. 

Procuro. As examples of Procuro with the first long, we may 

Procurate, viri, et pugnam sperate parati. V. jffi. IX., 158. 
Haec ego procurare et idoneus imperor et non. l H. E. I., v., 21. 
Si procurare vis ostenturn, rustice. (Iamb. Trim.) Phaed. III.,iii., 16. 
Haud secus ac stabulis procurans otia pastor. S. VI., 329. 

To which add Mart. V., Ixi., 9, procuratorem. 
On the other side, three examples are quoted, in which the pro 
is short, but in every one of these the reading is uncertain ; they are, 

Ipse procuravi ne possent saeva nocere. T, I., v., 13. 

v., L, Ipse ego curavi. 

Inde procurator nimium quoque multa procurat. 0. A. A. L, 587. 

v., L, propinator ..... .propinat. 

Bisit, et, his, inquit facito mea tela procures. 0. F. III., 343. 

3 MSS. Repellas. 1 MS. Reponas. 


From which it appears, that the evidence is in favour of including 
procuro under the general rule. 

Procello. In some of the older editions of Lucretius, in v., 310, 
we find, 

Nee sanctum numen fati procellere fineis. 

But all the best editors have adopted protollere. Also in Properties 
III., viii., 3, Broukhusius upon the authority of one MS. reads, 

Dum furibunda mero rnensam procellis, et in me. 
But all the rest have prdpellis. 

1 We have here a various reading, Haec cgoque procurare ; but the que is an inter 
polation by a later hand. 


Propago. It will be seen that two passages are quoted above 
from Virgil, in wliicli the pro in the noun propago is long. In 
both of these, propago is used in its primitive sense, of the sucker 
or layer of a tree or shrub; in all other places, and it occurs fre 
quently in the poets, it is employed in the figurative sense of 
progeny, race, stock, and has the first syllable uniformly short, e. g. } 
Lucret. I, 43; IV., 999; V., 1026. Virg. M. XII, 827. Ovid. 
Met. I, 160; II, 38; XI, 312. Am. III., vi., 65. Fast. Ill, 
157. Manil. L, 793. Silius II, 8. Pers. II, 72. Val. Place. VI, 
547; V., 126. Stat. S. II, i,, 85; II, iii., 39; IV., iv., 81. Theb. 
V., 278; VI, 327. 

Propello is used by Lucretius twice with the pro short, 

Est procul a tergo quae provehat atque propellat. L. IV., 195. 
Aer a tergo quasi provehat atque propelled. L. VI, 1025. 

In other passages of the same writer it occurs with the pro long, 
and so it is uniformly found in the best authorities, e. g., 

Percussa est, exin corpus propellit et icit. L. Ill, 161. 

To this add, Lucret. Ill, 163; IV, 287; V., 487; VI, 1027. 
Hor. Od. IV., iv., 6. S. I, ii., 6. Propert. II, xxix., 11; xxix., 
39; III, xxi., 11; xxii., 11. Ovid. Met. VIII, 340, 593. Heroid. 
VI, 67; XXI, 42. Trist. I, x., 33. Silius V, 53; VII, 101, 
530; XIV., 13; XV., 559; XVI, 570; XVII, 96. LucanllL, 
1; V., 430. Val. Mace. L, 494; IV, 311; VI, 385. Stat. S. 
I, i., 21; v., 48. Theb. I, 43; Vll, 237, 348; XI, 261, 443. 

Observe also, that the two examples in Lucretius may be brought 
to accord with the rest, by the very simple change of atque into et, 
a change which we shall have less hesitation in making, when we 
remember, that in ancient MSS., both these words are expressed by 
the same abbreviation. 

Prof undo, profudi, profusus, are 1 uniformly found with the first 
short, except in one line of Catullus, 

Has postquam moesto profudit pectore voces. (7. LXIV., 202. 

To which we oppose Catullus himself, 

Deum profundit ante templa sanguinem. (Iamb. Trim.) C. XX., 15. 

and a long array of authorities, e. g., 

Lucret. I, 89; III, 953; IV., 541, 932, 1032; V, 226, 571, 
766, 1374; VI, 6, 210, 212, 401, 744. Virg. M. XII, 154. 
Prop. II, xxvi, 50. Ovid. Met. VII, 91; VIII, 764; IX., 679; 
XI, 418. Heroid. VIII, 63; XI, 81. Fast. VI, 605. T. IV, 
i, 95. E. P. I, ix., 53. Sab. Ep. I, 77. Manil. II, 8, 875. 
Silius IV, 376; VI, 252; XI, 68. Val. Place, Ill, 3; VI, 106. 


Martial VIII., xxxviii., 11. Stat. S. L, vi., 11; II., i., 31; III., i., 
91. Theb. III., 150; IX., 48. 

Under these circumstances we can scarcely avoid concluding, 
that some corruption lurks in the text of Catullus in the above line. 

At all events, it is impossible to agree with Dr. Carey, in sup 
posing that pro was in reality always doubtful, and lengthened or 
shortened as might suit the convenience of the poets. Since we 
find so many words in which it is uniformly long, a few in which 
it is always short, and not above two or three at most in which it 
is doubtful, such an hypothesis must be pronounced extravagant. 

2. Inseparable prepositions and other particles, &c., in Composition. 

Of the inseparable prepositions, di and se, to which we may add 
ve, signifying small, are long, 

As digressus, seduco, vecors, vesanus. 

Dis appears to be short, judging from dirimo, anciently dislmo or 
dis-emo, and disertus, which is the participle of dissero, one of the 
s s being dropped. 

Re is short, as requiro, refero. 

But refert, the impersonal verb, has the first long. See Re 

Ne (negative), and Si, which are long as monosyllables, are long 
also in composition, as neve, nedum, nequa, nequam, nequidquam, 
siqua, sive, &c. 

But necesse, nefas, nefandus, nefarius, nefastus, neque, nequeo, 
siquidem, have the first short. 

Nee has the first short, and retains its quantity in necopinus. 
Neeubi has the first long, but this word is probably a compound, not 
of nee and ubi, but of rie and alicubi, and so also sicubi of sic and 

Bis is short, and bi, representing bis, is short in all the regular 
compounds, such as biceps, bicolor, bicornis, bidens, Wferus, bimestris, 
Inpennis, Hipes, biremis, &c. ; but biduum, 1 bimus, and Innus, into 
which bis seems to enter, have the first long. 

In like manner Tri, representing tris, is short in all the regular 
compounds, tricorpor, tridens, trilix, trifidus, triformis, tripes, trl- 
remis, &c. ; but triduum, trimus, trinus, Trinacria, triginta, trigesi- 
mus, have the first long. 

Qua gives quapropter, quare, quatenus. 

Quo gives quocirca, quocunque, quominus, quomodo, &c., but 
observe that quoque, signifying also, has the first always short; its 
connection, however, with quo may be only apparent. 2 

1 1 do not remember an authority for Uduum, except in the comic writers, but 
Martial will be quoted below for triduum. 

2 Quoque, signifying and in order that^ or and in what manner , has the first always 
long, e. g., Ovid M. XII., 174. 


Although, as we have seen above, hoc is always long, hodie, which 
is evidently a compound of hoc die, has the first uniformly short, 
and so hodiernus. 


Nee minus Andromache dlgressu moesta supremo. V. JE. III., 482. 
Et quurn. frigida mors anima seduxerit artus. F. jE. IV., 385. 
Suadet enim vesana fames, manditque trahitque. V. jff* IX. , 340. 
Expugnare caput, scribet mala carmina vecors. H. S. II., v., 74. 
Quatuor in medio dirimit plaga solis iniqui. V. JE. YII., 227. 
Eoecundi calices quem non fecere disertum. H. E. L, v., 19. 

Haud dubitanda refer, Corythum terrasque requirat. V. jffi. III., 


Praeterea iam nee mutari pabula refert. V. G. Ill,, 548. 

f Quid tamen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga. 

( Arma tulisse refert contra Troasque lovemque. 0. M. XIII. , 268. 

Ne fugite hospitium neve ignorate Latinos. F. JE. "VII., 202. 
Nedum sermonum stet honos et gratia vivax. H. A. P., G9. 
Nequa mora ignaros, ubi primum vellere signa. F. j*E. XL, 19. 
Nequidquam lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis. F. ^E. VI., 118. 
Arma viri ? Nequam et cessator Davus, ut ipse. H. S. II., vii., 100. 
Siqua fata sinant, iam turn tenditque fovetque. F. jE. I., 18. 
Swe quis Antilochum narrabat ab Hectore victum. 0. H. I., 15. 
Semina quum porro distent differre necesse est. L. II., 725. 
Ausi omnes immane nefas, auroque potiti. F, dE. VI., 624. 
Hoc caput, O cives, haec belli summa nefandi. F. JE. XII., 572. 
Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus. H. A. P., 186. 
Hie et nefasto te posuit die. (Ale. Sendee.) H. 0. II., xiii., 1. 
Quos neque Tydides nee Larissaeus Achilles. F. ^E. II., 197. 
Flectere si nequeo superos Acheronta movebo. F. JS. VII., 312. 
Quae mihi ventura est, siquidem ventura, senectus. 0. J..,III.,vii., 17. 
Nocte gravem somno necopina perdere morte. 0. M. L, 226. 
Et necopinanti Mors ad caput adstitit ante. L. III., 971. 
Necubi suppressus pereat gener. U bene rapta. L. P. IX.,, 1057. 


lane bleeps, anni tacite labentis origo. 0. F. L, Go. 

lara liber et positis bicolor membrana capillis. P. S. III., 10. 

Sarcula mine durusque bidens et vomer aduncus. 0. F. IV., 927. 

Extaque de porca cruda bimestre tenet. 0. F. VI., 158. 

Inque domo bimus conspicietur honor. 0. E. P. IV., ix., 64. 

Blna manu lato crispans liastilia ferro. V. j?E* I., 317. 

Gorgones Harpyiaeque et forma tricorporis umbrae. V. JE. VI., 289. 

Loricam consertam hamis auroque trilicem. V. JE. III., 467. 

Nauseat ac locuples quem ducit priva triremis. H. E. I., i., 93. 

Si totus tibi trlduo legatur. (Phalaec.) M. II. , vi., 12. 

Quae velut latis equa trlma campis. (Sapph.) H. 0. III., xi., 9. 

Quae trmo iuvenis foro tonabas. (Pkalaec.) S. S. IV., ix., 15. 

Trlnacria fines Italos mittere relicta. V. SE. III., 440. 

Triginta capitum fetus enixa iacebit. V. jE. III., 391. 

Qudtenus et non est in caro coniuge felix. 0. T. V., v., 21. 

Quocirca capere ante dolis et eingere flamma. V. jE. I., 673. 

Praecipites metus acer agit quocunque rudentes. V. ^E. III., 682. 

Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus. V. G. III., L 

Dicet ubi est hodie quae Lyra fulsit heri. 0. F. II. , 76. 

Quis scit an adiiciat hodiernae tempora summae. II. 0. IV., vii., 17. 


Referl. The impersonal verb is not a real exception to the rule, 
as it must not be considered as a compound of re, the inseparable 
preposition, and fero, but of re or rei, the ablative or dative of res y 
and fero, which will account in a satisfactory manner for the 
quantity. Such was the opinion of the celebrated grammarian 
Verrius, as Festus tells us, and it is probably correct. This doctrine, 
however, has been called in question by some critics. See Scheller s 
Lexicon, in verb. Perizonius ad Sanct. Min. III., v., 3, <fec. 

Nequeo, nefas, &c. In order to account for the first syllable in. 
these words being short, it has been supposed that they are com 
pounds, not of rie, biit of nee, and that the consonant being dropped, 
the e retains its natural quantity. 

B. When the monosyllable forms the latter part of the compound 


In tliis case, also, monosyllables retain their natural quantity 
without reference to the general rules for final syllables. 

Thus, from re, par, pes, sis, vis, we have quare, impdr, dispar, 
tribes, quadrupes, sonipes, adsis, posses, quamvis, quivis; while from 
vir, we have semivir; from es, &c., ades, potes, &c. 

The few exceptions to this rule, such as quasi, nisi, from si y have 
been already noticed under the rules for Final Syllables. 


Quare per divos oratus uterque penates. H. $. II., iii., 17G. 
Ludere par impdr, equitare in arundine longa. H. S. II., iii., 248. 
Eruttius haud dispar aniniorum unaque iuventus. S. VIII., 570. 
Omnia magna loquens,modo sit mihi mensa tripes et. H. S. I., iii., 13. 
Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit. V. ^E. IV., 135. 
Tollit se arrectum quadrupes et calcibus auras. V. ^E. X., 892. 
Adsis O Tegeaee favens oleaeque Minerva. V. O. I., 18. 
Possis et magnam morbi deponere partem. II. E. I., i., 35. 
Quamvis ista mihi mors est inhonesta futura. P. II., viii., 27. 
Semivir et tactis subito mollescat in undis. 0. M. IV., 386. 
Tuque ados inceptumque una decurre laborem. V. O. II., 39. 
Vix unum potes infelix requiescere mensem. P. II., iii., 3. 


The later Latin poets make frequent false quantities in the use 
of monosyllables in composition ; thus we have, 

Qui bipes, et quadrupes foret, et tripes, omnia solus. Aus. Eid. XI., 39. 
Quicquid dispar habet : cumulum discretio carpit. Prud. Ham., 26. 
Succumbit Phrygio : coitus fait impdr utrique. Prud. C. S.I., 168. 

Praepes must not be confounded with the compounds ofpes, with 
which it has no connection. 

Possis appears with the last short in 

Tarn ieiuna fames quum possis honestius illic. /. S. V., 10. 

"Which is the reading of many MSS.; others give posses, poscis, &c. 
Kuperti conjectures pol sit; the most simple, and therefore the best 
emendation seems to be possit, which the construction admits. See 
Excursus on the passage in the edition of Eiiperti. 



Polysyllables in composition retain their natural quantity when 
they undergo no change of form. 

Thus colo, coquo, which have the first syllable short in the simple 
form, preserve the same quantity in the corresponding syllable 
when compounded with re, and become recolo, recoquo. 

So also inter, which has the last syllable short, and eo, which has 
the first short, have the corresponding syllables short when com 
pounded into one word, intereo. 

So ante and/ero make antefero, intro and cluco make introduco, 
ludi, lucri (the genitives of Indus, lucrum), with mdgister smdfdcio, 
make ludwidgister, lucrifdcio, and so generally, the rule being very 
extensive in its application. 

Even when a vowel is changed in the composition, or when one 
of the vowels of a diphthong is dropped, and the other changed, it 
seldom causes any variation in the quantity. 

Thus, cddo is in composition concido, incido, occido; caedo gives 
concido, incido, occido; cano, concmo; cldudo, includo; tuba and 
lyrd with cano, give tubicen, lyricen, but tibia and cano, tibicen, 
because contracted for tibiacen, and examples might in this way be 
multiplied to any extent. 

It not unfrequently happens, that s is dropped, in composition, 
before a consonant, in which case the preceding vowel retains its 
proper quantity. 

Thus, from omnis and potens, we get ommpotens, from semis 3 
semivir, semisupinus, &c. 

Even when greater changes take place in the constituent parts 
of the compound, we can generally infer the quantity of the 
resulting word, by considering carefully the manner in which they 
have been united. 

Thus, when we perceive that ilicet and scilicet are made up of ire 
licet, and scire licet, we conclude that the first syllable in each word 
ought to be long, and the second short ; so pridie and quotidie, the 
first being contracted for priore die, the latter made up of quoti and 
dies , veneficus from venenum and fdcio, and so on. Proceeding 
upon these principles, we shall seldom be led astray in the quantity 
of compound words, provided we refrain from indulgiDg in fanciful 


We may notice a few words in which the principles explained 
above seem to fail. 


From Sopitus we have Semisopitus. 

Yinclaque sopitas addit in arcta maims. 0. F. III., 306. 
Thesea pressuras semisopita manus. 0. II. X., 10. 
Purpureo iacuit semisopita toro. 0. A. I., xiv., 20. 

Some MSS. give semisupina in the latter, and the best editors 
now agree in substituting this word in both passages for semisopita. 

From dwo we have causidlcus, fatidicus, maledwus, veridicus. 

iuro deiero, peiero, but periuro. 

notus agmtus, cognitus. 

nubo innuba, pronuba. 

"We may find it difficult to account for the quantity of the second 
in cormcen 

Qui vix cormcines exaudiet atque tubarum. I. S. X., 214. 

from cornu and cano, but muMmodis need occasion no embarrass 
ment; for, although used adverbially by Lucretius 

Verum semina multimodis immixta latere. I., 886. 

the word must not be considered as a compound formed directly 
from midtis modis; but as the ablative of multimodus, in which, as 
in muMcolor, multtfidus, muMloquus, &c., the second is short, as we 
should expect it to be. 

We have already noticed ambitus and ambitus, and the compounds 
of ibij ubi, and quando. 

It will be necessary to examine particularly certain verbs com 
pounded with facio, since prosodians have hazarded rash assertions 
concerning them. It is not uufrequently stated that the e in 
calefacio, labefacio, patefacio, and all similar verbs, is common, 
being lengthened or shortened in each according to the caprice of 
the poets. We shall endeavour to show that this syllable is almost 
uniformly short in words belonging to this class; why it is so 
cannot be easily explained from etymology, since we should have 
expected it to have been always short in some, and always long in 

I. In calefacio, calefacto, labefacio, labefacto, madefacio, pavefaciO) 
rubefacio, stupefacio, tremefacio, tumefacio, the syllable in question 
is, I believe, without controversy, uniformly short. 

Hicc ubi percaluit calefecitc^uQ omnia circum. L. VI., 687. 
Subiecit rubor et calefacta per ora cucurrit. V. JE. XII., 66. 
Et labefactat eos unde omnia credita pendent. L.I., 695. 
Multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore. V. ,/E. IV., 395. 


Idque ubi vi nmlta partem labefecit in omnem. 0. M. III., 70. 
Alta Polyxenia made/lent caede sepulcra. C. LXIY., 369. 
Fusus humum viridesque super madefecerat herbas. V. jE. V., 330. 
Delicuit terramque suo madefecit odore. 0. M. IV., 253. 
Ast ego vicino pavefacta sub aequore merger. 0. M. XIII., 878. 
Corpus et exiguo rubefecit sanguine setas. 0. M. VIIL, 383. 
Yixque Atlantiadum rubefecerat ora sororum. S. XYI., 137. 
Ibat et ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum. V. G. IV., 365. 
Fonte bibis spectasque tuam stupefacta figuram. 0. ff. XIV., 97. 
Annuit et totum nutu tremefecit Oiympum. V. j?E. IX., 106. 
Crederis, infelix, scuticae tremefactus habenis. 0. H. IX., 81. 
ISTum me laetitia tumefactum fallis inani. P. III., vi., 3. 
Extentam tumefecit humum, seu spiritus oris. 0. M. XV., 303. 

II. The only verbs in which, any doubt exists regarding the 
quantity of the e, are, patefacio, putrefacio, tepefacio, and liquefacio. 
1. Patefacio has the second syllable short in most authors, 

Quos ubi tempore maturo patefecerat aetas. L. V., 807. 
Quom confluxerunt pateftt quodcumque creatur. L. L, 178. 
Is clausum lato patefecit limite campum. C. LXVIIL, 67. 
Laxat claustra Sinon, illas patefactus ad auras. V. ^E. II., 259. 
Et vacuam patefecit aulam. (Ale. Decas.) H. 0. IV., xiv., 36. 

To these add, Patefecit, Prop. I., iii., 33. Ov. Met. I, 284; II., 
112, 819; III., 104; IV., 185. Patefecerat, Ov. Met. IX., 794. 
Patefiant, Prop. III., xx., 29. Patefacta, Lucret. L, 10; IV., 895. 
Prop. I., xvi., 1; Tibull. L, iii., 36; Ov. Met. IX., 314 (al. pave 
facta.) Patefactum, Lucret. V., 596. Patefactis**itucYet. IV., 991. 

On the other hand, we can produce two passages only in which 
the e is lengthened, both from Lucretius, 

Atque patefecit, quas ante obsederat ater. L. IV., 346. 
Caussa >ae/e quae ferri pelliceat vim. 1 L. VI., 1000. 

But in the latter of these two, some MSS. give Caussa palamfiet, 
which gives us the key to the true reading in the former also, viz., 

1 To these may be added, a line quoted from Ennius by Isidorus of Seville, 

Inde patefecit radiis rota Candida coelum ; 
but I have already expressed my opinion of the value of such secondhand scraps. 


atque palam fiet. Few can object to a correction so simple, when 
they reco]lect that palam facer e aliquid is one of the commonest 
phrases in Latin, and is used by Lucretius himself in II., 566, 

Quorum utrumque palam fieri manifesta docet res. 

2. Putrefacio is not a common word, 

Et tamen haec quom sunt quasi putrefacta per imbres. L. II., 898. 
Sunt qui, cum clauso putrefacta est spina sepulcro. 0. M. XV., 389. 

3. Tepefado, with one solitary exception, has the e always short. 
At tepefacta tamen veniat commixta calore. L. VI., 322. 
Frigida deserto tepefecit membra cubili. C. LXVIIL, 29. 
Eaucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant. V. G. IV., 428. 

In matris iugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum. H. S. II., iii., 136. 

Sanguine Tlepolemus Lyciam tepefecerat hastam. 1 0. II. L, 19. 

Alta tepefaciet permixta flumina caede. C. LXIV., 361. 

Here it must be observed, that tepefaciet contains four short 
syllables in succession, and consequently would, under ordinary 
circumstances, be altogether inadmissible into Dactylic verse. We 
shall point out, in a subsequent Chapter (on Poetic Licenses), that 
the poets in such a case, compelled by necessity as it were, some 
times lengthened a syllable naturally short; the writers of the 
Augustan age, however, very rarely indulge in such a license, 
except in the case of a proper name, and hence they used those 
tenses only of tepefacio, which could stand in their verse without 
their having recourse to an expedient so violent. 

Precisely in the same manner we can account for the variation 
in the quantity of 

4. Liquefacio, which, like the others, has the e generally short. 

Turn penetrabat eos posse haec liquefacta vapore. L. V., 1261. 
Elammarumque globos liquefactaqViQ volvere saxa. V. G. I., 473. 
Sic mea perpetuis liquefiunt pectora curis. 2 0. E. P. L, ii., 57. 

1 Add to these, 

Tepefecerit, Ov. E. P. IV., v., 35. Tepefactus, Virg. G. IV., 308. Tepefacta, 
Lucret. VI., 322; Virg. M. IX., 333, 419. 

2 Add to these, 

Liquefacta, V. G. IV., 36, 555 ; J&. III., 576 ; Ov. Fast. IV., 545 ; Met. III., 
486; XIII., 830; XLV., 431. Liquefacto, Virg. M. IX., 588. 

In some editions of Lucretius we find, VI., 966, 

Denique cera liqiiefit in eius posta vapore j 
but the reading generally received is liquesdt. 


On the otlier hand, 

Omentum in flamma pingue liquefaciens. C. XC., 6. 
Thura liquefaciunt^ inductaque cornibus aram. 0. M. VII., 161. 

The e being lengthened, because in no other way could either lique 
faciens or liquefaciunt be admitted into the verse. It must not be 
concealed, however, that Ovid, in one passage, if the text be correct, 
lengthens the e in liquefactis, where no such license is requisite, 
probably in consequence of his having already lengthened it in a 
former part of the poem. 

Tabe liquefactis, tendens ad sidera palmas. 0. M. IX., 175. 

III. We find expergefacta, expergefacti, expergefactum, Lucret. II., 
413; IV., 996; V., 1207, and confer vefacit, VI., 353, but not in 
poets of the Augustan age. 

IV. Some words are erroneously classed with these, which are 
made up, not of a verb, but of a noun, an adverb, or some other 
part of speech compounded withjfacm 

Thus, cinefacio, from cinerem and f ado; 

rarefacio, from rare and f ado, not from rarere, 

as can be easily proved, since Lucretius uses the two words 

Collaxat rareque facit lateramina vasi. L. VI., 233. 

The etymology of vacefio is doubtful. 

It appears, then, that instead of the practice of the poets being 
variable in all these words, as is commonly asserted, there is no 
variation at all in any except four; that in one of these four, the 
difficulty is removed by various readings; that in two of the others, 
one example only, contrary to the common practice, can be produced 
in each, neither of them, from writers of the Augustan age; and 
that the variation in the last verb, and also in one of the others, 
can be. accounted for upon a principle which we know holds good 
in words of a different description. 

1 So the great majority of MSS., and not llquejiunt^ as Heinsius has it 







Reduplicating preterites have the first two syllables short, 
As cecldi (from cado\ cecmi, didici, &c. 

The rule does not, of course, apply to the second syllable when 
it is long by position, as in momordi, cucurri, peperd, and the like. 


a. Cecidi from caedo, and pepedi from pcdo, have the second long. 



Inter cunctantes cecidit moribunda ministros. V. G. III., 488. 
Et veterem in limo ranae cecmere querelam. V. G. I., 378. 
Mox didici curvo nulla subesse tholo. 0. F. VI., 296. 

a. Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit. (Ale. Enneas.) H. 0. III., 

[vi., 35. 

Nam, displosa sonat quantum vesica, pepedi. H. S. I., viii., 46. 


This rule would be more correctly expressed by stating, that 
reduplicating preterites have the first syllable short, while the 
second follows the quantity of the verbal root. The number of 
exceptions, however, is so small, that it is perhaps more convenient 
in practice to preserve it in the form given above. 




Preterites of two syllables, tJieir compounds, and the tenses formed 
from them, have tJie first syllable long, 

As vldi, venij fovi, fugi; while in the present tense, mdeo, 
venio, foveOj fuc/io, have the first short. (I.) 

This rule does not, of course, interfere with general rule for 
the quantity of one vowel before another : and we have, therefore, 
ruo, rui, &c. 


a. Seven dissyllabic preterites and their compounds have the 
first syllable short; viz., bibi, dedi, fuli (from findo), scidi 
(from scindo), steti, stiti, tuli. (II.) 


Ut vldi, ut perii, ut me malus abstulit error. F. E. VIII., 41. 
Respexit tamen et longo post tempore venit. V. E. I., 30. 
Vipera delituit coelumque exterritay*^^. F. G. III., 417. 
Fomt humum ; cape saxa manu, cape robora pastor. F. G. III., 420. 

a. Lusisti satis, edisti satis, atque bibisti. H. E. II., ii., 214. 
Hie mihi respoiisum primus dedit ille petenti. F. E. I., 4a. 
Demersa exitio ; J^c^ 1 urbium. (Choriambic.) H.O. III.,xvi.,13. 
Gaudia florentesque manu scidit Atropos annos. S. S. III. , iii., 127. 
Hesperium Siculo latus absctdit, 2 arvaque et urbes. F. JS. III., 4 1 8. 
Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto. F. G. II., 280. 
Constitit atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit. F. &. II., 68. 
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia sylva. F. JE. I., 314. 


I. The best etymologists are of opinion, that those verbs which 
change a short vowel in the root or present tense into a long 
vowel in the preterite had originally a reduplication. Thus, pango, 

1 Not to be confounded with diffidit, the present tense of diffldo, fromfldo. 
* Not to be confounded with abscldit, from dbscldo (caedo). 

Ilia comam laeva morienti abscldit ephebo. L. P. VI., 5G3. 



or rather pago, makes pepegi, but compingo makes compegi, and 
this proves the analogy of the two forms. 1 
According to this view, we should have 

VeniOy veveni, veeni, veni. 

-r LX 7^7" 7^^> 7 

Leqo* leleqi, leeqi, Leqi. 

7 t7 1 u J U 

Fugio, fufugi, fungi, fugi. 

&c. &c. 

This remark does not apply to such preterites as liisi, risi, &c. 9 
from ludo, rideo, &c. : the preterite in these words was formed by 
the insertion of 5, ludsi, ridsi, the d being afterwards dropped for 
the sake of euphony. 

II. The seven dissyllabic preterites enumerated above in reality 
belong to the last rule, since they are all reduplicating preterites, 
some of which have dropped the first syllable, instead of contracting 
the first two into one. 

Tuli and scidi were anciently tetuli and sciscidi, the former occurs 
frequently in Plautus 2 and Catullus, 3 the latter is found in Ennius, 
Accius, JSTaevius, and Afranius, as quoted by Priscian, p. 890. 

So fidi would be ftfidi from fido. "We find that in the time of 
Priscian, grammarians were at variance with regard to the true 
form of the preterite in this word. See Prise., p. 890. 

Bibi is an actual reduplication from bio, the same as the Greek 
THW. Bibo, in the present, arose from the digammatized form Triho. 

So also steti and stiti are different forms of the reduplication of 
$to, as are dedi and didi of do. 



Supines* of two syllables, and the parts of the verb derived from 
them, have the first syllable long ; the corresponding syllable is long in 
the compounds also; as vlsu, vlsus, visurus, lusum;perosus, &c. 


a>. In the following dissyllabic supines, the first syllable is short : 
cttum from cieo (I.); datum from do, vtum from eo, Utum from 

1 See Pritchard On the Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 151 ; Grimm, &c. 

2 e.g., Rud. Prol. 68; Men. IV., ii., 25, 66; Amph. II., ii., 84, 168. 

3 See below, under " Archaisms." 

4 I would not be understood to mean, that I believe in the existence of the supine 
as part of the verb ; but no inconvenience can arise in this place from using the term 
in its ordinary signification. 


lino, qmtum from queo (II.); ratum from reor, rutum from ruo 
(III.); sdtum from sero, situm from sino, to which we may add 
futum fromfuo, whence futurus. The quantity of these words 
is preserved in their derivatives and compounds, except ambltum 
from ambioj which has been already noticed. (IV.) 
With regard to statum, see Remarks. (V.) 



In brevia et syrtes urget, miserabile msu. V. JE. I., 111. 
Lenaeos, ea visa salus morientibus una. V. 6r. III., 510. 
Nascitur et casus abies msura marinos. V. Gf. II., 68. 
Lusum it Maecenas dormitum ego Yirgiliusque. H. S. I., v., 48. 
Insontes peperere manu lucemque perosi. V. JE. VI., 435. 

a. Puppes sinistrorsum citae. (Iamb. Dim) H. E. IX., 20. 
Intraro, gentique meae data moenia cernam. V. JE. III., 501. 
Nee repentis Uum quoiusviscunique animantis. L. III., 389. 
In te fingebam violentos Troas Y duros. 0. H. I., 13. 
Ardentes auro et paribus ttta corpora guttis. 1 V. G. IV., 99. 
!N"os abiisse rdti et vento petiisse Mycenas. V. JE. II., 25. 
Impulerat torrens, arbustaque diriita ripis. V. JE. X., 363. 
Aut Ida in magna radicibus eruta pinus. V. ^H. V., 449. 
Saxa tulit penitus discussis proruta muris. L. P. IX., 490. 
Deinde satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentes. V. G. I., 106. 

Auruin irrepertum et sic melius sttum. (Ale. Hendec.\ H. 0. 

[Ill, iii., 49. 

Quid siifuturum eras, fuge quaerere, et. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. I., 

[ix., 13. 

Pluctibus ambltae fuerant Antissa Pharosque. 0. M. XV., 287. 


I. There are two verbs belonging to different conjugations, which 
make citum in the supine. 

1 The student must be careful not to confound oblltus from oUiviscor, with oblitus 
from dblino. 

Ollitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto. V. ^E. III., 629. 
Divitiaeque peregrmae quibus ollitus actor. //. E. II., i., 204. 


Cio-civi-c^wra-cire, of the fourth. 

Cieo-cievi-cietum (and dropping the e), (Mum ciere of the second. 

From this circumstance much variation takes place in the quantity 

of the compounds. 

Citus and cito scarcely occur with the first long. 
Accitus is alone in use, accitus not being found in any good author. 

Imperio accitos, alta intra limina cogit. V. JE. XL, 235. 

Concitus is the form employed by the best writers, but 
Concitus is not without authority. 

Deserit inceptum, atque inimani concitus ira. V. jE. IX., 694. 
Inde ruunt toto concita pericula mundo. L. P. V., 597. 
Terga ferens, coit e sparso concita mapali. V. F. II., 460. 
Excitus and excitus are used indifferently. 

Qui bello exciti reges, quae quemque secutae. V. ^E. VII., 642. 
Nee fruitur somno vigilantibus excita curis. 0. M. II., 779. 


IncituSy not incitus. 

Principio venti vis verberat incita pontum. L. I., 272. 
Poplite subsidens, apicem tamen incita summurn. V. ^E. XII. , 492. 

Percitus, not percitus. 1 
Multimodis volitent aeterno percita motu. Z. II., 1055. 

II. Quitum is said to be short by Priscian, p. 867, being ranked 
by him along with litum and itum. Vbssius quotes 

!N"am quum compressa est gnata, forma in tenebris nosci non quita est. 

\Ter. Nee. IV., i., 57. 

III. Eutum appears in the law phrase ruta caesa, its quantity 
is decided by its compounds, dirutus, erutus, prorutus, &c. The 
primitive verb was conjugated ruo, rui, ruiium, ruere, 2 the ui in 
the supine being pronounced as one short syllable, rwitum, and 
hence dirwitum, erimtum, &c. The i was subsequently dropped 

IV. The student must remember, that although the participle is 
ambitus, yet the substantive is ambitus. 

Et properantis aquae per amoenos ambitus agros. H. A. P., 17. 

See remarks on these words under Rule I. 

1 Yet percit is found, 

Nee minus irai fax numquam subdita^?emV. L. III., S 

9 The earliest form was probably, 5 Ll BRARY o 

ruQ-ruvi-ruvittim~nwe. V c- 


V. There is some doubt with regard to the quantity of statum. 
Priscian, p. 863, says, that it ought to have the first long, and 
accordingly we find statura, constdtura, obstdtura } Praestdtura, in 
Lucan, Martial, Statius, and Claudian, while the derivatives, stdtim, 
status, both substantive and adjective, statio, stator, are used by 
Catullus, Ovid, and others, with the first short. 

Hinc acies stdtura ducum; Caesarne senatus. L.P. II., 566. 
Tune res iimnenso placuit stdtura labore. L. P. III., 381. 
Constdtura fides superum, ferale per urbem. L. P. II., 17. 
Constdtura fuit Megalensis purpura centum. M. X., xli., 5. 
Quae sic orsa prior, spesne obstdtura Pelasgis. 8. T. "VII., 247. 
Praestdtura novas vires incendia poscit. C. Eid. I., 47. 
"Verum si quid ages stdtim iubeto. (Phalaecian.) C. XXXII., 9. 
Ducite, et omnis eat verum status iste mearum. 0. M. VII., 509. 
Maximus indicit, nee stdta sacra facit. 0. F. II., 528. 

Tenipus idem stator aedis habet, quam Romulus olim. 0. F. VI., 


IsTunc tantum sinus et stdtio male fida carinis. V. jiE. II., 23. 

This variation seems to arise from the difference of quantity in 
statum and stitum, as we see exemplified in praestitum and praes- 
tdtum, which are both attached to praesto as its supines. See Voss. 
Aristarch. II., c. 22, who has collected, most of the examples given 
above. See also the notes of Barthius and Burmau.onthe passage 
quoted from Claudian. 



Preterites and supines of three or more syllables, retain in their 
first syllable the quantity of the first syllable of the present tense of the 
verb from which they are formed. Thus, levo, levavl, levatum; muto t 
mutavi, mutatum, &c. 


Detrudent naves scopulo, levat ipse tridenti. V. dS. I., 145. 
Ter sese attollens cubitoque adnixa levavit. V. jE. IV., 690. 


lussa sequar 1 ? quiane auxilio iuyat ante levatos. V. JE. IV., 538. 
Debilitat viris animi mutatque vigorem. V. JE. IX. , 611. 
Mutavere vias et lupiter uvidus austris. V. G. I., 418. 
Hei mihi qualis erat ! quantum mutatus ab illo. V. JS. II., 274. 


The following words are usually quoted as having the first 
syllable short in the preterite and supine, although long in the 
present : 

Posui, positum, from pono; genui, gentium, from glgno; potui 
from possum; solutum from solvo; volutum from volvo; but these 
are only apparent, not real exceptions. 

Posui cannot be from pono, which is a late form of the present, 
but from poso; we find also posivi, which must come from posio. 
Genui, genitum, are not from gigno but geno, which is used by 
Lucretius, III., 798. 

Totum posse extra corpus durare genique. 

See also a quotation from Yarro in Priscian, p. 898. It occurs 
also as in the ft. K. of the same author, II., c. 6. 

Whatever root potui may come from, it certainly has no more 
connection with pos sum ilisaifui has with sum. 

Solutum and volutum do not come from solvo and volvo, where 
v is a consonant, but from soluo and voluo, the former of which is 
used by Catullus, Ovid, and Horace, as we shall see below, under 
the heads of Archaisms and Diaeresis. 

We have already stated in the Preface, that we should not dis 
cuss the rules for the quantity of the increment in different parts 
of the verb, since the learner ought always to acquire this know 
ledge by the ear, when making himself master of the conjugations. 
There are, however, one or two controverted points, which it may 
be proper to notice in this place. 

1. The quantity of the penult of the third person plural of the 
indicative perfect is in most cases long; as amaverunt, docuerunt, 
leg erunt, audierunt; but in the best editions of Virgil we find 

Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses. F. E. IV., 61. 

Obstupui steteruntque comae et vox faucibus haesit. V. jE. III., 48. 
And in Horace, 

Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camoenae. H. S. I., x., 45. 

Di tibi divitias dederunt artemque fruendi. H. E. I., iv., 7. 
Besides many instances in other poets. 


"Now, in the greater number of the examples quoted, variations 
exist in the MSS., many of them exhibiting, instead of the indica 
tive perfect, either the indicative pluperfect or the subjunctive perfect. 
Thus, in the line quoted from the Eclogues, we find three readings 
in the MSS., tulerunt, tulerant, tulerint. Hence some scholars con 
tend that in every passage where the indicative perfect is found 
with a short penult, an error exists in the text, and that one of the 
two above mentioned tenses ought to be substituted ; while others, 
going into the opposite extreme, would remove the latter tenses, 
where they have hitherto stood unquestioned, and introduce the 
indicative perfect as more appropriate. 

Of course it is impossible, in a matter of this sort, to come to any 
positive conclusion; for, in consequence of the manner in which the 
poets use these tenses in passages with regard to which no contro 
versy exists, they may be very frequently exchanged for each other, 
without materially affecting the sense. But all who examine with 
care the different examples adduced, will, it is believed, acknow 
ledge, that in not a few of these the indicative perfect cannot be 
struck out without great violence j nor can we fail to perceive, 
that a transcriber, when copying a MS., if he came to such a quan 
tity as tulerunt or Steterunt, which he might consider anomalous, 
would be much more likely to change it to tulerint or tulerant than 
to transform one of these into tulerunt, in violation of all ordinary 
rules. The student may examine the following list, collected from 

Lucretius, Yirgil, Tibullus, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid : 


Institerunt, I., 407. 
Prodiderunt, III., 86. 
Transtulerunt, III., 135. 
Occiderunt, III., 1041. 
Excierunt, IV., 41. 
Dederunt, IV., 45, 975; VI., 4. 
Desierunt, IV., 403. 
Deciderunt, V., 194. 
Constiterunt, V., 416. 
Fuerunt, V., 676, 876. 
Dididerunt, VI., 2. 
Inciderunt, VI., 1174. 


Tulerunt, E. IV., 61. 
Steterunt, M. II, 774 ; III., 

48 ; X., 334. 
Constiterunt) -^E. III., 681. 


Prcfocerunt, II., iii., 12. 
Dederunt, IV., v., 4. 


Annuerunt, S. I., x., 45. 
Dederunt, E. I., iv., 7. 
Verterunt, E. IX., 17. 


Contulerunt, II., iii., 25. 
Steterunt, II., viii., 10. 
Condiderunt, III., xi., 67. 
Fuerunt, IV., v., 69. 
Exciderunt, IV., vii., 15. 


Praebuerunt, H. II., 142 ; A* 
I., xiv., 25. 


Quaesierunt, H. V., 136. 
Excideruntj H. XII., 71. 
Expuleruntj H. xiv., 72. 
Mollierunt, A. II., i., 22. 
Terruerunt, A. III., v., 2. 
Fuerunt, A. A. III., 405. 
Profuerunt, K. A., 263. 
{Texuerunt, E. P. I., iii., 30; 
conj. of Heins. } 

Contigerunt, F. I., 592. 
Vagieruntj F. IT., 405. 
fforrucnmt, F. IL, 502. 
Annuerunt, F. II., 597. 
Audierunt, F. III., 65. 
Paruerunt, M. IV., 225. 
Defuerunt, M. VI., 585. 
Abstulerunt, M. VI. , 617. 
Abfuerunt, M. X., 58. 

2. The quantity of the penult of the first and second persons plural 
of the indicative future perfect, and the subjunctive perfect. 

As far as the future perfect is concerned, the quantity must be 
pronounced doubtful. 

Quas ob res ubi viderlmus nil posse creari. L. I., 156. 
Dein cum millia m\d.t&fecerlmus. (Phalaecian.) C. V., 10. 
Videritis stellas illic ubi circulus axem. 0. M. IL, 516. 
Haec ubi dixerUis y servet sua dona, rogate. 0. E. P. IV., v., 45. 
Accepisse simul, vitam dederltis in unda. 0. M. VI., 357. 
Et maris lonii transierUis aquas. 0. E. P. IV., v., 6. 
Consulis, ut limen contigerUis, erit. 0. E. P. IV., v., 16. 
To these we may add dederltis, from Enn. ap. Cic. De Off., I., 12. 

We ought to remark that dederitis, transierUis, contigeriiix, 
could not stand in Dactylic verse at all, unless with the penult 

With regard to the subjunctive perfect, it is frequently impossible 
to distinguish it from the future perfect, since in very many cases 
where the one is employed, a very slight modification of the sense 
would render the use of the other equally appropriate. 

The only example discovered by prosodians where this tense un 
doubtedly occurs in such a position as to determine its quantity, is 

Namque ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctem. 

Egerimus nosti; et nimium meminisse necesse est. V. jffl. VI., 


The old grammarians are at variance upon these points. Dio- 
medes 1 and Agroetius 2 assert, that the penult of rimus and ritis, 
in the future perfect, is long, and in the subjunctive perfect short, 
while Probus 3 affirms that the syllable is long in both tenses ; and 
both Probus 4 and Servius 5 expressly declare, that the penult of 

1 P. 331. 2 P. 2267. 3 P. 1412. * P. 1434. 6 Ad loc. 


egerimus, in the passage quoted above, was shortened by Virgil, 
"metri necessitate." See Voss. Aristarch. II., c. 21. 

BEFORE proceeding to the second part of this work, which will be 
devoted to the subject of Versification, and will contain an account 
of the different kinds of verse employed by the Latin writers, it 
is necessary that we should explain some modifications which 
words undergo, both in quantity and form, when combined together 
in metrical systems. These may be arranged under the heads 

which will include an account of what are called Grammatical 


When the last syllable of a ivord remains over, after the completion 
of a foot, that syllable is called a Caesural syllable, in consequence of 
being separated, or cut off, as it were, from tJie rest of the word, 
in scanning the verse. 

Now when this Caesura or cutting offtakes place, the voice rests 
or dwells upon the syllable in question, when repeating the line in 
proper cadence, and hence the name Caesura is frequently given to 
this pause and stress of the voice, and the syllable itself thus cut 
off is also sometimes termed a Caesura. 

Thus in the line 

Silvestr | em teiiu | i mus | am meditaris avena, 

the syllables em, i, am, are all Caesural, and the verse is said to 
have three Caesuras. 

In Dactylic Hexameters the Caesuras in different parts of the 
verse are distinguished from each other by names which point out 
the situation of the syllables upon which they fall. 

Thus, a Caesura at the beginning of the second foot, is called a 
Triemimeris, or Triemimeral Caesura (TpiG-r]fJLi-jJipo(*), because it 
falls on the third half- foot; at the beginning of the third foot a 
Penthemimeris (7ri>re-?7/it-/,{jOoe), or Semiquinaria, because it falls 
on the fifth half -foot; at the beginning of the fourth foot a Hepthe- 
mimeris (sTrra-i/^-^uEpoe), or Semiseptinaria, because it falls on 
the seventh half -foot; and at the beginning of the fifth foot 

Enneemimeris (gvvea-^/jut-yUepoc), because it falls on the ninth half- 

The line quoted above affords examples of the Triemimeris, 


the PentJiemimeris, and the Hepthemimeris ; and in the follow 

ing :- 

Funere | as rapuere fac | es, luc | et via longo, 

we have the Triemimeris, Hepthemimeris, and Enneemimeris. 

Sometimes, though rarely, the first syllable of the sixth foot is 
Caesural, as in 

Turn variae eludunt pestes saepe exigu [ us mus, 

which, according to the same system, would be called the Hende- 
cemimeris, since it falls on the eleventh half-foot. 

The term Caesura, however, is sometimes used both by ancient 
-and modern writers upon Prosody, in a sense somewhat different, 
being employed to indicate the division of a verse, caused by 
arranging the component parts in such a manner that the position 
of a particular syllable shall always correspond with the end of a 

Thus, we are told by some, that the best Caesura in the Dactylic 
Hexameter is after the Penthemimeris, meaning that the end of the 
fifth half-foot ought to coincide with the end of a word, thus form 
ing a royurj, or Incisio, or Caesura, in the line as 

Die mihi Damoeta || cuium pecus ? an Meliboei 2 
Aeternam moriens fainam Caieta dedisti. 

So also in a Choriambic Tetrameter, such as 

Maecenas atavis || edite regibus, 

when it is said that the Caesura ought to take place at the end of 
the first Choriambus, it is meant that the termination of the first 
Choriambus, or in other words, of the second foot in the verse, ought 
always to coincide with the termination of a word. 

In order to prevent confusion, we shall use the term Caesura, as 
equivalent to Caesural syllable, meaning the last syllable in a word, 
when it remains over after the completion of a foot, upon which 
syllable the voice is required to rest, in order to mark the measure 
of a verse ; and we shall employ the term, division of the verse, to 
indicate, that the termination of a particular foot, or part of a foot, 
coincides with the termination of a word. 

In this manner, if we wish to express that the first syllable of 
the third foot of a Dactylic Hexameter ought to be the last syllable 
of a word, we may either say that 

There ought to be a Caesura at the beginning of the third foot ; or, 

There ought to be a division of the verse at the end of the fifth 


The rules for the proper position of the Caesura being different in 
different kinds of verse, will be fully explained when we treat of 
each kind of verse separately. There is, however, one fact con 
nected with this part of the subject, which properly falls under our 
consideration at present. 

A final syllable, naturally short, is occasionally lengthened when it 
is Caesural. Thus 

Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta. F. JE. IV., 64. 
ISTostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima caedes. F. JE. II. , 411. 
Dona dehinc auro gravid sectoque elephanto. F. ^. III., 464. 
Sustinet ac natae Turnique canlt hynienaeos. F. JE. VII., 398. 

"Where the naturally short final us in pectoribus, ur in obruimur , a 
in gravid, U in camt are lengthened by the Caesural pause. 

S"or is this license confined to Heroic verse : we find it exercised, 
though more sparingly, both in Elegiacs and Lyrics. Thus, in the 
second line of the elegiac distich 

Quicquid agat, sanguis est tarn en ilia tuus. T. I., vi., 66. 
Vinceris, aut vincls, haec in amore rota est. P. II., viii., 8. 


In liquidum redut aethera Martis equis. 0. It. A., 6. 

In Lyrics, 

Si nonperiret immiserabilis. 1 (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., v., 17. 
Caeca timet aliunde fata. (Ale. Dec.) H. 0. II., xiii., 16. 
Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1., iii., 36. 
Bifigit adamantinos. (Choriamb.) H. 0. III., xxiv., 5. 
Angulus ridet, ubi noil Hymetto. (Sapphic.) H. 0. II., vi., 14. 

Quo non dignior has sublt habenas. (Phalaecian.) S. S. IV., iii., 


In the last passage subit may possibly be a contraction for subiit. 

The only manner in which we can account for this license is by 
supposing, as we hinted above, that the ancients in reciting their 
verses, were in the habit of dwelling upon a Caesural syllable, 
and thus double time being allowed for enunciating this syllable, it 
could be artificially lengthened, although short under ordinary 

The student may examine at his leisure the following collection 
of short syllables, lengthened by the Caesural pause. Those to 

1 See some remarks by Mr. Tate. Class. Journal, vol. xxxi., p. 14G. 



which an asterisk (*) is prefixed, are lengthened in the division of 
the Dactylic Pentameter; those to which an obelus (f) is annexed, 
are doubtful examples, in consequence of various readings. 

Amalthea, T. II., v., 67. 
Electra, P. II., xiv., 5; 0. F. 

IV, 177. 

Gela, V. M. III., 702. 
Hypermnestra, O. H. XIV., 1, 129. 
Phaedra, 0. A. A. I., 511 ; R. A., 


Ehea, 0. F. IV, 201. 
Tarpeia, P. IV., iv., 29. 
Grama, V. M. III., 464. 
Bacclie, H. S. I., iii., 7. 
^M, 0. E. P. III., L, 113; M. 

VIL, 644. 

Proc^, V. u3E. VIIL, 98. 
Ehodon, O. M. VIL, 365. 
Inter, P. II., xxi., 31. 
Pater, V. JE. XL, 469; XIL, 

13; V. 521. 
Puer, V. E. IX., 66. 
Super, V. M. VI., 254. 
^mor, V. E. X., 69; (M 

872;) XL, 323; XIL, 668. 
Dolor, V. M. XIL, 422. 
Domitor, V. JE. XIL, 550. 
Za&or, V. G. III., 118. 
Melior,^. G. IV, 92. 
Numitor, V. ^S. VL, 768. 
Pavor, V. u9E. II., 369. 
-, V. M. XIL, 68. 

?, 0. F. III., 105. 
Pleiadas, V. G. I., 138. 
Cinis, Epic., 163. 
Fratris, *0. H. XVIL, 228.t 
Infamis, *T. II., iv., 38.t 
lovis, V. G. III., 332. 
Languentis, V. JEL XL, 69. 
Operw, *O. H. XVIL, 256.t 
Pecoris, T. II., i., 58.t 
P wfets, V. M. I, 478. 


Sanguis, L. IV., 1046; VI., 
1200; O. M. X., 459; XIL, 

127; *T. I, vi., 66; *O. F. 

VI, 488; V M. X., 487; 

L. P. II, 338; VII., 636 ;X, 

127; V. F. III., 234; S. 


Vallis, V. M. XL, 522. 
TetJmjs, V. G. L, 31. 
Androgeus, V. M. II., 371. 
Auctus, 0. LXVL, 11. 
Casus, V. M. III., 504. 
Domus, V. M. II., 563. 

Euryalus, V. ^E. V., 337. 
Fagus, V. G. II., 71. 
Wto*, V. E. VI., 53. 
Genius, T. II., ii., 5.t 
Gravidus, V. G. II., 5. 
Invalidus, V. G. III., 189. 

, 0. M. XL, 366. t 
Laurus, O. M. XV., 634. 
Manus, V. M. XIL, 232. 
Myrtus, 0. M. X., 98. 
Nemus, V. ^E. III., 112. 
^^m^, V. G. IV., 453. 
Pectoribus, V. ^E. IV., 64. 
Profugus, V. M. X., 720. 
Quartus, 0. F. IV., 677.t 
Taenarius, 0. M. II., 247. 
, V. M. X., 394. 

, 0. M. VII., 61. 
Traitor, T. L, x., 13. 
Alloquitur, V. ^E. IV., 222. 
Datur, V. M. V, 284. 
Ingreditur, V. G., III., 76. 
lactetur, V. JE. L, 668. 
Obruimur, V. ^E. II., 411. 
Gratis, V. M. XL, 111. 
Scribis, H. S. II., iii., 1. 
Vincis, *P. II., viii., 8. 
Fatigamus, V. .^E. IX., 610. 
Negahimus, O. M. XIV., 250. 



Aberat, Y. E. L, 39. 
Agte, H. S. II, iii., 260. 
Amittebat, Y. M. Y., 853. 
Ccmte, Y, M. YIL, 398. 
Condiderit, H. S. II., i., 82. 
Ddbat, Y. M. X., 383. 
Defendte, H. S. I., iv., 82. 
Despexit, C. LXIY, 20. 
Entente, Y. G. II., 211. 
Era*,, H. S. II. , ii, 47; Y. 

YIL, 174. 

Erte, Y. E. IIL, 97 ; M. XII., 

te, Y. E. VIL, 23. 
igit, H. O. IIL, xxiv., 5. 
Fuit, P. IY, i, 17. 
Inypedite, O. M. XIL, 392. 
Manet, H. O. L, xiii., 6. 
Occubute, O. H. IX., 141. 
Perireb, H. O. IIL, v., 17. 
Perrupte, H. O. L, iii., 36. 
*et, Y M. L, 651. 

, O. M. IX., 405. 
ProsUite, O. M. YL, 658. 
Ridet, H. 0. II., vi., 14. 
Sigute, 0. F. II., 341. 
inte, Y. M. X., 433. 
i, 0. M. IIL, 184. 
oto, H. S. L, v., 90. 
Stabat, Y. ^E3. XIL, 772. 
Timet, H. O. II., xiii., 16. 
Tondebab, Y. G. IY, 137. 
Velte, H. S. IL, iii., 187. 
Videb, V. M. L, 308. 
Fwo*, O. T. Y, vii., 23.t 
Pebte, O. T. L, x., 25; F. L, 109 
M. Y, 460. 

Petite, P. L, x., 23; O. A. III., 

v., 30; M. II., 567; IX., 

611; XIIL, 444; Y. ^E. X., 

Alrite, O. H. XY, 173; F. IIL, 

474; M. IY, 711; XL, 14; 

XY, 111. 
Adite, O. M. IY, 317; YIIL, 

870; IX., 610; X., 15; XV., 

63; *E. P. I., iii, 74. 
Interite, O. M. III., 546.1 
Perite, O. M., III.,*viii, 17; M. 

XIY, 618. Epic. 235; *H. 

XIX., 128; *T.IIL,xiv.,36; 

*IV., iii., 68; *E. P. IY., xii., 

Praeteriit, 0. A. A. IIL, 63, 

*64; M. XIY., 101. 
Sedite, 0. H. YL, 31; XIIL, 

29; A. A. IIL, 707; F. IIL, 

333; Y., 515; M. XIIL, 958; 

XIY, 519,766; Ep. Sab. II., 

93; *O. K. A., 6. 
SuMte, O. M. I, 114; YIL, 

170; *E. P. I, iv., 46; Y. 

M. YIIL, 363; H. S. L, ix., 

Que, O. M. L, 193; IIL, 530; 

IY., 10; Y.,484; YIL, 225, 

265; YIIL, 526; X., 262; 

XL, 17,36,290; XIIL, 257, 

258 ; Y. E. IY., 51 ; G. L, 

153, 164, 352 (371); G. IIL, 

385; G. IY., 222, 336; M. 

IIL, 91; IY, 146; YIL, 

186; IX., 767; XIL, 89, 

181, 363, 443. 

The following line is sometimes quoted as an example of the 
Greek dative plural in si being lengthened by Caesura : 

Lemniasl gladios in mea fata dabo. 0. A. A. 670. 

But here we ought probably to add the v I(J>\KV<JTLKOV, and 
write Lemniasin, just as we find Charisin, Dryasin, Hamadryasin, 
Thyniasin, in Prop. IY., i, 75 ; L, xx., 12, 32, 34. 



I. In Latin verse, when a word ends with a vowel, a diphthong, or 
the letter m, and the following word begins with a vowel, a diphthong, 
or the letter h, then the last syllable of the word so ending with a, 
vowel, a diphthong, or the letter m, is elided, that is to say, is struck 
out altogether, and not considered as forming a part of the verse. 

Thus, in the line, 
Intremuere undae, penitusque exterrita tellus. F. jE. III., 673. 

the last syllable in the word intremuere, and the last syllable in 
penitusque, are elided, and as far as the metre is concerned, thrown 
out of consideration, the line being supposed to stand thus 

Intremuer undae, penitusqu exterrita tellus. 

In like manner in the lines, 

Hue sese trepida Aeneae fugientis imago. F. jE. X., 656. 
Consulite in medium et rebus succurrite fessis. F. JS. XI., 335. 
Exercent colles atque horum asperrinia pascunt. F. ^E. XL, 319. 

the a in trepida, the e in consulite and atque, the um in medium and 
horum, are all elided, and the lines must be read 

Hue sese trepid Aeneae fugientis imago. 
Consulit in medi et rebus succurrite fessis. 
Exercent colles atqu hor asperrima pascunt. 

In the above examples, the vowels elided are naturally short, 
biit long vowels also are subject to the same law, as 

Hoc fletu concuss(i) animi moestusque per omnes. F. Jfi. IX., 498, 

And diphthongs, as 

Concurrunt Tyrrhen(ae) acies, atque omnibus uni. F. ^E. X., 691. 

And monosyllables 

ISTe vero, ne m(e) ad tales impellite pugnas. F. *sE. XL, 278. 
Incipit haec, quid t(am) egregium si femina forti. F. ^E. XL, 705. 
lam varias pelagi volucres et qu(ae) Asia circum. F. G. L, 383. 

II. In addition to the elisions mentioned above, the earlier Latin 
poets were in the habit of frequently eliding the letter s, in words 


ending in %s. and us, when followed by a word beginning with a con 
sonant, and thus permitting the vowel, which would otherwise have 
been long by position, to remain short ; thus^ 

Te nunc sancta precor Yeiius, et genetrix patri(s) nostri. Enn. 

[Ann. I. , frag. 9. 

Versibu(s) quos olim Faurii Yatesque canebant. Enn. Ann. YII. ? 

[frag. 221. 

Ut quasi transactis saepe omnibu(s) rebu(s) profundant. L. IY. y 

At fixus nostris tu ddbi(s) supplicium. 0. CXYL, 8. 

III. We may notice here a peculiar species of elision or abbre 
viation, not unfrequently employed in short quick questions, by 
which the vowel is dropped in the interrogative particle ne, be 
fore a consonant, thus 

Ten provincia narrat esse bellam ? (Phalaecian.) C. XLIIL, 6* 
Vidistin* toto sonitus procurrere coelo 1 P. II., xvi., 49. 
Hectoris Andromache Pyrrhiri connubia servas 1 V. sE. III., 319. 
Men moveat cirnex Pantilius? aut cruciet quod. II. S. I., x., 78. 

So we find tantori me, Y. JS*. X., 668 ; tantori placuit, XII. ? 
503; mortalirf decuit, XII., 797; taliri possum, XII., 874; tun* 
sanus, H. S. II., iii., 128; men? vivo, 152; ten 9 lapides, iv., 83; 
turi fletus, O. T. Y., i., 56 ; but some read here simply tu. 

We have already remarked under the rules for final ~N, the form. 
viden ut, where s is dropped before n ; both this and the last 
mentioned abbreviation are combined in the colloquial phrases, 
viden faces, viri tu for videsne, visne. 

Nostra verba. Viden 1 ? faces. C. LXI., 98. 

Tempore dicam; hodie tricesima sabbata, virf tu. II. S. I., ix. ? 69. 

These expressions, as might be expected, are very common in the 
comic writers. 


a. Interjections and exclamations, such as, ah, Tien, 0, ai ai, io? 
&c., are not subject to the law of elision. 

Ah ego ne possim tanta videre mala. T. III., iv., 82. 
Heu ubi mollities pectoris ilia tui* 0. A. III., viii., 18. 

Manifestly because these words, from their nature, must have a strong emphasis^ 
and they would in most cases disappear altogether if they followed the rule. 

112 ELISION". 

utinam tune cum Lacedaemona classe petebat. 0. H. I., 5. 
Elumina amem sylvasque inglorius. ubi campi. V. G. II., 486. 
O pater, hominum divomque aeterna potestas. V. jffi. X., 18. 
Ipse suos gemitus foliis inscribit: et ai ai. 0. M. X., 215. 
Et bis, 10 Arethusa, io Arethusa, vocavit. 0. M. V., 625. 

b. Elision is sometimes, though rarely, neglected in the case of a 
long vowel or diphthong. 

Et succus pecorl, et lac subducitur agnis. V. E. III., 6. 
Stant et iunipefl et castaneae hirsutae. V. E. VII., 53. 
Ossibus et capitl inhumato. (Dactyl. Tetram.) H. 0. 1., xxviii., 24. 

This happens most frequently in the case of proper names 

Amphion Dircaeus in Actaed AracyntJio. V. E. II., 24. 
Et celer Ismenos cum Phocaico Erymantlio. 0. M. II., 244. 

lam Daedaleo odor Icaro. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. II., xx., 13. 

[Bentley reads tutior for odor. ] 

Et Esquilinae alites. (Iambic Dimeter.) H. E. V., 100. 

But observe, that where elision is neglected, the long vowel or 
diphthong is usually a Caesural syllable, and retains its proper 
quantity, as in the above examples ; or if not a Caesural syllable, it 
is made short before the succeeding vowel, as 

Un(o) in lectulo, eruditul(i) ambo. (Phalaecian.) C. LVIL, 7. 
Credimus ? an qm amant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt. V. E. VIII. ,108. 
Nomen et arma locum servant, te amice nequivi, V. ^E. VI., 507. 
Et longum formose vale vale inquit, lola. V. E., III., 79. 
Insulae Ioni(6) in magno quas dira Celaeno. V. JE. III., 211. 
Implerunt montes, flerunt Rhodopeiae arces. V. G. IV., 461. 

Even the interjection is shortened in this way when not the first 
syllable of a foot 

Te Corydon V Alexi, trahit sua quemque voluptas. V. E. II., 65. 
The only exception in Virgil to this remark is in the line, 
et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. V. G. I., 437. 


where the o in Glauco is not elided, and is allowed to remain long, 
though not in Caesura ; but this is a line, in all probability, trans 
planted without change from some of the Greek poets, who are 
much less strict in these matters than the Latins. 

c. Very rarely a short vowel is left unelided. This happens twice 
only in Virgil, and in both cases there is a long pause in the 
sense after the word ending with the short vowel, so that in 
repeating the line the effect would not be disagreeable 

Addam cerea pruna : honos erit huic quoque porno. V. E. II., 53. 
Et vera incessu patuit Ded. Ille ubi matrem. 1 V. jE. I., 405. 

d. The elision of m is in like manner sometimes neglected, especially 
by the older poets, and in this case the syllable ending in rti, 
when not Caesural, is short 

Nam cpiodjluvtdum est, e levibus atque rotundis. L. II., 466. 
Sed dum abest quod avemus, id exsuperare videtur. L. III., 1095. 
O me felicem! nox mihi Candida! et O tu. P. II., xv., 1. 

But there is no example of this in Yirgil, Horace, or Ovid, 
except, perhaps, 

Quam laudas pluma ? cocto num adest honor idem. H. S. II., ii., 28. 
w^hich is probably the true reading, although many editors prefer 


So in 

lam virum expertae, male ominatis. H. 0. III., xiv., 11. 

This is the received reading; but half of the MSS. have nominatis, and there is also 
much difficulty with regard to the first part of the line. The probability seems to be 
that there is some error lurking in the text. We find also, 

factum male! miselle passer. (Phalaecian.} C. III., 16. 

where there is a pause in the sense to give force to the exclamation ; there is, Iiowever, 
much confusion in the MSS., many of them, according to Bentley (Hor. Od. III., xiv., 
11), have Bonum factum male bonus ille passer, out of which different editors have 
moulded different readings, according to their fancy. I may remark, that several 
examples of the license here spoken of are to be found in the older editions of the Latin 
poets ; but most of them have been corrected upon a careful examination and collation 
of MSS. Thus Jahn, on Hor. Od. III., xiv., quotes 

Certa loquor, sed nulla fides, nequZIlia quondam. P. III., xh L. 61. 
At tu, Catulle, obstinatus obdura. (Scazon.} C. VIII., 19. 

But these passages now appear in the best editions 

Certa loquor, sed nulla fides, neque enim Ilia quondam. 


At tu, Catulle destinatus obdura. 


Quam laudas pluma 2 coctove num adest lionor idem. 

Yossius quotes, 
In manibusque lovem et cum love fulmen habebam. 0. A II., i., 15. 

But tlie reading received is, 
In manibus nimbos, et cum love fulmen habenti 

Another instance is sometimes given from 

Haec eadem ant(e) ill(am) impun(e) et Lesbia fecit P. II., 

[xxxii., 45, 

Which is probably erroneous, since three MSS. have 
Haec eadem ante illam iam irnpune et Lesbia fecit. 

The omission of elision is technically termed an Hiatus. 


The last syllable of every verse is common; that is to say, its 
quantity is independent of the laws by which the verse is regulated, 
and may be long or short in each case at the discretion of the poet. 

Thus the laws of Dactylic Hexameters require that the two last 
syllables should be long; but in the three following consecutive 

Posthabita coluisse Samo. Hie illius arma, 

Hie CUITUS fuit : hoc regnum dea gentibus esse 

Si-qua fata sinant, iam turn tenditque fovetque. V. JE. I., 16. 

we perceive that each line ends with a syllable naturally short, but 
which is considered long in virtue of its situation. 

Similarly, the laws of Sapphic verse require that each line should 
end with a long syllable, followed by a short one, yet in 

Unico gaudens mulier marito 

Prodeat iustis operata Divis 

Et soror clari ducis et decorae. H. 0. III., xiv., 5. 

each line is terminated by a long syllable, which is here considered 

!N"or is a vowel, a diphthong, nor a syllable ending in w, at the 
termination of a line elided before a vowel at the beginning of the 
next ; thus, in the first of the above Hexameters, the a in arma is not 
influenced by the circumstance that the next ^line begins with hie, 
and this is the general rule. Sometimes, however, two consecutive 
lines are connected in scansion, in which case the connection is 



lactemur, doceas. Ignari hominumque locorumq(^) 
Erramus, vento liuc et vastis fluctibus acti. V. ^E. I., 332. 

liere the que at the end of the first line is elided before erramus, 
and does not form a part of the verse. In like manner in 

Aut dulcis musti Yulcano decoquit humor (em) 

Et foliis undam tepidi despumat aheni. G. I., 295. 

the last syllable of humorem is elided before et at the beginning of 
the following line. 1 

So also in lyrical compositions, 
( Cur facunda parum decor(o) ) ChoriamMc 

<-i-, 1 "I ll* *1 J.* f \JlvUI l/(Ajlllj(J(j\j 

\ Inter verba cadit lingua silentio. 

H. 0. IV., i., 35. 

( Dissidens plebi numero beator(um) ) , 

1 Eximit virtus, populumque falsis. ) 

H. 0. II. , ii., 18. 

( Plorat et vires, animumque moresq(ue) } 

< Aureas educit in astra, nigroq(ue) > Sapphic. 
I Invidet Oreo, j 

H. 0. IV. ii., 22. 

f Sors exitura et nos in aeternfum) \ AJ . 

< -n n . ., \ > Alcaic. 
\ Jixsilium impositura cyinbae. 

H. 0. II, ill, 27. 

Another species of Synapheia consists in dividing a word between 
two consecutive lines; this may be done without violence when the 
two members of a compound are separated, as 

( Litibus implicitum, mirabor si sciet inter- 

\ Noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. H. A. P. 424. 

f Potet acetum : age, si et stramentis incubet unde- 
\ Octoginta annos natus, &c. H. S. II., iii., 117. 

See also H. S. I, ii., 62 (iv., 96), ix., 51 ; II., iii., 179. Ep. II, 
ii., 188. A. P. 290. 

The division is more harsh in the following examples : 

Gallicum Hhenum, horribilesque ult- ) a 7 . 

T3 . , > Sapphic. 

imosqne Britannos. 

G. XL, 11. 

Out of twenty-one instances of Synapheia which occur in Virgil, in seventeen que 
is the word affected; in three others the words are horrid(a), G. II., 69, Salfur(a), G* 
IIL, 449, and Latinor(um)j M. VII., 160, the remaining one is quoted above. 


Labitur ripa, love non probante ux- \ 

orius amnis. j 

H. 0. I, ii, 19. 

In all the above mentioned cases, Synapheia must be regarded 
as a license seldom resorted to by good writers. In two kinds of 
verse, however, Synapheia is imperative, that is to say, the lines are 
scanned continuously without a break, until we reach a full stop. 
The last syllable in each is not common, nor can a hiatus be 
admitted between the end of one line and the beginning of the 
next. These two kinds of verse are the Anapaestic Dimeter and 
the Ionic a minore. Of the first we have no specimen extant in 
any good Latin writer, since it appears only in Seneca, Ausonius, 
and the later poets. Of the latter, Horace affords an excellent 
example, which will be noticed in the proper place. The rule of 
Synapheia is carefully observed by the Greek tragedians in their 
Anapaestic systems, and, as far as our authorities go, by the Latins 
also. Bentley was the discoverer of this law, and the student will 
find the matter fully discussed in the Dissertation on the Epistles 
of Phalaris, cap. iii. 


The Latin poets, when composing particular kinds of verse, fre 
quently encountered, in ordinary and necessary words, combina 
tions of syllables which could not find admission into the measure 
which they had selected. Hence they took certain liberties with 
the pronunciation of these refractory syllables, and altered it in such 
a way as to adapt them to their purpose. Occasionally, but more 
rarely, words which might have been introduced without change, 
were subjected to a similar process, to suit the convenience of the 
author. Obsolete forms, also, were revived, for the sake of avoiding 
a difficulty, or simply as ornaments of style. 

Hence arose what may with propriety be termed Poetical Licenses. 
Of these there are several varieties, and a multitude of learned names 
have been invented by grammarians to distinguish them from each 
other. "We have Synaeresis, Synecphonesis, Synezesis, Episynaloepha, 
Syncope, Diaeresis, Systole, Diastole, Apocope, Epenihesis, Paragoge, 
Tmesis, and a host of others. There would be no great harm in 
these expressions, if it was always distinctly explained that they 
are merely the names of classified facts, provided the classification 
was formed upon just principles. But from the loose manner in 
which writers upon these subjects frequently express themselves, 
the inexperienced student is apt to suppose that they are caba 
listic formulae, by means of which the ancient writers could 
conjure letters and syllables in and out of their proper places at 


pleasure. He is led to think that they are not merely names, but 
explanations of difficulties, and is frequently contented to conceal 
his ignorance under the cloak of a hard word. Thus, perhaps, 
when reading Virgil, he finds a syllable made long, which, accord 
ing to his rules, or to ordinary practice, ought to be short. He 
turns to his metrical key, and is informed that in the passage in 
question the syllable is made long by Diastole ; with this account 
of the matter, he probably rests satisfied. But if he takes the 
trouble to inquire what Diastole means, he will find that " Diastole 
is the lengthening of a syllable naturally short." To tell him, 
therefore, that the syllable is made long by Diastole, is to say that 
it is long because it is long, or rather, because it is naturally 
short ! 

But more than this, very many of these terms are objectionable, 
because, even when their import is correctly understood, they con 
vey false notions of etymology and grammar ; they are in several 
instances not the names of facts ; no such thing is to be found as 
an example of Prosthesis, or Epenthesis, or Paragoge, or Tmesis, in 
the sense in which they are commonly used; and by learning such 
phrases, the young scholar at once wastes his time, burdens his 
memory, and is led astray from the true path. 

In what follows we shall endeavour to put these matters in a 
right point of view; to discuss the different remarkable forms which 
present themselves in the classical poets ; to account for their origin ; 
to arrange them under their proper heads ; and to define their limits. 
We shall conclude by enumerating the grammatical terms alluded 
to above, explaining their significations, and pointing out those 
cases where they inculcate false views. 

It was observed that certain combinations of syllables cannot be 
admitted into particular kinds of verse. Dactylic verse chiefly de 
mands our attention, because a very large proportion of the whole 
of the extant works of the Homan poets is written in this measure ; 
but in the course of our remarks, we shall not omit to notice the 
poetical licenses employed in lyrical strains. 

In Dactylic verse, then, no word is admissible which contains a 
short syllable between two long ones ; as in vmculls, a/ureis, alvearia, 
and the like ; so also, cmrea, vmculo, ferrei, alved, could not stand in 
the verse without an elision of the final long vowel, which is often 
inconvenient or dissonant. 

In the same way, no word, the first or middle part of which con 
sists of three or more consecutive short syllables, can find a place 
in Dactylic verse ; such as ariete, pdrietibus, tenma, Prwmides, 

Hence, towards words of this kind the poets are obliged to use a 
little violence, in order that they may mould them to their purpose^ 


This is usually done by throwing two syllables together and pro 
nouncing them as one. We shall proceed to notice the most im 
portant cases included in this, the first and most extensive class of 
poetical licenses. 


When two vowels, which properly form separate syllables, are 
thrown together into one. 

a. ea. aurea, cerea, alvearia, respondeamus ; anteacti, anteacta, anteac- 

turn, anteacto, anteactos, anteactis, anteambulo, antehac, &c. 

b. el. aerelj arariei, baltei, ferrei, Pompeij aureis; anteLre } anteirent; 

anteis, (anteit), 1 &e. 

c. eo. alveo, aureo, laqueo. 

d. w. vindemwtor, Formwno? 

e. u. connulms, denarns, PaeomiSj Taenus. 

f. w. connubw, Idomenios. 

g. m. Inferms, promontormm, Antmm; omnmm, and other genitives 

in ium; as mensmm, caelestmm, lacrymantvum, ruentmm, &c. 

h. 55. codluerint, cooperiant, cooperuisse. 

We may, if we please, suppose that an actual elision takes place 

in such compound words as anteacta, antednibulo, antehac, anteire, 
and that they were pronounced, when necessary, antfacta, ant ambulo, 
ant hac, ant ire, <fcc. 

Jc. In many words compounded with semi followed by a vowel, such 
as semianimus, semianimis, semiadapertus, semiermis,.semihians, 
semihomOj semiustus, semiambustus, it is necessary, in Dactylic 
verse, to perform an elision of the same kind, and to pronounce 
them sem animm , sem animis, sem adapertus, serriermis, sem ~ 
hians, sem homo, sern ustus, sem ambustus, &c. 3 

1 Here the contraction is manifestly not the result of any necessity. 

2 When the vowels za, ie, ii, to, m, are thrown together into a single syllable, i 
ought to be pronounced like# at the beginning of an English word: vindemyator, 
connubyis, connubyo, Ant-yum, &c. See Class II. 

3 Among these some would place grav olens and sautfolenS) but these ought to be 
considered as two distinct words, grave okns and suave okns. 


Genitives in ium are frequently written without inserting the i, 
as parentum, serpentum mensum, &c. ; the poets, however, use the 
open form also when it can be conveniently introduced, as paren- 
tium, serpentium, &c. ; nor must it be supposed that the contraction 
is purely a poetical license, since it is found in the best MSS. of 
prose authors. 

The above mentioned changes are all introduced, either from 
necessity, or to avoid harsh elisions ; but similar liberties are some 
times talicii when there is no such plea to justify them. 

I. Words which contain k between two vowels, occasionally drop 
the h and contract the two vowels into one syllable : thus we 
have vehemens, 1 vehemently vehementer, vehementius, and also, 
vemens, vementi, vementer. so prekensi and prensi, 2 dehinc and 
d&nCj niliilwn and mlum, mild and ml, prombeat, pronounced 
proibeat, &c. 

m. More violent than these arc, ostrea, eadem, eodem, eaedem, eosdem, 
torreat, deorsum, seorsum, seorsus, omnw, vwtiSj Gabn, onundi, 
patrm, fluitant, pronounced as dissyllables; precantw, lazyges, 
duellica, praeoptarit, as trisyllables ; prout, a monosyllable ; all 
of which might be, and most of them often are, employed with 
out being contracted. 

n. Again, some words are often erroneously classed with the above, 
which in the best writers uniformly appear under a contracted 
form. Thus, in those tenses of the verb desum, where a double 
e occurs, the two vowels are always, or almost always, blended 
into one syllable ; thus, deesse, deest, deerat, deero, deeritj deerunt, 
deessem* to which we may add a similar combination, deerarunt, 

o. So also delnde, demceps, proinde, ndem, nsdem, are always dis- 

1 e. g., vehemens, L. VI. y 516; vemens, C. L. 21; H. E. IL, ii., 120. 
vehementi, L. VI.. 310; vementi, L. III., 153. 
vehement-er, L. VI., 516; vementer, II., 1023; IV., 821. 

! But in many parts of the compounds, as comprendere, comprenderit, deprensis, 
the contracted form alone is admissible in Dactylic verse. 

J These woids, however, frequently occur in passages where it is not necessary to 
suppose a contraction, e. g,, 0. II X., 37 ; XV., 111. M. III., 268; X., 88. V. G. 
II., 233, &c. In some odd. of Statins we find, 

Plarmomem, nullisque deest sua fabula mensis. S. T. VIII., 236. 

But some MSS. omit the qua, others give quin deest, others deerat, &c. 


syllables in the best authors ; dein, quoad, ii, Us, Dii, Diis, 1 cui, 
huic, are always monosyllables. In these cases, therefore, we 
may reasonably conclude, that the contraction expressed the 
ordinary pronunciation of the word, and was not the result of 
any poetical license. See Remarks. 


a. Aurta composuit sponda, mediamque locavit. V. JE. I., 698. 
Abdiderint furtim terris, et imagine cerea. H. S. I., viii., 43. 
Seu lento fuerint alvtaria vimine texta. F. G. IV., 34. 
Quid respondeamus nisi iustam intendere litem. L. III., 693. 

Cum memor anteactos semper dolor admonet annos. T. IV. 7 

. . ..... [i., 189. 

Dixit et anteactis veluti male crederet, hastam. 0. M. XII., 115. 
Anteambulones et togatulos inter. (Scazon.) M. X., Ixxiv., 3. 

Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum. (Ale. Sendee.) H. 0. 1., 

[xxxvii., 5 . 

b. Centum aerei clauduiit vectes aeternaque ferri. F. M. VII., 609. 
Nee nebulam noctu, neque aranel tenuia fila. L. III., 384. 
Exanimem, rapiens immania pondera baltei. V. ^. X., 496. 

Eumenidum thalami et discordia demens. V. M. VI. y 


Pompel meorum prime sodalium. H. 0. II., vii., 5. 
Atria, dependent lychni laquearibus aurels. V. ^E. I., 726. 
Qui candore nives antelrent cursibus auras. V. JE. XII., 84. 
Testa diu; quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis. H. E. I., ii., 70. 

c. Deturbat, laxatque foros, simul accipit alveo. V. JE. VI., 412. 

Vulcanum alloquitur, thalamoque haec coniugis aured. V. SE. 

[VIII, 372. 

1 Dii and Diis occur very often, and are always monosyllables. When the poets 
wish to have a dissyllable, they write Dei, Deis, which are often confounded in the 
MSS. with the former, e. g., 

Neque iilla vota litoralibus Deis. C. IV., 22. 

Where some MSS. and many printed copies give Diis. Dei, Deis do not occur in 
Yirgil nor in Horace. 


Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqued gruem. (Iamb. Trim.) 

[H. E. II., 35. 

d. Vindemmtor, et invictus, cui saepe viator. H. 8. 1., vii., 30. 
Formw/no saltu non falso Mentula dives. C. CXIV., 1. 

e. Gonnulns arvisque novis operata iuventus. V. jE. III., 136. 
Denarlis tibi quinque Martialem. (Pkalaecian.) M. I., cxviii., 17. 
Paeonus 1 revocatnm herbis et amore Dianae. F. M. VII., 769. 
Puniceis ibant evincti tempora taenns. V. JE. V., 269. 

f. Gonnubw iungam stabili propriamque dicabo. F. JE. I., 73. 
Idomenwsne petam montes 1 at gurgite in alto. C. LXIV., 178. 

g. Priusque coelum sidet inf emits mari. (Iamb. Trim.) H. E. 


Inde legit Capreas promontormmcpie 2 Minervae. 0. M. XV. ,709. 
Et tellus Circaea et spissi litoris Antmm? 0. M. XV., 718. 

v*/ j . m \ v \t~ I 

Imbecillorum esse aehnum misererierjom^mm. 4 L. V., 1022. 
Cum tua sint cedantque tibi confinia mensmm. 0. F. V., 187- 
Codestwm matrem concava puppis habet. 0. F. IV., 276. 

Exclusi, ante oculos lacrymantmm^Q ora parentum. F. JE. 

[XL, 886. 

h. Cooperiant niaria ac terras immensa superne. L. VI., 491. 
Per terras amneis atque oppida cooperuisse. L. V., 343. 
Tandem cooluerint, 5 ea quae coniecta repente. L. II., 1060. 

k. Semianimesque micant digiti ferrumque retractant. F. jE. X., 396. 
Languida semianimo cum corpore membra videres. L. VI., 1267. 
Obliquum capiat semiadaperta latus. 0. A. L, vi., 4. 
jSemiermemque manum sternendam obiecerat liosti. S. XII., 467. 
Semihiante labello. (Glyconian.) G. LXL, 220. 

1 See Hevne s note. 


2 Authorities are wanting to decide the quantity of promontorium^ but analogy 
leads us to suppose that the antepenult is naturally long. 

3 The following line begins with a vowel, but there is a full stop after Antium, 
which precludes Synapheia. 

4 Some MSS, have omni. * Some MSS, have coaluerint, 


Semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat. V. ^E. "VIII. , 194. 
Haec inter Lapitlias et semikomines Centauros. 0. M n XII., 536. 
Eama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus. V. JE. III., 578. 
Semiambusta iacet nullo discrimine passim. S. II., 681. 

Z. ( Transit equum cursu, frenisque adversa prehensis. V. JE. XI., 


( Ingentes tollent animos prensicpiQ negabunt. V. @. III., 207. 
f Cervici subnecte dehinc ubi libera colla. V. Gr. III., 167. 

( Eurum ad se Zephyruinque vocat, dehinc talia fatur. V. 

[L, 131. 

Nam sive est aliquid quod prohibeat efficiatque. L. I., 976. 

Sudando, pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea. H. S. II., ii., 21. 
Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur. V. jffi. X., 487. 
Hoc eddem ferro stillet uterque cruor. P. II., viii., 26. 
Uvescunt, eaedem dispansae in sole liquescunt. L. L, 307. 

Eosdem habuit secum quibus est elata capillos. 

Eosdem oculos ; lateri vestis adusta fuit. P. IY., vii., 7. 

Quod sitis exurat miseros atque arida torreat. L. III., 930. 
Pondera quantum in se est deorsum deducere pugnent. L. II., 205. 

At neque seorsum oculei, neque nareis, nee manus ipsa. L. III., 


$eorsus item sapor oris liabet vim, seorsus odores. L. IY., 495. 
Bis patriae cecidere manus; quin protinus omnw. V. ^E. YL, 33. 

Nee supera caput eiusdem cecidisse vwtam. L. III., 386. 
Qui sudor vwtis, 1 et quam malus undique membris. ff. E. 

[XIL, 7. 

Et qui nunc nulli, maxima turba Gabn; = Et. P. IY., i., 34. 
Denique coelesti sumus omnes semine ormndi. L. II., 991. 

Nocturnique canum gemitus, ubi lumina patrm = Effugit. S. T. 

[IY, 429. 

Per malos volgata trabeisque trementia^m&mtf. 2 L. IY, 75. 

Praeferimus manibus vittas et verba precantia. = Et. V. JE. 

[YIL, 237. 

1 Some modern editions have viciis. 
z MSS., jtuitant, flutant, fluctant. 


lazyges et Colchi, Metereaque turba Getaeque. 1 0. T. II., 191. 
Lanigerae pecudes, et equorum duellica proles. L. II., 661. 
Omnibus his Thesei dulcem praeoptarit amorem. C. LXIV., 120. 

Pasco libatis dapibus. Prvut cuique libido H. 8. II., vi., 

Sed tamen adspiceres vellem prout ipse rogabas. 0. H. XXI., 

n. Talibus in rebus communi deesse saluti. L. I., 44. 

Deest iam terra fugae : pelagus Troiamne petemus. V. ^E. X., 378. 
Divitis uber agri Troiaeve opulentia deerit. V. &. VII. , 262. 
Deerdrunt passim motus ab sensibus omneis. L. III., 873. 

Vir gregis ipse caper deeraverat, atque ego Daphnin. F. E. 

[VII, 7. 

o. Delude satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentes. V. Gf. I., 106. 
Hedde age quae demceps risisti, Yibidius dum. H. S. II., viii. ? 80. 
Proinde tona eloquio solitum tibi meque timoris. F. jE. XL, 383. 
lidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes. H. E. L, i. ? 82. 
Non ut porticibus, sic iudiciis fruar usdem. H. E. I., i, 71. 
Dan mille altera, d&in secunda centum. (Phalaecian.) C. V., 8. 

TJnguibus et pugnis dein fustibus, atque ita porro. 2 H. S. I., iii., 

Quoad licet ac possis reperire, inolentis olivi. 3 L. II., 850. 

Haeredes voluit. Quoad vixit credidit ingens. H. S. II., iii,, 91. 


It is believed, that what has been said with regard to dein, deinde, 
deinceps, proinde, cui, huic, will be found to be correct, notwith 
standing the vague assertions to the contrary in ordinary works on 

In addition to the example of dein given above, the student may 
refer to C^V., 9, 10; P. Ill, x., 15; IV., viii., 83; H. S. L, iii., 
101. But in Paulinus Nolanus, and writers of that age and stamp, 
it is found as a dissyllable with the first short. 

1 lazyx is a trisyllable in 

Ipse vides onerata ferox ut ducat "lazyx. 0. E. P. IV., vii., 9. 

2 So Prop. III., x., 15 ; IV., viii., 83. 3 So Lucret. V., 1212, 1432. 


Ddnde is found upwards of thirty times in Virgil alone, and 
always a dissyllable, but in such writers as Prudentius and Sidonius, 

Eva columba fait tune Candida, nigra delude. Prud. Dip. L, 1. 
Nee qui consimili delude casu. (Phalaecian.) Sid. Ap. IX., 272. 

Proin occurs but seldom except in the comic writers; we have, 

Prolu, viator, hunc deum vereberis. (Iamb. Trim.) 1 C. XX., 16. 

The reading prom, is, however, disputed, and it must be remem 
bered, that the above line occurs in a poem which is inserted 
among the works of Catullus, but of which the authenticity is very 

Proinde is used twice by Yirgil, and in a multitude of passages 
by Lucretius, who, in common with all good writers, make it a 

With regard to huic and cui, the facts are these : In all the 
purer Latin poets (the dramatists are of course excluded here as 
elsewhere), a multitude of passages occur in which huic and cui 
must be scanned as monosyllables, and in no case is it necessary to 
consider them as dissyllables. Hence, the legitimate inference 
seems to be that which we have drawn. As far as the writers of 
the Augustan age are concerned, there is no controversy; but when 
we descend a little lower, we find quoted, 

Laetus huic dono videas dare turanepotes. S. S. I., i., 107. 
Ealsus huic pennas et cornua sumeret aethrae. S. S. I., ii., 135. 

But a number of MSS. give laetius in the former, and falsas in the 
latter, and in some of the best editions, the lines stand, 

Huic laetus... 
Huic falsus... 

In Ausonius, however, we have an unquestionable example 
Nomen huic ioculare datum, cute fusca quod olim. A. Par. V., 3. 
Four examples of cm are adduced from 

Sed norunt cui serviant leones. 2 M. I., cv., 22. 

Drusorum cui contigere barbae. M. VIII. , Hi., 3. 

Collatus cui Gallus est Priapus. M. XL, Ixxii., 2. 

Et credit cm Portumila dives. M. XII. , xlix., 3. 

1 We find proin a monosyllable in 

Proin se quaeque parent : nee quo venentur amores. 0. M. F. 27, 

2 In line 17 of this epigram, cui must be a monosyllable. 


But these by no means decide the question, even with regard to 
the age of Martial. 

It will be observed, and the coincidence is remarkable, that in 
each of these lines, cui forms the latter half of the second foot of a 
Phalaecian Hendecasyllabic ; but Catullus in one of his pieces 
(LY.) written in this measure, introduces a Spondee several times 
in this place; it is not, therefore, more violent to suppose that 
Martial imitated this in the above lines, than to decide that he 
departed from the practice of his predecessors and contemporaries 
in making cui a dissyllable. Unquestionable examples of cm are to 
be found in Ausonius, who sometimes makes both syllables short, 
and sometimes the first short and the second long, e. g., 

Fabulae fingunt cm Luna somnos. (Sapphic.) A. Epliem. 15. 

Cmque vigiles luminum. (Iamb. Dim. A cat.) A. Epp. XV, 59. 

But let us see how Prudentius deals with the word : 

Sanguine pasta cui cedit avis. (Dactyl. Trim. Hyper cat.) Prud. 

[Cath. III., 167. 
Where cui is a short monosyllable. 

Assignare deos proprios sua cmque iura. Prud. Ham. 105. 

Where cui is a trochee. 
Puer cm trinam pater. (Iamb. Dim.) Prud. Cath. XII., 67. 

Where cui is an iambus. 

And yet we sometimes find Prudentius gravely quoted as an 
authority in Latin Prosody ! 


/ is sometimes considered as a consonant, and in these cases had, 
it is probable, the sound of the English y in young, yes, &c. See 
Preliminary Remarks and Appendix on the Latin Alphabet. 1 

a. Thus abiete, abwtibus, arwte, parwtibus, ametat, were pronounced 

in Dactylic verse as abyete, abyetibus, aryete, aryetat, paryetibus, 
the first syllable being considered long by position. 

b. Upon the same principle, although without the plea of absolute 

necessity, we find fluvwrum in a passage in Virgil, where it 
must be pronounced fluvyorum, and Nasidieni in Horace, as 
Nasldyeni; abyegni, abyegnae, in Propertius, & 

1 Consult Bentley on H. S. II., viii., I. 


c. So also we find the following combinations : 

Paednivm in, Stellio et } Princtpium /me, Consilium et ; in 
lines where they must be enunciated, Paedny in, Stdlyet, 
Prmwpy huc, Conslly et. 


a. Aedificant sectaque intexunt abiete costas. F. JE. "II., 16. 
Abietibus iuvenes patriis et montibus aequos. F. jE. IX. ; 674. 
Custodes sufferre valent. Labat ariete crebro. F. JS. II., 492. 
Arietat in portas et duros obiice postes. 1 F. dS. XL, 890. 
Haerent parietibus scalae postesque sub ipsos. F. JE. II., 442. 

1. Fluvicrum rex Eridanus camposque per omnes. F. f. L, 482. 
Paeonium in morem senior succinctus amictu. F. ^E. XII., 401. 
Stellio et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis. F. G. IV., 243. 

f"Voa lene consilium et datis et dato. (^Uc. Ilendec.) H. 0. III., 

[iv., 41. 

Hinc omne principium hue refer exitum. (^c. Hendec.) H. 0. 

[III., vi., 6. 

f Aut vigila aut dormi, Nasidiene, tibi. M. VII., liv., 8. 
( Ut Nasidieni iuvit te coena beati. 2 H. S. II., viii., 1. 

i JSTam quis equo pulsas abiegno nosceret arces. P. III., i., ^5. 
< Induit abieqnae coriiua falsa bovis. P. III., xix., 12. 

1 X \ f -.& i ^ / A 

( Laeseratja6ie^pi|venter apertus equi. P. IV., i., 42. 


In the same manner the poets took advantage of the double 
power of V, 3 and made it a consonant in words where such a change 
was necessary or convenient. 

a. In this way, tenuia, tenmus, tenms, tenue, tenuem, tenm, tenues 
genud, curruum, fortmtiis, pltmta, become tenvia, tenvius, tenvis v 
. ; genva, currvum,fortvituSj pitvita, &c. 

1 But what are we to make of the following line ? 

Apparet,aut celsum crebris arietibus urbis. S. T. II., 492. 

which seems to be the reading of all the MSS. Nor is the matter mended by intro 
ducing arietatibus, as Gronovius and others propose; for if the* be pronounced like ay 
then the first syllable is necessarily long by position. 

2 See also H". S. II., viii., 75, 84. L. IX., 790, has Nasidtom. 

3 See Preliminary Remarks and Appendix on Roman Alphabet. 


. By combining the processes described in this and the preceding 
class, tenuwre is made into tenv-yore. 


a. Yelleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres. F. G. II., 121. 
Qua neque mobilius quidquam neque tenuius exstat. L. III., 244 
Tennis ubi argilla et dumosis calculus arvis. F. G-. II., 180. 
Genua labant, vastos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. F. JE. Y., 432. 
Per campos pascuntur equi ; quae gratia curruum. Y. ^E. YI., 653,, 

J Nec/b^mtoftspernere cespitem. (Ale. Hendec.) H. (9.II. ? xv., IT. 
( Non quasi fortuitus sed ventorum rabie sed. 1 /. S. XIII., 225. 

J Mucusque et mala, pitmta nasi. (Phalaecian.) C. XXIII., 17. 
( Praecipue sanus nisi qnumpituita molesta est. 3 H. J.I.,i., 108,, 

6. Sperne coli tenuiore lyra, vaga cingitur astris. S. S. I., iv., 36. 
Ortus et instantem cornu tenuiore videbat. 3 S. T. XII., 2. 


In the above classes, the syllables in question consist of two 
vowels following each other, and the pronunciation alone of the 
word, and not the form, is affected. In that which we are about 
to notice, a vowel is thrown out of the word altogether. To this 
class belong such words as asperls, aspero, catidwr, circulos, gubernd- 
culum, gubernaculo, laminae, lurido, mampull, inanipulos, manipulis, 
mampuldris, oraculum, ordculo, oracula, perlculum, perlculi, perwulo, 
perlculiSj puentwe, saeculum, saeculi, saecula, saeculorum, saeculis,. 
solidum, soliddj spectaculum, splculormn, unwersum, vdttdms, vin- 
culum, vinculo, vmcula, mnculls, mnculorum, &c., which are changed 
into aspro, aspris, caldior, circlos, gubernachim, &c., lamna, lardo, 
maniplus, &c., oradum, &c., periclum, &c., puertiae, saeclum, &c.,. 
spectaclum, spiclorum, unversum, valdius, vinclum, &c. 

It ought to be observed, that some of the above nouns are 
inadmissible into Dactylic verse in their proper shape, as mam- 
pulus, which could never find a place; while others, although un 
serviceable in some cases, as periculis, mnculls, yet might be used in 
others, as in periculum, vinculum, with elision ; in pericula, vincida^, 
without elision. But the change being once introduced, was ex* 

1 See alsoPhaedr. II., iv., 4, fortuitus. Manil. I., lS2,fortvitus. 

H. S. II., ii., 76. Pers. S. II., 57, pitvita. 
* In both these examples, we may pronounce the word tcnu-yore. 


tended to all tlie cases, and the poets make use ofpericla, vincla, 
&c.j as freely as ofpericula, vincula, &c. 

Nor do nouns alone undergo this change, but several verbs also, 
with their participles, are modified in a similar manner; thus 
calefdcitj cdlefdcienda, incdlefdcit, recdlefdcit, recdlefdce, become cal 
facit, calfacienda, incalfacit, recalfacit, recalface, &c. ; and the change 
being once introduced, we find calefecit made calfecit, although not 
absolutely necessary; in like manner repositus, repository become 
repostus, repostor, and the same takes place without necessity in 
pono and many of its compounds, as posto, posta, compostus, dis- 
posta, exposta, imposta, opposta, praeposta, supposta, &c. ; so also 
copulata becomes coplata ; porrigens, pwrigl, porrigite, become 
porgens, porgi, porgite; per-rego becomes pergo ; surrigo becomes 
surgo; sumpmrat, sumpmt, surriptte, sumpere, become swrpuerat, 
surpuit, surpite, surpere, &c. 

All of these forms are not, however, by any means peculiar 
to the poets; vincla, for example, is found in Cicero (Ep. Fani. 
XVI., 18.) Quintilian (L, c., 6) says, that calfacit was more com 
mon in his time than calefacit; from the contracted periclum, we 
have the verb periclitor, and so on. 


Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem. V. ^E. II., 379. 
Caldior est ? acres inter numeratur. Opinor. H. S. I., iii., 53. 
Ac primum laxos tenui de vimine circlos. V. 6f. III., 166. 

Pertica suspenses portabat longa maniplos 

Unde maniplaris nomina miles habet. 0. F. III., 117. 

Oraclum lovis inter aestuosi. (Phalaecian.) C. VII., 5. 

Vota metu duplicant matres propiusque periclis. V. jE. "VIII., 556. 

Hue illuc vinclorum immensa volumina versat. V. JE. V., 408. 

Aut humilem grato calfacit igne focum. 0. F. IV., 698. 

Fac timeat de te timidamque recalface mentem. 0. A. A. II., 445, 

Templorum positor, templorum sancte repostor. 0. F. II., 63. 

Exciderant animo, manet alta mente repostum. V. jE. I., 26. 

Cingite fronde comas et pocula porgite dextris. V. jE. VIII., 274. 

Atque ea prima duci porgens carchesia Graio. V. F. II., 656. 

Quae me surpuerat mini. (Choriambic.) H. 0. IV, xiii., 20. 

Quicldam magnum addens. unum me surpite morti. ZT. S. II. , iii., 



The student who wishes to pursue this part of the subject farther, 
is referred to the following collection of examples : 

Aspro, Pallad. de insit., 67. Gubernadum, Lucret. IV., 905; 
Virg. M. VI., 349. Gubernado, Virg. M. V., 176, 859. Lamina, 
Virg. G. I, 143. Lamnae, Hor. Od. II., ii., 2; Val. Eiacc. L, 123. 
Lardo, Hor. S. II., vi. Manipli, Yirg. M. XL, 870; Silius IV., 
316. Maniplos, Virg. G. L, 400. Maniplis, Virg. JE. XL, 463; 
Val. Flacc. V., 592; Catull. XIX., 2; Virg. G. III., 297. Oraclum, 
Catull. LXIV., 327. Orada, Ov. Met. L, 321. Peridum, Lucret. 
VI., 430; Virg. JE. II., 709, &c. Peridi, Lucret. II., 5; Ov. A. 
A. II., 247, &c. Periclo, Lucret. L, 581; Prop. L xv., 3, &c. 
Perida, Lucret. II L, 776; Hor. S. L, ii., 40, &c. Peridis, Lucret. 
L, 60; Virg. M. II., 751, &c. PueMae, Hor. Od. L, xxxvi., 8. 
Saedum, Catull. XLIIL, 8. Saedi, Catull. XIV., 23; Ov. Met. 
YIII., 97, &c. Saedo, Virg. E. IV., 52. Saeda, Lucret. L, 21; 
Yirg. E. IV., 46, &c. Saedorum, Catull. LXIV., 22; Virg. E. IV., 
5. Saedis, Catull. LXV1IL, 43; Virg. M. VIIL, 508; Ov. Amor. 
II., vi., 36. Soldum, Hor. S. II., v., 65. Soldo, Hor. S. L, ii., 113. 
Spectadum, Prop. IV., viii., 21, 56. Spidorum, Lucret. III., 199.t 
Unversum, Lucret. IV., 263. Valdius, Hor. JEp. L, ix., 6; A. P. 
321. Vindum, Lucret. III., 598. Vindo, Virg. JE. IV., 16; VIIL, 
203; Ov. Met. IX., 549 ; XL, 252. Vinda, vincUs, passim. 

Calfacienda, Ov. A. A. II., 214. Incalfacit, Ov. Met. XV., 735; 
Fast. IV., 919. Recalfecit, Ov. Met. VIIL, 444. Repostum, Hor. 
Epod. IX., 1. Reposto, Virg. M. XL, 149. Reposta, Lucret. L, 36; 
III., 347. Repostae, Virg. G. III., 527. Repostos, Virg. M. VI., 
655. Posta, Lucret. L, 1058, &c. Posto, Lucret. III., 884. Com- 
postus,~Virg. 1&. L, 249. Disposta, Lucret. L, 47 ; II. , 644 Exposta, 
Virg. JE. X, 694. Imposta, Lucret. V., 544; Virg. JE. IX., 716; 
Prop. IV., ii., 29. Opposta, Lucret. IV., 151. Praeposta, Lucret 
VI., 998. Supposta, Virg. JE. VI., 24. Coplata, Lucret. VI., 1 087 
Porgebat, Silius IX., 458. Porgit, Stat. S. II., i., 205. Porgi, Stat. 
Theb. VIIL, 755. Porge, Auson. Eidyl. IV., 37. Surpere, Lucret. 
II., 314. Surpuit, Plaut. Capt. Prol. 8; III., v., 102; V., iv., 

Compounds of lacio sometimes drop the first i. 

Thus, for dbiicit, dbiid, we find abicit, abici. 

adiicitj adiici, ddicit, ddici. 

elicit, eicit (dissyl.) 

iniicit, micit. 

obiicis, obiicit, obicis, obwit. 

reiicit, reiice, TMcik, reice (dissyl.) 

subiicitj subiici, subwitj subici. 



It is doubtful, however, whether we ought to consider this, 
strictly speaking, a poetical license. It would appear that adicio y 
conicio, coicio, were ancient forms. See Parei Lex. Grit. Aul. G-ell. 
xvi., c. 7. Subicio, subicit, subiciunt, frequently occur in good 
MSS. of prose authors. See ISToris. in Cenotaph. Pis. Dissert. IV. ? 
c. 4. Aulus Gellius in the passage quoted above, blames Laberius 
for using coicior, on the ground that it was "obsoletum aut ex 
sordidiore usu vulgi depromptum." 

It may be remarked, moreover, that with the exception of reice 
in Virgil, and a doubtful abici in Ovid, none of the examples 
quoted below are from writers in the Augustan age. 


Turpe putas abici, quia sit miserandus, amicum. 1 0. E. P. IL, iii., 37. 
Hunc abicit saeva dignum veraque Charybdi I. S. XV., 17. 
iNil adicit penso Lachesis, fusosque sororum. M. IV., liv., 9. 
Si quid nostra tuis adicit vexatio rebus. 2 M. X. Ixxxii., 1. 
Sidera proclamatque adici cervicibus Atlas, 8. T. VII., 4. 
Nee radicitus e vita se tollit et eicit. L. III., 890. 
Eicit enim sulcum recta regione viaque. L. IV., 1268. 
Murice suspirans inicit velamina et auro. S. X,, 571. 
Cur obicis Magno tumulum, manesque vagantes. L. P. VIII. , 796. 
Pompeiumque deis obicit } quam pauca Catonis. L. P. IX., 188. 

Cur annos obicis ? pugnae cur arguor impar 1 G. IV, Cons. Hon., 

Tityre pascentes a flumine reice capellas. F. E. III., 96. 

Tela manu reicitque canes in vulnus hiantes. 8. T. IV., 574. 
Corporibus struitur, m c^que cadavera fumans. S. VIII., 671. 
lungentum fata, et subici iubet ocius ignes. S. XIII., 298. 
His acuit stimulis, subicitcpie haud niollia dicta. S. I., 113. 


There are a few words, chiefly proper names, which many poets, 
from the nature of their theme, were obliged to use, but which 

L The common reading is abigi; but it is a conjecture of Heinsius confessedly against 
the authority of the MSS. 

2 So adicit, Silius XVII., 529. See notes in edd. of Drakenborch and Euperti, 
on L, 113, and VIIL, 669. 


could not be transformed, so as to suit their purpose, by any of the 
above devices. Thus, the first syllable in Priamm, Priameius, Pria- 
yrieis, "Arabs, "Arabus, is short, and therefore ought to be short in 
Priamides, Arabia; but rather than forego the use of these words 
in Dactylic verse, the Romans followed the example of the Greeks, 
and lengthened the first syllable. 

In like manner we have Siculus, but Slcelides, and therefore Sicelis. 

Along with these, Italia, from ^Italus, is usually classed, but 
erroneously ; for we find in the best writers I talus, with the first 
syllable sometimes long, and sometimes short : and so the Greeks 

said, "IraAoc, or "IraXoc. ~ Italia, Italides, "Italis, have, I believe, 
the first uniformly long. 

In imitation of the Greeks, also, the Latins make the first in 
"Asia, the substantive, short, but lengthen it in the adjectives 
"Asius and ~Asis t 

So also, Macedo, Macedonia, from the double forms, MafceSwv, 
MaKowa, and Ma/crjwv, MafcrjSovm. 

In the same way we can explain the apparent anomaly in the 
quantity of Clones, * Ionia, Clonus, y lonis, ^lonicus, ^Idniacus, and 
~Ionius. In the Greek words, after which the first six of the above 
are formed, the second letter is w ; but in the last, o : 

" Nota tamen, si de gente Graeca sermo est, semper hoc nomen 
scribi per to : sed si de mari lonio, semper per ^OfiiKgov." Lamm. 
Lex. Pind. voc. Iwv. 

The form lovtoc or lomus, being adopted, the first syllable was 
necessarily lengthened in Dactylic verse. 

So, also, we must account for the variations in Swdnus, Swanus* 
Sicamus, Slcama, Slcanis; for we find in Greek, Sucavwv and 

Sicilia does not, as far as I recollect, occur in any good metrical 
authority: it is found in Plautus; but in a position which decides 
nothing with regard to the quantity of the first syllable : 

Totam Siciliam devoraturum insulam. Plant. Rud. II., vi., 59. 


H fcev yriOqGai IIpTajUoc, Tlpta/moio TE TratSec- Horn. A. 225. 
Qv elSov, HOOV tv irvXaiffi H^nafjii(ji. Eurip. 0. 1488. 
Kai jSaAe IlptajMtSao /car acrTT^Sa Traimxre i(Ji]v. Horn. H., 250. 
Hie Priamns, quamquam in media iam morte tenetur. F. JE. 
O felix una ante alias Priameia virgo. F. J. III., 321. [I I., 533. 
Haec tamen audierat ; Priameida viderat ipsam. 0. A . A . II. , 405. 
Prlamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes. F. J. III., 295. 

1 Although we find Slcdnus in Silius Italicus, I do not remember any example in the 
Latin poets of Sicdnus. Virgil has invariably Sicanus, 


v S oX/Bfcrrwy " ApajSaw 7rapaKK\irai ala. Dionys* 927. 
EtXarcu Suptrje TS icat "ApajStrje eparavjjc. 1 Dionys. 925. 
Eoasque domos v Arabum pictosque Gelonos. F. 6r. II., 115. 
Nori ^Arabo noster rore capillus olet. 0. H. XY., 76. 
Et domus intactae te tremit "Arabiae. P. II., x., 16. 
. Ilia neque "Arabium metuit transcendere limen. P. I., xiv., 19. 

yvvri SffccXr? yprjvg TrzXtv, ri pa yepovra. Horn, w., 


H pa rs SlicgXi/crjc 7Tt TTOpff^iSoc IppL^Mrai. Dionys. 80. 
Ast ubi digressum Swulae te admoverit orae. F. -^. III., 410. 
Nunc tibi Sicelides veniunt nova praeda puellae. 
. Quid mild cum Lesbo? Sicelis esse volo. 0. H. XY., 51. 

Nvv S av Trappa\ii}s " Aartrjg ?ropov t^eveTTOi/xt. Dionys. 799. 
8 Idov i^ourr^v ?r " AdtSa veiarov t^voc- | Dionys. 274. 
IP \tijjujt)vi Kaucrrpfou a/^0* joee^pa. Horn. J3., 461. 
Addam nrbes "Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphatem. F. ^. 

[III., 30. 

lam super Europen sublimes et Asida, terras. 0. M. Y., 648. 
lam varias pelagi volucres et quae "Asia circum. 
. Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri. F. G. I., 383. 

y !raXwv vir) ETT ^Tretpoto vzjJLOvrai. Dionys. 77. 
AXXa crot, Aiveta, aroXoc hpog " iraXov r/Sr? = op^tiov i 

[^4^7^. II., v., 61. 

Ave oe Tptva/cpir) 2?fcavwv OOC) a^ oe yetrwy 
IraXti7,^ yaXr]v Sf fioqv ITTL Kvpvog avrzi. Callim. III., 7. 
IraXi w/cuyitopouc a/z^e/caXu^/e KOVLC;. AnthoL II., 165. 
k Oi/S ovap ei/yeveratc 7va)ptjuo^~ IraXt8atC AnthoL II., 195. 

Prodimur atque "Italis longe disiimgimur oris. F. ^2?. I., 252. 
Et saepe Hesperiam saepe Itala regna vocare. F. ^E. III., 


Ibitis Italiam portasque intrare licebit. F. ^E. III., 254. 
"Italiae dominaeque Somae. (Ale. Dec.) H. 0. IY., xiv., 44. 
Excepit lacrymas, Italis ora genis. 0. E. P. II., iii, 384. 
Italides quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla. F. ./ XI., 658. 

1 In Greek Iambics, however, we find "Aoafiia : 

Tg T&IX^I TW ^ 

" T 

Eurlp. Bacch. 15. 


MctKriSoviov 7rroX0poy. Dionys. 254. 
ou/c affcoucra MctfcrjSovt KOipavtEcrOai. Callim. IV, 167. 
- diffidit urbium = Portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos. 

[(Choriamb.) H. 0. III., xvi., 13. 

Cum tibi sacrato Macedon serve tur in antro. L. P. VIII., 694. 
Qui clypeo galeaque Macedoniaqne sarissa. 1 0. M. XII., 466. 

Proxima Bithynos, solem quae condit "Idnas. Cl. in U. II., 239. 
Nee Latium norat quae praebet "Ionia dives. 0. F. VI., 175. 
Et quot [Iona\ tulit, vetus et quot Achaia formas. P. II. , xxviii. , 53. 
IdnidesvQ vel Mycenaeae nurus. (Iamb. Trim.) Senec. T., 365. 
Motus doceri gaudet "Idnicos. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., vi., 21. 
Inter "loniacas calathum tenuisse puellas. 0. H. IX., 73. 
Nosse quot lonii veniant ad littora fluctus. F. G. II., 108. 


[ Ai/ Se Trnvctfcpfrj, 2?fcavwv tSo^j ave $& ytircov. Callim. III., 57. 
H\aj^ CLTTO ST/cavtrjc Sevp IXOejjiev, OVK WeXovra. Horn. w. 306. 
Undique conveniunt Teucri mixtique Swani. V. JE. V, 293. 
Swana procumbit pubes, hie Hernica turma. S. X., 313. 
Sicanw praeteiita sinu jacet insula contra. F. JE. III., 692. 
Plurima quae nammas Slcanis Aetna vomit. Ibis. 600. 


Certain words compounded with Re, lengthen the first syllable, 
although Ee is naturally short. 
Thus we find, 

rettgw, retigwne, religwnum, retigwsa. 

reliquiae, retiquiarum, retiqums. 

recidere, recidimus. 



reducit, reducunt, reducere. 

To these must be added the three preterites, reperit, repulit, retulit, 
and the tenses formed from them, repereris, repererit; repuleris, re- 
pulerint; retuleram, retiderat; retuleris, retulerit, &c. 

It may be urged that such words as religio, reliquiae, recidere, 
could not find a place in Dactylic verse, unless the first syllable 
were made long; but although this is true in so far as these words 
are concerned, it will by no means apply to relatus, remotus, reducit, 
&c., which are generally found with the first short; nor will it ex 
plain the quantity of reperit, repulit, retulit, which is invariable. 

Some scholars, following the old grammarians, content themselves 
with doubling the consonant after re, in all cases where that syllable 

1 It is obvious that the adjective Macedomus could not find place in a Dactylic verse. 


is long, and write relligio, relliquiae, redduco, remmotus, &c. ; but 
this, at best, is but an evasion of the difficulty. 

A more plausible explanation is grounded upon the supposition 
that the ancient form of re was red, as it appears in reddo; for it 
cannot be said here that the d is inserted for the sake of euphony, as 
may be urged in regard to such words as redeo, redimo, and the 
like. In this way, the original form ofrefero, recido, removeo, reduco, 
&c., was redfero, redcido, redmoveo, redduco, &c. ; and although the 
d was afterwards dropped, the poets, especially the earlier ones, 
considered themselves entitled to make use of either form, as best 
suited their convenience. 

This may be the true account of the matter in most instances, but 
it certainly does not apply to the preterites, reperti, repulit, retulit, 
which ought always to be written with the consonant doubled, 
repperit, reppulit, rettulit, being in reality contractions for the 
reduplications, repeperit, repepulit, retetulit. This is the account 
given by Priscian (p. 905), with regard to repperit, and it applies 
equally to the two others. 

We have said that the quantity of the first syllable in these is 
invariably long; and such will be found to be the case in all good 
authorities. 1 


Ileligio vetuit segeti praetendere sepem. V. Gr. I., 270. 

Neii populum antiqua sub religione tueri. F JS. II., 188. 

Reliquiae motus vitalis vincere saepe. L. II., 955. 

At neque redder e ad nihilum res posse, neque autem. L. I., 857. 

In quern recidimus quicquid mortale creamur. 0. M. X., 18. 

( Id rursum coeli relatum templa receptant. L. II. , 1001. 
( Eius in ad versa tanto plus parte relatus. L. V., 685. 

( Percipe, nam certe penitus remota, videtur. L. IV., 271. 

( Tarn procul esse magis res quaeque remota videtur. L. IV., 254. 

1 To prevent embarrassment to the young scholar, I may add, that in some editions 
of Catullus, he -will find 

Si reditum retulisset is, aut in tempore longo, et. (7. LXVI., 35. 
But the reading now received by the best editors is, 

Si reditum tetulisset is haud in tempore longo, et. 
He may also find in Ovid, 

Quaeque feros repuli doctis medicatibus ignes. H. XII., 165. 
Corrected by Hcinsius, on good MS. authority, 

Quaeque feros pepull doctis medicatibus ignes. 


Reducit Yen us et reductum daedala tellus. L. L, 229. 
< Mittunt et crebras reducunt naribus auras. L. IV, 994. 
( Aut redit a nobis Aurora diemque reducit. V. G. L, 249. 

Sunt alii quos ipse via sibi reperit usus. F. G. II., 22. 
Pleias, et Oceani spretos pede repulit amnes. F. G. IV., 233. 
Abstulit, et media tellurem repulit unda. 0. Jf. XV., 292. 
Retulit et priscos docuit celebrare Latinos. F. ,/r. V., 598. 
Feroque viso retulit retro pedem. (Iamb. Trim.) Phaed. II., i., 6. 
Retuleris pannum, refer et sine vivat ineptus. H. E. I., xvii., 32. 
For other examples 

Religionum, Lucret. IV., 7. Religiosa, Virg. JE. II., 365. Religio, 
religione passim. Reliquias, Lucret. III., 656; IV., 977; VI., 826. 
Reliquiarum, L, 1102. Reducers, Lucret. V., 1336. Recidere, Lucret. 
L, 1062; V, 281. Recidat, Ov. Met. VI., 212. Recidit, Prop. IV., 
viii., 44; Ov. Her. XIV., 46; B,. A. 611 ; Met. X, 180. 

N.B. Recido must not be confounded with, recido, which has the 
first always short, e. g., Ov. Amor. II., iii., 3 ; Met. XIII., 766. 
Reperit the preterite not to be confounded with reperit the present 
tense, which occurs frequently, e. g. } Prop. III., xxiii., 17; Ov. R. 
A. 95; Virg. G. IV, 443; and so reperitur, Ov. Met. X., 377; 
XV., 795. So reperire, rep&rtus, &c., but repereris } Ov. A. A. II., 
719. Repererit, Catul. LXXIX, 4. 

Retulit passim. Retuleram, Ov. Met. VII., 790. Retulerat, Ov. 
Her. I., 38. Retulerit, Tibull. L, vii., 62; Prop. III., xxiii., 21. 

Repulit passim. Repuleris, Ov. Her. XX., 177. Repulerintj Ov. 
Met. VII., 735; but repellit, repulsus, &c. 


We now proceed to consider another class of poetical licenses, 
namely, Archaisms, or antiquated forms, which were occasionally 
introduced either for convenience or ornament. 

a. Among those employed for convenience, was the old contracted 
dative of the fourth declension in u instead of ui; the latter it 
was manifestly the interest of the writers of Dactylic verse 
to avoid, inasmuch as it presented, in many words, the 
unmanageable combination of a short syllable between two 
long ones. Accordingly, we find amplexu, partu, venatu, versu, 
victu, visUj &c., for amplexui, partui, venatui, versui, victui f 


visui, &c., and also manu for manui, although in this last the 
open form, is equally serviceable with the contracted one. 

5. The open form of the imperfect indicative of the fourth conju 
gation, in many verbs, was inadmissible for the same reason, 
and hence the contracted form, which is common in the 
dramatists and earlier writers, was occasionally introduced, 
as accibant, audibant, largibar, lenibant, mollibat, <fcc., for 
acciebant, audiebant, largiebar, leniebant, molliebat, &c. 

c. We may place among the Archaisms introduced for the sake of 


Genitives of the first declension in dl, as terrdl, frugiferdi, 
aqudl, feral, pictdi, which occur in every page of Lucretius, in whose 
time they may possibly not have been quite obsolete, but auldi, 
aural, pictdi, in Virgil, are certainly Archaisms. 

So also. Achilli, Oronti, Achati, are old genitives from. Achilles, 
Orontes, Achates, and many such are found even in Cicero. To the 
same class belong die for diei,Jide for fidei; lenibunt, the ancient 
future of the fourth conjugation, instead of the modern lenient; siet 
for sit; tetulit, tetulisset, for tulit, tulisset, &c. 

IS or must we omit to mention recepso for recepero, and iusso for 
iussero, the shape under which the future perfect appears so fre 
quently in Plautus and his predecessors. 

Along with these, we ought to rank the ancient form of the 
infinitive passive in ier, which occurs perpetually in the dramatic 
writers, very frequently in Lucretius, and is introduced occasionally 
by the poets of the Augustan age : thus in Catullus we have cita- 
rier, compararier, componier, iungier. In Virgil, farier, immisce- 
rier, accingier, admittier, defendier. In Horace, laudarier, sectarier, 
mercarier, curarier, torquerier, faterier, avellier, labier, spargier. 
In Ovid, scitarier. In Propertius, torquerier, &c. 

d. In the Roman alphabet, the character V discharged the double 

duty of the consonant v and the vowel u. It appears to have 
been anciently considered a vowel in many words in which it 
afterwards acted the part of a consonant, and the poets oc 
casionally employ the open form, especially in the verb solvo 
and its compounds. 

Thus, Lucretius 1 has suemus, su eti, suerit, suerint, suesse, suadent, 
reliquas, reliqub, although ua and ue in these words is almost uni 
formly a single syllable in other poets. Catullus 2 has solult, sola- 
unt, dissolub, evoludm, pervoluent. 

1 L, 55 (302); IV., 370; II., 902; V., 54; IV., 304; V., 910; IV., 1150; 
I., 561; IV., 977. 

* II, 13; LXL, 53; LXVL, 38, 74; XCV., 6. 


Tibullus, 1 dissolu enda, dissoluisse, soliusse. 
Horace," siliiae, suetae, milub. 
Properties/ evolmsse. 

Ovid, 4 dissolu antur, evoluisse, involuisse, exsolmsse, persoliwre, 
persoluenda, miluus. 

Lucan and Silius, Suevos, &c. 

Some prosodians class with these relanguit, in such lines as 

Cum bene pertaesum est animoque relanguit ardor. 0. A . II. , ix., 27. 
Imposito fratri moribunda relanguit ore. 0. M. YI., 291. 

But this is a bad example, for in relanguit, the perfect tense of 
relanguesco, the vowels u and i always form separate syllables. 


a. 5 "Nee tamen hanc possis oculorum subdere visu. L. Y., 102. 
Namque aliae victu invigilant, et foedere pacto. F 6r. IY., 158. 
Alternae facilis cedere lympha manu. P. I., xi., 12. 

&. 8 Palmas, horrifereis accibant vocibus Orcum. L. Y., 994. 
Audibant eadem haec leniter et leviter. C. LXXXIY., 8. 
Lenibat dictis aniinum, lacry masque ciebat. V. ^E. YI., 46. 
Yellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu. 0. M. YI., 21. 

c. Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas. F. G. I., 208. 
Constantis iuvenem fide (so the best MSS.) H. 0. III., vii, 4. 
Prodiderit commissa^e, sponsumve negarit. 7 H. S. L, iii., 9o 
Lenibunt tacito vulnera nostra situ. P. III., xxi., 32. 
Yivere cum sensu, nulla quom in parte siet, mens. L. III., 102. 
Animo aestuante rursum reditum ad vada tetulit. C. LXIII., 47* 

1 L, vii., 2, 40; X., 62; IV., v., 16. 

2 Epod. XIII., 2 ; S. L, viii, 17; Epod. XVL. 32. 

3 L, vii, 16. 

4 Trist. IV., viii., 18; II. Her. IX., 86; Fast. IV., 534; V., 330; Epic. 370; 
Fast III., 794, 808. 

5 So Metu, Virg. M. L, 257. Adspectu, VI., 465. Venatu, VII., 747; IX., 605. 
Amplexu, VI., 698. Concubitu, G. IV., 198. Curru, E. V., 29. Manu, Prop. II., i., 
C6. Partu, I., xiii., 30. Ampkxu, II., xxvi., 49. 


1 So Qu&of, Lucret. I., 94. Scibat, V., 932. Hauribcmt, V. t 1323. Poenibat, VI., 
1239. Scibant, Catull. LXVIU.. 85. Custodibant, LXIV., 320. Nutribat, Virg. JE. 

XI., 572. Nutribant, VII., 4$0. Vestibat, VIII., 160. Redimibat, X., 538. Largibar, 
Prop. L, iii, 25. Operibat, III., xiii., 35. Audibam, Ov. Her. XIV., 36. Feribant* 
Fast. IV., 795. Molibar, Met. II., 582. 
7 SQ.fide genitive, Ov. Met. VII., 727. 


Si reditum tetulisset is hand in tempore loiigo et. C. LXYL, 35. 
... Si nefaria scripta = Sexti recepso ...... C. XLIV., 19. 

Caetera, quamsso, nianusmecum inferat arma. 1 V. ^E. XL, 467. 

d. Appellare suemus et haec eadem usurpare. L. I., 55. 

Atque alios alii inrident Veneremque suadent. L. IV., 1153. 
Numquam id reliquo 2 reparari tempore posset. L. I., 561. 
Pristina vota novo munere dissoluo. C. LXYI., 38. 
Condita quiii veri pectoris evoluam. C. LXYL, 74. 
Pectora laetitia dissoliienda dedit. T. I., vii., 40. 
Sit satis ornatus dissolmsse comae. T. I., x., 62. 

Nivesque deducunt lovem; nunc mare mine siluae. (Elegiam.) 

[H. E. XIII., 2. 

Postumio Laenas persoluere mini. 0. F. V., 330. 

"We may conclude this part of the subject, by noticing three dif 
ferent kinds of contraction, many of which, although not peculiar 
to the poets, and seldom absolutely necessary, yet occur much more 
frequently in their writings than in prose. 

1. The first of these is the contraction of the genitive plural in 
orum and arum into um, the r being dropped, and the two vowels 
thrown into one. Thus we constantly find deum, divum, Argivum, 
Danaunij Pelasgum, numerurn, superum, virtim, &c. ; for deorum, 
divorum, &c. ; and also agricoMm, caelicoMm, Aeneadum, Dardani- 
dwiij Graiugenum, &c. ; for agricolarum, caelicolarum, Aeneadarum, 
Dardanidarum, Graiugenwrum, &c. 3 

2. The second is the very common contraction, by which v is 
dropped in the preterite, and the tenses derived from it, and the 
vowels which it separates thrown together. This, however, does 

1 So iusso, Silius VII., 175. 

2 Many editors write relicuo, relicuas, here and in Lucret. IV., 977. 
So also, 

Inter relicuas merces atque opsonia. Phaedr. III., iv., 2. 

And it will be observed, that when this form is employed in Dactylic verse, the first 
syllable of reliqiius or relicuus is necessarily lengthened, although naturally short. 

3 A writer in the Quarterly Review (vol. viii., p. 403, Dec., 1812), says, that this 
contraction is admitted in masculines only, objecting to the use of dirum, telum, con- 
silium. That it is sometimes employed in genitives which are feminine in form, 
appears from agricolwn (Lucret. IV., 590), caelicolum (Catull. LXVIIL, 138), 
besides Dardanidum, Graiugenum, &c., in Virgil. As to neuters, we find in verse, 
alium (Lucret. L, 882 ; II., 911 ; but the reading is disputed in both, and cymbalum % 
^Catull. LXIII. 21). In prose, Cicero has takntum (Rab. Post. 8), oppidum, &c. 


not take place in all the persons without distinction ; thus, the v is 
never dropped in the first persons singular and plural of the pre 
terite in avi, and scarcely in the third singular. 1 The following are 
specimens of the cases which occur most frequently : 

Preterite in avi. 

Amasti, servastis, rogarunt, peccaram, narraras, optarat, nuda- 
rant, pararim, prdbaris, tentarit, violarint, captassem, intrasses, 
levasset, pertolerassent, peccaro, vocasse. 

Preterite in em. 

Flesti, flerunt, consueras, implerat, consuerant, impleris, insuerit, 
suerint (L. IV., 304), implessem, implesset, adolesse, cresse (L. III., 
683), concresse (0. M. YIL, 416). 

Preterites in ivi. 

Impedii, perii, petisti, peristi (tristi, C. LXVI., 30), impediit, 
transiit, audistis, quaesierunt, petiere, rediere, quaesieram, transie- 
ram, audieras, sopierat, exierat, mollierant, prodierant, desierim, 
(contriris, O. M. F., 89), audieris, scierit, exierit, quierint, ierint, 
Jinissem, perissem, scisses, perisses, nequisset, perisset, sepelissent, issent, 
saevisse, petiisse, petisse, adiisse, adisse, periisse, perisse, &c. 

Preterite in ovi. 

Commorunt, admoram, promorat, remorant, commorit, admorint, 
summosses, promosset, nosti, nostis, norunt, noram, noras, norat, 
norant, norim, noris, norit, norint, nossem, nosses, nosset, nossent, 

3. The third contraction which we shall mention is found so often 
in the comic writers, that we may suppose that it was common in 
ordinary conversation. It consists in throwing out the syllable is, 
from the middle of the second persons singular and plural of the 
preterite, and from various parts of the tenses derived from the pre 
terite. Thus, dixti for dixisti, accesstis for accessistis, extinxem for 
extinxissem, vixet for mxisset, erepsemus for erepsissemus, abstraxe 
for abstraxisse, &c. The following examples, selected from Lucre 
tius, Catullus, Yirgil, Tibullus, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid, will 
enable the student to understand any similar forms which he may 
encounter in the course of his reading : 

Comumsti, Prop. L, iii., 37. Direxti, Yirg. JE. VI., 57. Dixti, 
Ov. Her. XL, 59. Duxti, Catull. XCL, 9; Prop. I., iii., 27. 

1 Unless Irritdt, disturbdt, Lucret. I., 71 ; VI., 586, are for irritavit and disturbavit $ 
9&H petit, it, in Virg. M. IX., 9, 418, toipetivit, wit, as some suppose. 


Evasti, Hor. S. II., vii., 68. Extinxti, Yirg. -^E. IY., 682. Misti, 
Catull. XIY., 14. Percusti, Hor. S. II., iii., 273. Promisti, Catull. 
CX. r 3. Subrepsti, Catull. LXXYIL, 3. Extinxem, Yirg. M. IY., 
606. Confluxet, Lucret. L, 986. Vixet, Yirg. JE. XI., 118, 
Erepsemus, Hor. S. L, v., 79. Abstraxe, Lucret. III., 650. (Cesse, 
Lucret. L, 1104.) (Consumse, Lucret. I., 334.) Divisse, H. S. II., 
iii., 169. Protraxe, Lucret. Y., 1158. Promisse, Catull. CX., 5. 
(Recesse, Lucret. III., 69.) Surrexe, Hor. S. I., ix., 73. 

We now proceed to explain tlie various terms, usually called 
Grammatical Figures; and we shall endeavour to point out the 
cases in which these words, as they are commonly employed, tend 
to mislead the student. 

1 . SynaloepJia. 1 The elision of a vowel or diphthong, at the end 
of one word, before a vowel or diphthong, at the beginning of the 
word following. (See above, p. 110.) Among the ancient gram 
marians, Quintil. I., c. 5; IX., c. 4. Charis., p. 249. Diomed., 
p. 437. Donat. de Sch., p. 1772. 

2. Ecthlipsis? The elision of m, and the vowel preceding it, at 
the end of a word, before a vowel or diphthong, at the beginning of 
the word following. (See above, p. 110.) Charis., p. 249. Diomed., 
p. 436. Donat. de Sch., p. 1772. 

3. Episynaloepha? The elision of a vowel in the middle of a 
word, before another vowel, as ant* ire, semermis, and the like. 
(See above, p. 118, k.) Charis., p. 249. Diomed., p. 437. 

4. Synaeresis* The contraction of two vowels into one, when 
neither of them is absorbed by the other, a&ferrei, alveo. (See 
above, p. 118, a.) Quintil. L, c. 5., tells us, the Latin term for 
Synaeresis and Synaloepha was Complexio. Donat. de Sch., p. 
1772. - - 

5. Synizesis. 5 The same as Synaeresis. See Servius on Yirg. J>. 
L, 702. 

6. Synecphonesis The same as the two former. See Yictorin., 
p. 2510. 

7. Syncope. 1 Dropping a letter or syllable out of a word, as in 

, a besmearing a mixing together; from avv and d~Ai$M, I anoint 

with fat or oil. 

a pressing out a compression; from I* and $A//3<y, I squeeze. 
i, from sKt-avy-di hsiQu. 

4 Svvcttasffis, a drawing together a contraction ; from aw and /g0, I take t 

5 ^vytgwts, a sitting, falling, or sinking together; from GVV and /*, I cause to 
sit, or seat myself. 

3 2t>j/g*6>i/jj<r/f, the act of pronouncing (two vowels) jointly; from avv-itt,- 
, I utter a sound. 

7, a cutting short; from <7fy-xoarry, I cut. 


vinclum, divum, orasse, extinxem, &c. (See above, p. 139.) Cicero, 
Orat. c. 45, et seq. Charis., p. 248. Diomed., p. 436. 

8. Diaeresis 1 is defined to be " the dividing of one syllable into 
two." But it is a mistake to suppose that the poets ever assumed 
the power of stretching out words, although they sometimes 
contracted them. The examples usually quoted of this " figure" are 
aulal for aulae, dissoluenda for dissolvenda, and the like. But we 
have already shown (p. 136, d) that these, and all similar forms, 
were not invented and introduced by the poets, but are Archaisms, 
which were adopted by them for the sake of convenience or 

To Diaeresis, writers upon Prosody generally refer the double 
form, under which certain words appear in poetry. Thus we find 
elegeia, Cythereia, Pelopelus, of five syllables, and elegeia, CytherZia, 
PelopciuSj 2 of four; Pleiades a quadrisyllable, and Pleiades a tri 
syllable; Pleias a trisyllable, and Pleias a dissyllable; and so on. 
It will be found, however, that this apparent irregularity is by no 
means the result of caprice. These are all Greek words, and both 
forms are found in the language from which they were transplanted 
into Latin. The varietv is caused in the above, and most other 

* 9 

examples, by the circumstance that the Attic dialect uses the 
diphthong a, where the Ionic has the dissyllabic combination rji. 
The older Greeks and lonians would have said sAsyi/ti?, KvOzpiiir], 
rhXo/rr/foc, nXi]fa, IlX?/mc; while the Athenians chose the 
contracted eXeyaa, Kt^epaa, DeXoTraoc, IlXaaSfe, IlXaa. 


Plebilis, indignos, Elegeia, solve capillos. 0. A. III., ix., 3. 
Quas inter vultu petulans elegeia propinquat. S. S. I., ii., 7. 
Invocat Hippomenes, CytJiereia, comprecor, ausis. 0. M. X., 640. 
Parce metu, Cythervia; manent immota tuorum. V. JE. I., 257. 
Quid quod avus nobis idem Pelopems Atreus ? 0. II. VIII. , 27. 
Eumenidum vidit vultus Pelopaus Orestes. L. P. VII., 778. 

a separation a taking or drawing asunder: from /os and 
2 Or as they are often, though inaccurately written in this case, elegia, Cytherea, 
Pelopeus, so also, Plias and Pliades. The MSS., it is true, vary very much in these 
and similar words ; but we ought clearly to be guided by the Greek orthography. 
But whether we write ei, or simply i, the quantity of the syllable is always long. In, 
some editions of Statius, indeed, we have 

Haec per et Aegaeas Hyadas, PlwdumquQ nivosum. S. 8. L, iii,, 95. 
But the reading now recognized is 

Haec per et Aegaeas hyernes Hyadumque nivosum. 


Hie pro supposita virgo Pelopeia cerva. 0. T. IY V iv., 67. 
Infamis stupro stat Pelopeia domus. P. Ill,, xix. 3 20. 
PUladum spisso cur coit imbre chorus. P. III., v., 36. 
Pleiades incipiunt humeros relevare paternos. 0. F. IY. ; 169. 
Pleias enixa est, letoque det imperat Argum. 0. M. 1., 670. 
Pl&as, et Oceani spretas pede repulit amnes. V. G. IV., 233. 
In like manner we find 

Plioebeius (^ot/Sr^oc) and Phoebaus, or Phoebeus (OotjSaoc). & fr, 

[0. M. II., 545; VII., 365. 

Thesems (0if<rfleoc) an d Theseius, or Theseus (Grjcraoc). e. ^., 

- [0. Jf. XV., 492. ^. III., 460. 

, Tliredus (GprjKioe), and Thrdcius (0pa/ctoc) 
., 0. 4. 4. II., 431. 4. I., xiv., 21. IT. XL, 92. 

Pegaseius (Drj yacrrjtoc) and Pegaseus (fliiycuno?). e. p ., P. A^. 

[Pro?. 14. P. II., xxx., 3. 

Of the last two, the former does not occur in the Latin poets, 
except in the passage referred to in Persius 

Troms (Tponoe) and Trous (Tpwoe). e. g., V. M I, 119. 0. M. 

[XII, 73. 

Trous, however, occurs only in the last quoted line, and the 
reading is doubtful. 

If we include feminine forms, the varieties are more numerous. 
Thus, from Pelops (IlsAoi//) we have Pelopeius (quinquesy liable), 
Pelopeius or Pelopeus, Pelopms, Pelopeias (quinquesyllable), and Pelo- 
peis; of these Pelopms is found in Seneca only (Agam. VIL, 165), 
but the Greek JleAoTnoe occurs in the Ion of Euripides (1591). 1 

The Romans had probably direct authority in the Greek writers 

1 The two following do not, properly speaking, belong to the same class ; but as 
they are met with very often, and under different forms, it may not be improper to 
notice them, 

Nate (Nj?/<r), and Ndias (Natag). Thus 

Nats, O, M. IVe, 49. Naida, T. III., vi., 57. Ndi, P. II. , xxxii., 40. Nalde, 
O. A. A. I., 732, NaidSs, 0. M. II., 325. Ndidas, 0. M. VI., 453. But Nmds, 
O. M. I., 691, Naiades, 0. M. XIV., 328. NaXadum, 0. M. IV Jy 304; H. 0. III., 
xxv., 14. 

Nereis (Nqgipc), and Nereis (N^^g/s 1 ). Thus 

Nereis, T, I., v., 45. Nereida, O. M. XL, 380. Nereid^ 0. M. XII., 93. 
Nereides, O. M. XIII., 899. But JVerefe, 0, M. XL, 259. Nerel, 0. M. XIII., 
858. Nereides, 0. M. XIV., 264. Nereidum, H. 0. III., xxviii., 10. (See above., 
p. 25.) 


for every variety of this kind which, they exhibit, for we can 
scarcely produce any instance of a word purely Latin which takes 
the double shape. I find two quoted by Doctor Carey in his 
Prosody, p. 181. The first he adduces is Veius&nd Veins 

Yincere turn Veios posse laboris erat. P. IY., x., 24. 
Forte super portae dux Veins adstitit arcem. P. IY., x,, 31. 

But Veios and Veins in these lines are distinct words, not 
different forms of the same word. Veios is the regular accusative 
plural of the substantive Veii, the name of the town, while Veins 
(which would be more properly written Veiins), is the adjective- 
formed from Veii, and is equivalent to Veiens, which occurs in the- 
same elegy. The second is Aquileia and Aquileia 

Hie Aquileia decens celsis caput inserit astris. Avienus. 
ISTec non cum Yenetis Aquileia perfurit armis. S. YIII., 606. 

But the reading in Silius is corrupt, Ruperti, supported by almost 
all die MSS., has restored 

~NeG non cum Yenetis Aquileia superfluit armis. 

We have, it is true, Tiber eia* but never Tibereia; Pompelus is 
always a trisyllable; so is Gains, till we get down to the brazen age, 
when it is made a dissyllable. 

Languentem CaZum moriturum dixerat olim. Aus. Ep. LXXY., 1. 

(And twice again in the same epigram), and this will be found to 
hold good generally. 

Certain variations which take place with regard to the number 
of syllables in the different cases of proper names ending in ens, 
such as Perseus, Peleus, Theseus, Prometheus, P/iineus, &c., where 
the Latin ens represents the Greek svz, are sometimes referred to 

1 1 know not why Avienus, who lived in the age of the younger Theodosius, has 
been selected as an authority, when a classical writer could have been found to answer 
the purpose. 

Et tu Ledaeo felix Aquileia Timavo. Mart. Ep. IV., xxv., 5. 

Ausonius, too, who is better than Avienus, ranks it in the catalogue of illus 
trious cities 

Nona inter claras Aquileia cieberis urbes. Aus. Nob. Urb. VII., 2. 

That the student may form some idea of the value of Avienus as a metrical authority, 
we shall give a line or two from his worthless translation of a dull original- 

Usque in saxosi Pachyni iuga, plurimus inde. 
Sestos atque Abydos parvo sale discernuntur. 

2 8. 8. lit, iii, 66. 


Diaeresis, and erroneous statements are so common with regard to 
these words, that it will be proper to state briefly, in this place, the 
practice of the best authorities. 

They are declined as follows, some cases admitting both the 
Greek and the Latin form : 

Nom. Orpheus. 

Gen. Orphei, vel Orpheos. 

Dat. Orpheo, vel Orphei. 

Ace. Orphea. 

Voc. Orpheu. 

Ablat. Orpheo. 

With regard to these, observe, 

1. In the nominative, eus must uniformly be pronounced as one 

2. In the genitive, el is usually one syllable, since it was more 
convenient under that shape in Dactylic verse, but in lyric strains, 
ei may form two syllables. 

eos is generally, perhaps always, to be scanned as two short 

3. eo in the dative and ablative, is commonly pronounced as one 
syllable, but may be taken as two in lyrics. 

ei in the dative is rare, but it is probable that it was always a 

4. In the accusative, ea is sometimes pronounced as one long 
syllable, sometimes as two short syllables, and sometimes, though 
more rarely, as a long and short eft, in which last case it represents 
the Ionic rja. 

5. In the vocative, eu is uniformly a monosyllable. 

6. Care must be taken to distinguish the substantives, Theseus 
(GrjcTSuc), Prometheus (Ilpo/irj&vg), Lynceus (AvjKtvc;), &c., from 
the adjectives formed from them, Theseus (O^craoc), Prometheus 
(JlpojmtOeioci)) Lynceus (Auyfcaoc), &c., and also from those sub 
stantives which end in eus in Latin, but in ao in Greek, as 
Alpheus ( AA^aoe), Peneus 


Magna luis commissa, tibi has miserabilis Orpheus. V. G. IV., 454. 
Surgimus, et primus, quae te vecordia Theseus. 0. M. XII., 227. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas. (Ale. Hendec.) II. 0. III., 

[iv., 53. 

Caucasiasque refert volucres furtunique Promethel. V. E. VI., 42. 
Aversur^que diem inensis furialibus Atrei. 0. A. III., xii., 39. 


Stellis lioiiorem tectaque Penthei. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. II., xix., 
Impia nee poena Pentheos umbra vacet. 0. T. V, iii., 40. 
Nycteos Antiopen accubuisse Lyco. P. III., xv., 14. 
Inarime lovis imperio imposta Typhoeo. V. JE. IX., 716. 
Degeneras, scelus est pietas in coniuge Tereo. 0. M. VI., 635. 
Nbn sic Haemonio Salmonida mixtus Enipeo. P. I., xiii., 21. 
Quod si Tlireicio blandius OrpJieo. (Choriamb.) H. 0. I., xxiv., 13. 
OrpJiei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. V. E. IV., 57. 
Inferias Orpliei Lethaea papavera mittes. V. G. IV., 545. 
Inferias Orpliei inittit lucumque revisit. V. G. IV., 553. 
Nee tantum Ilhodope mirantur et Ismarus Orplioa. V. E. VI., 30. 
!N"ec quo centimanum deiecerat igne Typhoea. 0. M. III., 303. 
Quas quoties pronat spirare Typlwed credas. 0. F. I., 573. 
Orphed sylvae. (Adonic.) II. 0. I., xii., 8. 

Narrat pene datum Peled Tartaro. (Ckoriambic.) H. 0. III., vii., 


Ilioned petit dextra, laevaque Serestum. V. SE. I., 611. 
Idomened ducem desertaque litora Cretae. V. ^E. III., 122. 
Ore fugant maculas, Haley oned vocant. 0. M. F., 78. 
Ilia, quis et me, inquit, miseram, et te perdidit, Orpheu. V. G. IV., 494. 

Discernunt avidij non ego te candide Bassareu. (Choriambic.) 

[H. 0. I., xviii., 11. 

Gnossia, Theseae quondam periuria linguae. T. III., vi., 39. 
Lecta Prometheis dividit lierba iugis. P. I., xii., 10. 
Tendit, et Orpliea nequicquam voce vocatur. 0. M. X., 3. 
Graia Caphaream 1 currere puppis aquam. 0. T. V, vii., 36. 
Quo properas Arethusal suis Alpheus ab uiidis. 0. M. V v 599. 
Confestim Peneos adest, viridantia Tempe. C. LXIV, 285. 


The assertion that eus in the nominative of these words is 
uniformly a monosyllable, is sometimes disputed. 

We find Capharea saxa } which arises from a double form of the adjective in 



In the Lexicon of Eacciolati, two examples are given of Orpheus, 
from Virg. Culex, 116, 268, in the fifth foot of an Hexameter. 
These are, however, worthless, both on account of the poem in 
which they occur, and also, because in the first, many MSS. and 
old editions give Horridus instead of Orpheus, while the second is 
by all commentators pronounced to be hopelessly corrupt. 

Doctor Carey, in his Prosody, quotes two other instances 

1. Et finitur in Andromeda quam Perseus armis. Man. I., 357. 

But Bentley justly considers the whole of the latter part of this 
line, and the first half of the next, spurious, while Scaliger reads 
" Perseos armus." 

2. Ut albulus columbus aut Adoneus. (Iamb. Trim.) C. XXIX., 9. 

On which I have two remarks 

1. The word Adoneus is not in any MS., but is a conjectural 
emendation by Statius. 

2. Even if we admit Adoneus, it proves nothing, since it must be 
considered as purely a Latin word, no such form as ASwvsvg 
being found in the Greek poets, who always use ASwytc- 

A far better emendation of the line is that of Muretus and 

Ut albulus columbulus Dioneus. 

Much confusion has arisen with regard to the words Achilles 
and Ulysses, in consequence of their appearing under a double form. 
Erom the Latin nominative Achilles, we have A chillis, A chilli, 
Achillem, Achille, and so for Ulysses. 

But we have also Achillei and Ulyssei in the genitive from the 
nominatives Achilleus, Ulysseus, 1 which represent the Greek A^iX- 
AU, OtK7eru<; , and also Achillea in the accusative. 2 According 
to the observations made above, Achillei and Ulyssei will be 
trisyllables in Dactylic verse, and quadrisyllables in Lyrics, and 
accordingly we find 

( Eoedavitque comas et, tanti corpus Achillei. P. II., ix.. 13. 
( Matronisque Phryguni classis Achillei. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1., xv., 34. 

We read in Catullus, LY., 13, Hercuki, as the genitive of Hercules 
Sed te iam ferre Herculei labos est. 

The true reading is probably Herculi. 

We noticed above, p. 45, the mistake of Vossius, arising from an erroneous 
reading, in supposing that Achille was the vocative in Prop. IV., xi., 40. We find 
Achille as the vocative in Ov. Met. XII., 608 ; XIII., 130 ; but in these and similar 
passages, Achilleu ought to be substituted. 


( Digni, reniigium vitiosum Itliacensis Ulyss&l. H. E. I., vi., 63. 
< !N"eritiasque domos, regnum fallacis Ulyssei. 0. M. XIII., 712. 
( Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulyssei. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 1., vi., 7. 

So Achillei, Hor. Epod. XVII., 14. Ulyssei, Hor. Ep. I., vii., 
40; Ov. Met. XIV., 159, 671. Ulyssei, Hor. Epod. XVL, 62; 
XVII, 16. 

Some editors, in all passages where these words occur as 
trisyllables, write A chilli, Ulyxi, wKich are old forms of the 
genitives A chillis, Ulixis. (See Appendix on the Declensions.) 
We find A chilled in 

Terribilem iusto transegit Achillea ferro. L. P. X., 523. 

9. Systole 1 is denned to be " the shortening of a syllable which, 
from its natural quantity, or from position, ought to be long." 
Charis., p. 249 ; Diomed., p. 437. 

10. Diastole* or Ectasis* is denned to be " the lengthening of a 
syllable naturally short." Charis., p. 249 ; Diomed., p. 436; Servius 
on Virgil, M. X., 473. ^ 

By the manner in which grammarians frequently use these terms, 
we might be led to imagine that the poets could lengthen or shorten 
syllables according to the suggestions of their own caprice. But if 
this were admitted, it is manifest that there would at once be an 
end to prosody that no certain rules could ever be established 
respecting quantity. The principles upon which some apparent 
anomalies may be explained, have been already developed in our 
remarks upon Poetical Licenses, page 116. But the extreme caution 
which the ancients observed in this respect, and the close restrictions 
by which they were confined, are made sufficiently evident by a 
passage in Ovid, and another in Martial, which are appropriately 
introduced by the authors of the Port Royal Latin Grammar, in 
support of some very sensible remarks on this subject contained in 
that work. In the first of these, 4 Ovid, writing to Tutieanus, 
makes an apology for not having said anything in his praise, 
because the word Tutieanus, which has the second vowel short 
between two long, cannot have a place in the verse ; in the second, 5 
Martial excuses himself for not having inserted the word Earinus, 
because it consists of four short. To these they might have added 

j, a drawing together from aw and are^ha, I send ; used in nautical 
phraseology in the sense of / take in sail. 

2 A/ffroX>7, a separation a drawing out; from B/ce and art h hu. For other 
grammatical meanings of o;a<TToAj?, see Diomed., p. 430, and Donat. on Terence, 
Eun. III., iii., 9. 

, a stretching out; from ix, and retvcj, I stretch. 

4 K P. IV., xii.,1. 6 IX., 12. 


the expression of Horace, who, when describing his journey from 
Home to Brundusium, in the enumeration of towns through which 
they passed, omits Equotuticum or Equotutium, with the notice 

Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non est. II. S. I., v., 87. 

We shall now proceed to mention the different forms which are 
commonly referred to Systole and Diastole. 

a. Under Systole we find ranked the shortening of the penultimate 
syllable, in the third person plural of preterites, such as 
Excierunt, Dederunt, Tulerunt, Steterunt, &c. The origin of 
the double quantity in these cases is still a matter of contro 
versy, and the reading of very many of the passages in which 
they occur is disputed; but we have already discussed this 
subject so fully, that it is unnecessary to dwell upon it here. 

~b. To Systole many refer such words as Orion, Eous, in which one 
of the syllables is sometimes long and sometimes short ; but we 
have pointed out that this arises from a double form in the 
original Greek, in these and all similar instances. 

c. To Systole also is assigned the quantity of dperio, omitto, Jwdie, 1 

and the like, which being, it is said, compounded of ad-pario, 
ob-mitto, hoc-die , &c., ought to have the first long. Without 
stopping to discuss the accuracy of the derivation in the first 
of these, it is sufficient to observe, that the quantity of the 
above and similar words is invariable, and must therefore have 
been the result of the ordinary pronunciation, and not of 
poetical license. 

The same may be said of Videri* for Videsne, where we 
might have expected the final syllable to be long, since it is 
long in videSj but it is uniformly short in viden , as well as in 
satin , ain, in which the s is elided after a short vowel. 
The reason probably is, that these forms were always used in 
sharp, short interrogations, pronounced so rapidly that the 
voice was not permitted to pause tipon any of the syllables. 

d. Under Systole are placed those compounds of lacio which drop 

the i. (See above, p. 129.) 

e. To Diastole, again, is attributed the lengthening of the first 

syllable in "Italia, Prlamides, ~ Arabia, &c., from "I talus, 

1 So multimodis and diuturnus, which are falsely supposed to be compounds of 
rmtltis modis, and diu. 


Priamus, "Arabs. These, too, have been passed under review, 
and the principle on which their quantity depends explained. 
(See p. 130.) 

f. The lengthening of the first syllable in certain compounds of Re 
is called a Diastole. This we have attempted to account for 
above. (See p. 133.) 

(j. We have just stated, in reference to Systole, that when we find 
a syllable invariably short, we have no right to consider that 
it is the result of a poetical license, although it may be contrary 
to the ideas we have formed of analogy. And, in general, 
when words apparently proceeding from the same root differ 
from each other in quantity, we may, perhaps, not be always 
able to detect the cause; but if the practice of the best writers 
is uniform in each particular case, it is a mere veil for ignorance 
to call their transgression of the laws which we ourselves have 
laid down for them, a poetical figure. Thus, although qudter, 
qudterni, have the first always short, 1 it is absurd, because good 
writers make the first in quatuor always long, 2 to say that this 
is a Diastole. A similar want of correspondence exists in stips, 
stipis, stipo, and stlpendium* and many others, several of which 
have been mentioned under the proper head. It is worth 
noticing, that in ancient monuments quatuor often appears 
engraved quattuor, which seems to indicate the pronunciation ; 

1 e. g., Hor. Od. L, xxxi., 13. S. I., iv., 86; II., iii., I. Virg. G. II., 399, &c. 

2 It will perhaps be said, that quatuor has not the first syllable always long, for 
we find 

Gedunt ter quatuor de coelo corpora sancta. Enn. Ann. I., frag. 50. 

lamque fere quatuor . . . Enn. Ann. 11., frag. 122. 

Gradibus propinquis in quatuordecim sedes. (Iamb. Trim.) Aus. S. CUob. 5. 

But these passages, bad as the authorities are, prove nothing. In each of them we 
may pronounce quatuor as a dissyllable, quatvor; and the Iambics of Ausonius do not 
reject a spondee in the even places, as in line 10 of the same poem 

Et noster qmdam f*v$S9 ce.ya,v, hue pertinet. 
3 Qui stipe mel sumpta dulcius esse putes. 0. F.I., 192. 
Sfipant, et liquido distendunt nectare cellas. V. G. IV., 164. 
Indomito nee dira ferens stipendia tauro. C. LXIV., 173. 

Stipant and stipendium would have been refractory words, if the first syllable had 
been short after st, the second syllable being long. Vossius and others account for the 
quantity of the first syllable in stipendiurn, by supposing it to be a contraction for 
stipipendium. If this be true, then it ought always to be written stippendium ; and 
so it is often found in MSS. 


and stippendium is found in the oldest MSS., although less 
weight is to be attached to these, in such cases, than to an 

h. The only case in which we can use such terms as Systole and 
Diastole with any propriety, is when we find the quantity of a 
word vary in different parts of the works of the same writer, 
or of writers who lived about the same period, without our 
being able to account for the variations upon any general 
principle. Examples of this are very rare, but we may call the 
attention of the student to one or two remarkable instances. 

In Lucretius we find liquor and liquor; llquidus and tiquidus ; 
and in Virgil, llquens and liquens. 

Pondus utei saxi, calor ignis, liquor aquai. L. I., 454. 
Sicut amaracini blaridum stactaeque liquor em. L. II., 847. 
Crassaque conveniant Uquideis et llquida crasseis. L. IV., 1255. 
Quales aeriae liquentia flumina circum. V. jE. IX., 679. 
Porriciam in fluctus et vina liquentia fundam. V. JE. V, 238. 

There is much confusion in the quantity of the first syllable of 
words proceeding from this root; but in the best writers, liquor 
(the noun), Uquidus, liquo, Uquatus, Uquet, Uquesco, Uquefacio, Uquefio, 
have the first short ; while llquor-eris has the first long ; hence 
liquens, if supposed to come from Uqueo, whence tiquet, will have 
the first short ; and if from llquor-eris, will have the first long. 

Vacillo. This word has the first syllable short in 

Et ramosa tamen quom venteis pulsa vdcillans. L. V., 1095. 

So also vdcillat, L. V., 1235; and vdcillant, VI., 575. 

But in the same Lucretius we find 

Turn quasi vdcillans, primum consurgit, et omneis. L. III., 504. 

"Where some have ingeniously proposed to substitute talipedans 
for vacillans, supposing that the latter word had been placed in the 
margin by some transcriber, as an explanation of the former, and 
in the process of time found its way into the text. See Eestus in 
voc. Talipedare. 

There is a remarkable discrepancy in the quantity of the word 
quotidianus, as it appears in the writings of Catullus and Martial 

Coniugis inculpa flagravit quotidiana. C. LXVIII., 139. 
Cultus sindone non quotidians (Phalaecian.) M. XL, i., 2. 


This may perhaps be explained by supposing that the time 
quantity of the word was quotidmnuSj that being inadmissible 
into Dactylic verse under this shape, the second syllable was 
lengthened by Catullus, as in liquefadens, &c. (see p. 95), while 
Martial, to adapt it to his purpose, pronounced it quotldyana, 
according to the principle explained above, under Poetical Licenses, 
Class II. 

It is singular that Horace should differ from Martial and Juvenal 
as to the quantity of the word Vaticanus, which must have been in 
constant use 

Redderet laudes tibi Vaiwani 

Montis imago. (Sapphic.) H. 0. I., xx., 7. 

In Vatlcanis 1 condita musta cadis. M. I., xix., 2. 

Et Vatlcano fragiles de monte patellas. /. S. VI., 344. 

and still more remarkable that he should be inconsistent with 
himself in the pronunciation of the name of his own province 

Me fabulosae Yolture in " Apulo 

Nutricis extra limen "Apuliae. 2 (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., iv., 9. 

Incipit ex illo montes ^Apulia notos. H. S. I., v., 77. 

Tyrrheiium omne tuis et mare ZApulicum. (Choriamb.) H. 0. 

[III., xxiv., 4. 

is found also in Od. I., xxxiii., 7; III., v., 9; xvi., 26; 
Epod. III., 42; S. II., i., 38; and has the first invariably long. 
Apulia occurs in Epod. III., 16, but in a part of the verse which 
does not decide the quantity of the first syllable. 

11. Prosthesis 4 we find thus explained: "To the beginning of 
certain words the poets were in the habit of affixing a letter, 
particularly in the case of these four Narus, Navus, N~atus y 
Naviter, for which they said, Gnarus, G-navus, Gnatus, Gnaviter." 

It is a pity that no hint is here given of their object in making 
such a very useless addition. Any one who for a moment 
considers the compounds ignarus, ignavus, cognatus, will at once 
perceive that gnarus, gnavus, gnatus, are the original forms, which 
were softened down into navus, narus } naius. To which we may 

1 See also Mart. VI., xcii., 3 ; X., xlv., 5 ; XII., xlviii., 14. 
Bentle} disputes the reading Apuliae, but receives no support from MSS. 
3 Several editors of Horace write the word uniformly Appulus, but such is not the 
form which it assumes in the oldest MSS. 

an addition; from Kgo; ard r/fy^/, I place. 


add, that gnarurls, which occurs in Plautus, never drops the g, the 
evident connection between gnatus and yiyvojuiat, and the probable 
affinity of gnavus to KVO.W, or yvaTTTw. 

With equal folly we find the old reduplicated preterites tetuli, 
sciscidi, &c., accounted for by " Prosthesis." 

12. Epenthesis. 1 " Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter or 
syllable into the body of a word, as Plum, Fuvl, Annum, Genuvl 
(all in Ennius) to lengthen the short u ofPlui, Ful, Annul, Genui" 

This is another curious inversion. If we study the etymological 
formation of the Latin verb, we soon discover that, in a very large 
class, the perfect tense is distinguished by the addition of v, to what 
Bopp calls the crude form ;" we shall also readily perceive that the 
v is frequently dropped, as in A masti, amarunt, audieram, &c. "We 
shall then have no difficulty in recognizing the true old perfects of 
pluo,fuo, &c., in plum, fuvi, &c. , and, as might be expected, they 
are found in the very earliest specimens of the language, and 
scarcely, if ever, appear after the time of Plautus. It would be just 
as reasonable to assert, that a v had been inserted in audiveram or 
abivi, in order to lengthen the short I of audll and abll, as to 
advance the same proposition with regard to pluvl, fuvi, and the 
rest. Moreover, we have the express testimony of Priscian, that 
preterites in ul had the u long in the oldest writers, especially those 
derived from the present in uo, as eruo, erui; arguo, argiii; annuo, 
annul; and he quotes from Ennius 

Annult sese mecum decernere ferro. 

In all of which it is clear that the long quantity of the u pointed 
out the recent disappearance of the v. Consult also on this point 
*Voss. Aristarch. II., c. xiii., at the end. 

We are sometimes gravely told that navita is by Epenthesis, for 
nauta, and Induperator for Imperator; but these and such errors are 
too palpable to deserve contradiction. So also Mavors for Mars. 

13. Parogoge. 3 "Paragoge adds a letter or syllable at the end, 
as Amarier, Docerler, Legler, Audlrler, for the infinitives Amarl, 
Docerij Legl, Audiri." 

Here, again, an old form which occurs half-a-dozen times in 
every page of Plautus and the earlier writers, and which is now 
and then introduced, for the sake of ornament, by Virgil and his 
contemporaries, is mistaken for a Poetical or Grammatical Figure." 
(See above, p. 136.) 



, an insertion; from s 

As Ama-o, Ama-v-i; Audi-o, Audi-v~i, &c. 
Tlct^uyuyin, a leading or bringing forward; in military phraseology, the act of 
extending the line; from -/ragoc and dyca, I lead. 


14. Tmesis. 1 " Tmesis is the separation of a word into two, for 
the purpose of inserting another word between the separated parts." 
As examples of it, we iind 

]N"unc age Averna tibi quae sint loca cumque lacusque. L. VI., 738. 
Conlaxat, rareqne facit lateraniina vasis. L. VI., 233. 
Talis Hyperboreo Septem subiecta trioni. V. G. III., 381. 
Et multo nebulae circum de&fudit amictu. V. jE. I., 412. 

In which the words quaecumque, rarefacti, septemtrio, circum- 
fudit, are supposed to be cut up, and their members spread over 
the line. Here, once more, the real process is inverted. In the 
earlier forms of the language many words were used separately, 
which, in the process of time, were compounded together ; and 
hence, just as we should expect, these separations are much more 
frequent in Lucretius and the older writers, than in those who 
succeeded them; 2 but even Cicero, in prose, says " Quod iudicium 
cumque subierat damnabatur." 

15. Diplasiasmus 3 is the name given to the expedient of doubl 
ing a consonant, in such words as redducere, reccidere, relligio. (See 
above, p. 133.) 

16. Apocope* "When a letter or a syllable is dropped at the end 
of a word, it is called Apocope. There is no harm in applying this 
to the quick colloquial interrogations, Viden, ain, satin, &c., as they 
stand even before a consonant for videsne, aisne, satisne, &c. ; but it 
is going rather too far to say, that in 

Disiectare solet magnum mare transtra, guberna. L. II., 553. 

guberna is put by apocope for gubernacula. 

17. Syncope 5 is the dropping of a letter or syllable in the middle 
of a word. (See above, p. 127.) 

18. Aphaeresis* is the taking away of a letter or syllable from 
the beginning of a word. 

As the term is generally used it is quite imaginary. Thus, 
Servius on Virg. M. I., 546, says, that temniiis arma is by aphae- 
resis for contemnitis; and again on line 669, tda Typhoea temnis, 
he makes the same remark. 

T^tfo-/^ a cutting; from rspvu, I cut. 
2 See Herman, De Emend. Eat. Gr. Gr., p. 116. 

, a doubling; from d/?A*4 /0c0, I double, and that from 
, double. 

-/r>7, a cutting off; from d^ro and xo5TT6>, I cut. 
a cutting up, or to pieces; from aw and %077T. 
, a taking away ; from UKO and etipea. 


19. Metathesis. 1 "Metathesis is a transposition of letters, as 
Evandre? Thymbre? for Evander, Thymber." But even the gram 
marians who give this definition allow 4 that these vocatives are 
from the nominatives Evandrus, Thymbrus, of which the former is 
in common use. 5 In fact, all the nouns of the second declension in 
er, are abbreviated words; gener, puer, were originally generus, 
puerus, or rather generos, pueros, and we still find the vocative 
puere frequently in Plautus. 6 To call i prae a metathesis for praei 
is an absurdity too obvious to deserve notice. 7 

20. Antithesis. 8 "Antithesis takes place when one letter is put 
for another, as volnus, voltis, volgus, for vulnus, vultis, vulgus; 
inclutus, optumus, maxumus, for inditus, optimus, maximus" &c. 
But these are merely old methods of spelling these words; they 
are found under this shape in a multitude of monuments, some of 
them of a late date, and certainly many of them were not anti 
quated even in the age of Augustus. But this has little or no 
connection with our subject, and belongs rather to a general 
Mstory of the rise and progress of the language, than to a treatise 
on Prosody. 

a transposition; from f^srot and 

2 E. g., Virg. ^E. XL, 55. J Ibid. X., 394. 

4 E. g., Scheller in his Grammar, and others. 5 E. g., M. VIII., 100. 

6 E. g., Asin. V. ii., 41; Merc. V., ii., 71, 89; True, II., vi., 54; and many 
other passages. 

7 To this figure some refer the word Crocodilus, which has the first short in luven. 
XV., 2, and long in Phaedrus I., xxiv., 5, 6 ; and Martial III., xciii., 7, whence 
most editors in those passages read corcodilus, since the Greeks seem to have said 

and fcOjOxodg/Aog-, as they said x, poti to, and xctpliux,, xparepos and 
and as we use indifferently ./H& andj!ir&. Compare also the Latin Trabs, 
Taberna. Similar changes will be found in almost all languages, but they were not 
introduced by the poets. 

8 Ayr/lfng, a substitution ; from octfrt and 



A METRICAL FOOT is a combination of two, three, or four syl 

Different names have been given to the different metrical feet, 
according to the quantity and arrangement of the syllables of which 
they are composed. 


I. Dissyllabic Feet. 

Pyrrhichius, consisting of two short syllables, as, Casa. 

Spondaeus, two long,.. Reges. 

Trochaeus, ,, ,, a long and a short, Roma. 

Iambus, a short and a long, Par ens. 

II. Trisyllabic Feet. 

Tribrachys, consisting of three short, as,~Anima. 

Molossus, ,, three long, . Romanl. 

Dactylus, a long and two short, ,. Carmina. 

Anapaestus, ,, two short and a long, Pupulos. 

Amphibrachys, a short, a long, a short, ... ~ Arnica. 

Amphimacer, a long, a short, a long,....? Vlnculis. 

Bacchius, ,, ,, a short and two long, Calcines. 

Antibacchius, two long and a short, ...... Cantdre. 


III. Quadrisyllable Feet. 

These are, in fact, permutations of the dissyllabic feet, taken two 
and two. 

^ ^ ^ ^ Proceleusmaticus, or Double Purrhichius, ..,.as Habilior. 

Dispondaeus, or Double Spondaeus, Maecenases. 

- ^ ^ Clioriambus, a Trocliaeus and Iambus, Romulidae. 

^ N^ Antispastus, an Iambus and Trocliaeus, Clytemnestra. 

x-x v^ Diiambus, or Double Iambus, Corlntlin. 

- s_x ^ Ditrochaeus, or Double Trocliaeus^ Dlmicare. 

^-/ ^-^ lonicus a maiore, a Spondaeus and Pyrrliicliius, Lavlnia. 

N_/^ lonicus a minor e, a Pyrrliichius and Spondaeus, Diomedes. 

-^ Epitritus primus, Iambus and Spondaeus, Venenatls. 

^ Epitritus secundus, Trocliaeus and Spondaeus, Conditores. 

^s Epitritus tertius, Spondaeus and Iambus, Heroicl. 

^^ Epitritus quartus t Spondaeus and Trocliaeus, ~Invltamus. 

-^^^ Paeonius primus, TrochaeusandPyrrJiichms, Caeciiius. 
^ ^> Paeonius secundus, Iambus and Pyrrliicliius, Horatms. 
-^-/ ^-s Paeonius tertius, Pyrrliichius and Trocliaeus, Menedemus* 
\-s^ Paeonius quartus, Pyrrliichius and Iambus, Profugiens. 

Some of the old grammarians have given names to the permuta 
tions of dissyllabic and trisyllabic feet, which form feet of five 
syllables, amounting in number to thirty-two, to the permutations 
of trisyllabic feet among each other, which form feet of six syllables, 
amounting in number to sixty-three, and so on; but these are of no 
practical utility. 

Feet consisting of four, or a greater number of syllables, are 
called compound feet. 


" Pes vocatur, sive quia in percussione metrica pedis pulsus 
ponitur tolliturqiie ; seu quia, ut nos pedibus ingreclimur atque 
progredimur, ita et versus per hos pedes metricos procedit et 
scandit." Marius Yictorinus, p. 2485. 

PYRRHICHIUS. So called from the martial Pyrrhic dance 
(TTvppL^r]), which was performed in quick time. Athenaeus, Lib. 
XIV., 28. Ho\]LiLKr) $z SofCi tlvai 77 TTvppi^r]. EvoTrXot yap 

/cat si TO r/rra^tvouc 


.For other derivations and further illustrations, see Terentianus 
Maurus, v., 1358, p. 2412 j Diomedes, p. 472 ; Marius Plotius, 
p. 2624 ; Schol. Hephaest, p. 157, ed. Gaisford, and the enor 
mous mass of learning collected in the notes to Terentianus 


Maurus, in the edition of Santenius and Lennep. Trai. ad Rhenum, 


The Pyrrhichius was also called fiys/mov (the leader), because it 
ranked first among metrical feet ; AifipaxvQ, which the Latins 
rendered by Bibrevis ; Uapia/nftoQ "quod minus habeat unum 
tempus ab lambo : irapa enim Graeci minus dicunt." Marius 
Victorians, p. 2489. 

TROCHAEUS. From rptyu, to mn J or T PX^ a wneel ; i n COI]L - 
sequence of the tripping character which it communicated to the 
verses in which it prevailed. 1 It was also called by the Greeks, 
Xopaoc (xopoe, a dance), and by the Latins, Chori iis or Choraeus? 
The names Choraeus and Trochaeus were given to the Tribraches 
also. (See below). 

IAMBUS, The origin of this word is uncertain. Most of the old 
grammarians, 1 unable to suggest any plausible derivation, have 
recourse to a mythical legend, which represents lambe as the name 
of a damsel, the slave of Eleusinian Celeus, who amused Ceres by 
dance and song when mourning the loss of her daughter. 

Two other persons of this name are mentioned by the Scholiast 
on Hephaestio. 3 

SPONDAEUS. From OTTO 1^7, a libation, because it was much 
used -in the slow, solemn chaunt, which accompanied a sacrifice. 4 

TRIBRACHYS. Tpifipaxyg (rpctc, /Spa^c? three short), was 
also called ^ooaoc, Chorius, 5 and sometimes rpo\atoc, Trochaeus. 9 
Diomedes 7 mentions several other names of this foot, as Thasius, 
Br achy syllabus, Triorcheos, Pygmon.* 

MOLOSSUS. So called, according to the Scholiast on Hephaestio, 9 
from Molossus, son of Pyrrhus and Andromache, who repeated 

1 See Marius Victorinus, p. 2487 ; Schol. Hephaest, p. 158, ed. Gaisf. ; Plotius, p. 
2625 ; Diomedes, p. 474. 

2 See notes on Terentianus Maurus, in the ed. of Lennep, p. 68, 69, 70, 71, 72. 

3 P. 158, ed. Gaisf. See also Plotius, p. 2625. Various other derivations may be 
found in Diomedes, p. 473, and in the notes to Terentianus Maurus, ed. Lennep., p. 
65, et seq. 

4 Terent. Maur. v., 1394, p. 2413; Mar. Victorin., p. 2487; Diomed., p. 472; 
Schol. Hephaest. ed. Gaisf., p. 158 ; Aristid. Quintil., p. 37, who says, diet TO w 
<77ro!/oce/ cciirov ctQSffQeti. 

5 Schol. Hephaest. ed. Gaisf., p. 158. 

6 Quintil. IX., c. iv. ; Terent. Maur. v., 1446, p. 2414; Dionys. Hal. II. 2. O., 
p. 128. 

7 P. 475. 8 See also Bassus, p. 2666. 9 P. 158. 


hymns in which, this was the prevailing foot at the shrine of Dodona 
in Epirus. Others say that it was named from the Molossi in 
Epirus, who used it in their war songs, which comes to the same 
thing. 1 Diomedes mentions several other names by which it was 
known, as Vortumnus, Extensipes, Hippius, Chanius (Chaonius ?) 

DACTYLUS. From SaicruAo^, a finger, because each finger 
consists of one long joint and two short ones. 2 

ANAPAESTUS. " Dictus Trapa TO avcnraieiv, Kara TO avairaXn 
avTiKpovEiv TTpog TOV AafcruXov ; quia recurrendo repercutiens 
Dactylum sono reciproco obloquitur ei per antistrophen." Diomed. 3 
p. 475. Hence called ciimcWruAoc by the Greeks, 3 and Metroactus 
by the Latins.* 

AMPHIBRACHYS. Erom ajjupi, about, and floa^ys, short. A long 
syllable embraced by two short ones. Called also Amphibrevis. 

AMPHIMACER. From a^f, about, and /uaKoo^ long. A short 
syllable embraced by two long ones. This foot is also very 
frequently termed CRETICUS, because it resembled in time the 
blows struck by the Corybantes on their brazen shields (graviter, 
breviter, graviter), to drown the cries of infant Jove, when they 
feared lest these should reach the ears of Saturn. 5 

BACCHIUS. So named from being frequently introduced in the 
songs of the Bacchanals. 6 

ANTIBACCHIUS or PALIMBACCHIUS. (aim, TraAtv); so called, 
because it is the Bacchius inverted. 

A good deal of confusion exists among the old grammarians 
with regard to these two feet, since many of them, and among these 
Terentianus Maurus, give the name of Bacchius to two long 
syllables followed by a short one ( -- >^), and of Antibacchius, 
to the reverse (^ -- ). Quintilian 7 mentions this difference of 
definition ; that which is given in the text rests upon the authority 
of Diomedes, 8 and is generally adopted. 

Diomedes 9 gives us other names of the Bacchius, OenotriuSj 
Tripodius, Sultans, and adds that the Greeks call it Pariambus, an 


appellation which, we have seen above, was bestowed on the 
Pyrrhichius also. 

The Palimbacchius he calls likewise Latins, Saturnius, Pro- 
ponticus, Thessalus. 

PROCELEUSMATICUS. From fceAeucne or KfAeuoyja, the word of 
command given by the ballet-master in. double quick time, to- 
accelerate the step. 1 

ANTISPASTUS. From avn and o-7rao>, to draw. Two long 
syllables separated or drawn asunder by two short ones. 2 

IONTCUS, a maiore, a minore. 

" lonici ab lone inventore suo dicti." 

EPITRITUS, primus, secundus, &c., i. e., three long syllables and a 
short one in addition (lire 

PAEON, primus, secundus, &c. 

" Paeones a Paeone poeta nomen inditum possederunt." 5 

A VERSE is a combination of metrical feet, arranged according to 
a given law. 

To Scan a verse, is to separate it into the feet of which it is com 

Verses are divided into classes, which are named from the foot 
which prevails in each, or of which they were originally chiefly 
composed. Those classes which will principally occupy our atten 
tion in what follows, are 

1. Dactylic verse. 

2. Choriambie. 

3. Anapaestic. 

4. Ionic. 

5. Iambic. 

6. Trochaic. 

Metre, in the general acceptation of the word, signifies a com 
bination of verses, belonging to the same or to different classes,, 
which succeed each other in fixed order. When we speak of Dac 
tylic metre, lajnbic metre, &c., the word metre is synonymous with 
verse. A metre, in the technical and restricted sense, signifies either- 
a single foot in a verse, or a combination of two consecutive 
according to circumstances. 

1 Plotius, p. 2628 ; Dionys. Hal. Antiq. Rom. Lib. VII., p. 476, ed. Reiske. 

2 Plotius, p. 2626. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 


In Dactylic, Bacchiac, and Cretic verses, and in verses scanned 
by double feet, a metre signifies a single foot. 

In Anapaestic, Iambic, and Trochaic verses, a metre signifies a 
combination of two consecutive feet. 

A combination of two consecutive feet is sometimes termed 
Dipode (SiTToSia), and sometimes a Syzygy (dii^vyta.) 

Two-and-a-half consecutive feet are termed a Penthemimt 

The different classes of verse are subdivided into genera, accord 
ing to the number of metres which they contain. 

Those verses which contain six metres, are called Hexameter. 

five Pentameter. 

four Tetrameter. 

three Trimeter. 

two Dimeter. 

one Manometer. 

From what has been said above, it will be seen that a Dactylic, 


a Choriambic, or an Ionic Tetrameter, contains four feet, while an 
Iambic, an Anapaestic, or a Trochaic Tetrameter contains eight, and 
so for the rest. 

Moreover, a verse may or may not contain an exact number of 
metres, and hence it is necessary to have terms to distinguish these 
different species. 

When a verse contains the exact number of metres denoted by 
the name of its genus, it is called Acatalectic (aKaToXriKTog, com 
plete, entire). 

Thus, when we speak of an Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic, we mean 
to indicate an Iambic verse which contains exactly three metres or 
six feet, neither more nor less. 

"When a verse contains one syllable less than ought to be con 
tained in the number of metres denoted by the name of its genus, 
it is called Catalectic (KaraArjicroc, imperfect, deficient). 

Thus, when we speak of a Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic, we mean 
to indicate a Trochaic verse, which contains four metres or eisfht 

7 O 

feet, wanting one syllable. 

When two syllables are wanting, the verse is said to be Brachy- 
Catalectic (JpyayvKaraXriKTO^). 

When there is one syllable over and above the number of metres 
denoted by the name of the genus, it is called Hypercatalectio 
(i>7Tp /car a Ai? KIT o c) 

Hence, the complete name of every verse consists of three terms : 
the first denotes the Class, the second the Genus, the third the 
Species; sometimes an additional qualification is added to mark a 


Variety j as in the epithet Scazon (lame, halting), applied to distin 
guish a variety of the Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic, or Miurus, to a 
variety of the Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic. 

It ought to be observed, that many different species of verse 
have received names from the authors by whom they were chiefly 
employed, or from the subjects to which they were principally 

Thus, a species of Choriambic verse is called Sapphic, because it 
appears in two of the most celebrated fragments of the Lesbian 
poetess; so we have Phalaecian, Alcaean, Archilocliian. and many 
others, called from different Greek bards with whom they were 
favourite measures. A gain," the Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic is 
frequently entitled simply Heroic verse, or the Heroic Hexameter., 
because it was the verse chosen by the Epic writers of Greece and 
Rome : the Gallianibic derived its appellation from the Galli or 
priests of Cybele, who are said to have composed in it their sacred 
songs ; in the Priapean, odes were written to the tutelary deity of 
gardens, and so on. , 



The only feet admissible in Dactylic Verses are the Dactyl and 
the Spondee. We may remind the student that in Dactylic Verses 
a single foot constitutes a metre, and consequently the terms 
Hexameter, Pentameter, &c., express the number of feet contained 
in each of the different genera. We shall begin with the most 
important member of this class. 

a. Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic. 

The Dactylic or Heroic Hexameter was considered to be the 
most ancient as well as the most dignified form of verse. Accord 
ing to the tradition of the Greeks, it was made known to men by 
Phemonoe, the first priestess of Delphic Apollo, who, when inspired 
by the god, was wont to chaunt his oracles in this measure. It 
must have been cultivated at a period far beyond the records of 
authentic history, since it appears in its most perfect shape in the 
poems of Homer. Introduced into Latium by Ennius, who first 
discarded the rude Saturnian strains of his predecessors, it was 
universally adopted both by the Greeks and Romans, as the proper 
medium for epic themes, and was also commonly employed in 
didactic and satiric compositions. Virgil is considered the model 
of this species of verse, among the Latins, and any remarks which 
we may make on the delicacies of its structure, must be tinderstood 
to apply neither to the satirists, who aimed at rendering their lines 



as familiar and homely as possible, nor to such writers as Lucretius,, 
the refractory nature of whose subject demanded greater latitude. 

1. The Dactylic Hexameter consists, as its name imports, of six 
feet; in the first four places, Dactyls or Spondees may be used at 
pleasure ; the fifth foot is usually a Dactyl, the sixth invariably a 
Spondee, as represented in the following scheme : 

2. "With regard to the comparative number of Dactyls and 
Spondees which ought to constitute a line, or the order in which 
they ought to succeed each other, no positive rule can be laid down. 
Generally speaking, the line is more smooth and flowing, when it 
contains a number of Dactyls ; but the great aim of the composer 
ought to be to vary the arrangement of the constituent parts of the 
verse, in such a manner as to avoid uniformity and monotony, 
taking care, however, never to sacrifice the harmony of the measure, 
although even this is done occasionally, and probably not without 
design, for the sake of contrast, by the best writers. "We not 
unfrequently find lines, in which all the feet, except the last, are 
Dactyls, as 

Dulcis et alta quies placidaeque simillima morti. V. JE. VI., 522. 
Obiicit, ille fame rabida tria guttura pandens. F. jE. "VI., 421. 

and on the other hand, others where all except the fifth are Spon 

Qui bello exciti reges quae quemque secutae. F. jffi. VII., 642. 
Post hos insignem palma per gramina currum. F. ^E. VII., 655. 

But for the most part, they are interspersed more equally. 

3. "We have said, that the fifth foot is usually a Dactyl ; in some 
cases, though rarely, a Spondee is found in this place, in which 
case the line is called a Spondaic Line. Thus 

Vos ego saepe meo, vos carmine compellabo. G. LXIV., 24. 
Cara deum soboles magnum To vis incrementum. V. E. IV., 49. 

In Spondaic lines, the fourth foot is usually a Dactyl, as in the 
two examples quoted above, not uniformly, however, as 

Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convattes. V. G. III., 276. 
Ant leves ocreas lento ducunt argento. F. JE. VII., 634. 

1 The double ~ is used here and elsewhere, merely to remind the reader, that the 
last syllable of the verse is common. (See p. 1 14.) 


The older poets do not scruple to use lines containing Spondees 
alone, as 

Olli respondet rex Albai longai. Enn. F. Ann. I. 
Gives Romani tune facti sunt Campani. Enn. F. Incert. 
An coelum nobis natura ultro corruptum. L. VI., 1134. 
Quis te lenirem nobis neu conarere. C. CXVI., 3. 
In Spondaic lines, the last word is usually a quadrisyllable, as 
Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur. 1 V. G. I., 221. 

But to this rule also there are not a few exceptions, as in the two 
lines quoted above from Virgil, ending in the trisyllables convalles 
and argento, and in others given below. 2 More remarkable than 
these are the following, where a monosyllable closes the verse 

Cum sociis natoque Penatibus et magnis dis. V. JE. III., 12. 

Cum Patribus, Populoque, Penatibus et magnis dis. V. JE. VIII., 


Spondaic lines are much more common in the Greek than in the 
best Latin poets j there are some twenty-eight of this description in 
Virgil, while in a single piece of Catullus (LXIV.), 3 who formed his 
verses upon the Greek model, we find a greater number. 4 

Caesura in Dactylic Hexameters. 

4. The melody of the Hexameter depends in a great measure on 
the position of the Caesura. 

We have already seen when treating of Caesura in general, that 
in Dactylic Hexameters there may be a Caesura at the beginning 
of the second, third, fourth, fifth, or even sixth foot. 

The last two are to be avoided altogether; 5 of the rest, the 
Caesura at the beginning of the third foot, or Penthemimeral 
Caesura, is that which, above all others, tends to give smoothness 
and rhythm to the line, and consequently is found in the great 
majority of instances, either by itself, as 

1 So incrementum, E. IV., 49. Centaurea, G. IV., 270. Oritliyia, G. IV., 463; 
J&. XII., 83. Circumspexit, M. II., 68. Oriona, III., 517. Antennarum, 549. 
Intervallo, V., 320. Anchiseo, 761. Pallanteum, VIIL, 54, 341. Intertextam, 167. 
Argileti, 345 Pallantea, IX., 196, 241. T/iermodontis, XI., 659. 

L> So hirsute, E. VII., 53. Auctumno, G. II., 5. Aegaeo, M. III., 74. Antemnae, 
VIL, 631. Anchisae, IX., 647. Evandro, XI., 31. Desertis, XII., 863. In the 
first, second, third, and fourth of these lines, there is a hiatus in the fifth foot, and in 
the second a short vowel is lengthened by the pause in the same place. 

J Containing 409 lines. 4 Twenty-nine, if I mistake not. 

4 See below, the remarks on the form of the last word in a Dactylic Hexameter. 



Classica iamque sonant || it bello tessera signuni. F. ^E. VII., 637. 

Or combined with others, as 

Ad nos vix tenuis || famae || perlabitur aura. F. ^E. VII., 646. 
liisignis || reserat || stridentia limina consul. F. ^E. VII., 613. 
Sunt geminae || belli || portae || sic nomine dicunt. V.AZ. VII., 607. 

Next in merit to the Penthemimeral, is the Hepthemimeral, 
which is sometimes found alone, as 

Litora deseruere latet || sub classibus aequor. F. JE. IV., 582. 

Sometimes combined with the Triemimeral, as 
Quo perii || superimponas. || Abolere nefandi. F. ^. IV, 497. 

More rarely the Triemimeral is found alone, as 
Incipiunt || agitata tumescere et aridus altis. F. G. I., 357. 

When the Hepthemimeral or the Triemimeral alone occur in a 
line, there is commonly a Trochaic Caesura 1 in the third foot, as in 
the last example, and in that quoted from V. J&. IV., 582. 

1 When the first two syllables of a Dactyl are the last two syllables of a word, 
they form what has been denominated a Trochaic Caesura; thus in the lines 

Litora deseru ] ere latet sub classibus aequor 
Incipiunt agit | ata turn | escer 1 et aridus altis, 

ere, ata, and escer 1 form Trochaic Caesuras. 

The Trochaic Caesura is very pleasing in the third foot, and communicates great 
smoothness and softness to the line. When two Trochaic Caesuras are employed in 
succession, they confer a sort of elastic and bounding character on the verse, as in the 

The Greeks, sometimes, to answer a particular purpose, have five of these following 
each other, as in 

o dvaitTct, xonavrot,, KotnavTct, 7, 

But in Latin, under ordinary circumstances, such a line as the following would be 
quite inadmissible 

Sole cadente iuvencus aratra reliquit in arvo. 

See Herman. D. M. E. II., c. 26. 

When the fourth foot is a Dactyl, and ends with a word, the line is said to have 
the Bucolic Incision, or ro,^, this being a favourite division of the verse with the 
Greek pastoral poets. It is not affected by Yirgil in his Bucolics, but is found not 
tmfrequently elsewhere, e. g., 

Continuo vends surgentibus || aut freta ponti. V. G. I., 35G. 
Sanguineae, clypeoque micautia j| fulmina mittunt. V. ^E. IV.j 733. 


Or we have a monosyllable at the beginning of the third foot, as - 

Nee Saturnius haec || oculis || pater adspicit aequis. V. & IV., 


Et cum frigida mors j| anima || seduxerit artus. V. JE. IV., 385. 

Coniugium || vocat, hoc || praetexit nomine cnlpam. F. JE. IY, 


A few lines are found which have the Trochaic Caesura alone, as 
Spargens humida mella || soporifer unique papaver. V. JE. IV., 486. 

Or combined with a bad Caesura at the beginning of the fifth 
foot, as 

Per connubia nostra || per meeptos || hymenaeos. F. jE. IY., 316. 
Rarely the Caesuras are monosyllabic, 

Sidera, turn si quod || non aequo foedere amantes. F. JE. IY, 520. 

ISTam quid dissimulo, aut || quae me ad || maiora reserve. F. jE. 

[IY., 368. 

Ardet inexcita, Ausonia, atque || immobilis ante. F. <sE. VII., 623. 

In the last two, the elisions may give a sort of pause to the voice. 

Lines which are altogether destitute of Caesura, are little better 
than prose, such as we find in Ennius, where each word of the first 
four forms a foot, 

Sparsis hastis longis campus splendet et horret. 
Or such as the following 

Poeni pervortentes omnia circumcursant. 1 

5. Even when the Caesura is observed, we ought to avoid any 
pause which will have the effect of dividing the line into two equal 
parts, like that just quoted; thus we must not imitate, 

Montibus audiri fragor aut resonantia longe. 2 F. G. I., 358. 

Pulveruleiitus equis furit omnes arma requirunt. F. JE. VII., 


But the result is still worse with a Spondee in the third place. 

This applies, however, only when there is a pause in the sense, 
at the end of the third foot, for if the word which closes the third 

1 On the badness of the Caesural pause in Lucretius, see Forbiger on I., 54. 
: Herman, however, seems to be half reconciled to this particular example. (See 
D. M. E., Lib. II., c. 2G.) 


foot be a monosyllable, or even a dissyllable closely connected with 
the following words, the effect is not bad, as 

Sustulerat vetitisque ad || Troiam iniserat armis. F. JE. IX., 547. 
Tollitur; invadunt, et \\ fossas aggere complent. F. ^E. IX., 567. 
Ne castris iungant, certa \\ est sententia Turno. F. jE. X., 240. 
Frigidus Arcadibus coit \\ in praecordia sanguis. F. jffi. X., 452. 

The Last Word in a Dactylic Hexameter. 

6. Next to the position of the Caesura, the arrangement of the 
words at the close of the verse is of the greatest importance. 

The concluding word is for the most part a dissyllable or a tri 
syllable; and these form the most appropriate endings. 

A quadrisyllable is scarcely ever found at the end of a. Yirgilian 
Hexameter, except in the case of a proper name, or, which is nearly 
the same thing, the name of a plant, an animal, a metal, or the 
like; as 

Aut Tmaros, aut Rliodope, aut extrerni Garamantes. V. E. VIII., 

Pergama quum peteret inconcessosque Hymenaeos. V. ^E. I., 651. 

Aeriae quercus aut coniferae cyparissi. F. jE. III., 680. 
Altera caiideiiti perfecta nitens eleplianto. V. JE. VI., 896. 
Ipse dehiiic, auro squalentem alboque orichalco. F. JE. XII., 87. 

In the following, however, the quadrisyllable does not belong to 
this class : 

Et nunc ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu. F. JE. IV., 215. 
Lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu. F. JE. IV., 667. 

Besides the above, we have in Virgil, 

Aracyntho, E. II., 24. Meliboei, E. III., 1 ; M. Ill, 401. 
Hyacintkus, &c., E. III., 63; VI, 53; G. IV, 137; M. XL, 69. 
Melicertae, G. I., 437. Cyparissis, G. II., 84. Elepkanto, G. III., 26 ; 
JE. Ill, 464. Hymenaei, &c., G. III., 60; IV., 516; M. IV, 99, 
316; VI, 623; VII., 344, 358, 398; XL, 217, 355. Scylaceum, 
M. III., 553. Agathyrsi, M. IV, 146. Ululatu, M. IX., 477. 
Erymantho, &c., JE. V, 448; VI., 803. Terebintho, M. X., 136. 
Panaceam, M. XII. , 419. Peridiae, M. XII. , 515. 

A word of five syllables at the end of a line, although less un- 
pleasing to the ear than a quadrisyllable, is still more uncommon. 
We find it chiefly in proper names. 

Fagina, coelatum clivini opus Alcimedontis. F. E. III., 37. 
Quarum, quae fandi doctissirna,, Cymodocea. V. ^E. X., 225. 


More rarely in ordinary words ; as 
Dant sonitu ingenti, perfractaque quadrupedantum. V. jffi. XL, 


Parietibus textum coecis iter, ancipitemque. V. <$. V, 589. 
Besides the above, we have in Virgil, 

Alphesiboeus, E. VIII., 62. Deiopea, G. IV., 343. Hippocoontis, 
M. V., 492. Cymodoceque, M. V., 826. Pirithoumque, M. VI., 
393, 601. Laodamia, M. VI., 447. Thersilochumque, M. VI., 
483; XII., 363. Aeoliamque, M. VIII., 416. 

7. When there is any considerable pause at the end of the fifth 
foot, the sixth foot ought to consist of two monosyllables, or of a 
repeated word, in order to give more force to the Spondee. 

Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus : at tu. V. E. VII., 
At Boreae de parte trucis quum folminat, et quum. F. 6r. I., 370. 
Incipiunt sylvae quum primum surgere, quumque. V. E. VI., 39. 
Ipsi tela regent per viscera Caesaris, ipsi. L. P. VII., 350. 

For other examples, see V. E. V, 83; IX., 48. G. I., 80, 223; 
III., 24, 133, 358, 428. M. II, 217; III., 151, 695; IV, 541; 
V., 372, 624, 713; VI., 117, 466; VII., 790; XL, 164, 170,429; 
XII., 48, 360, 526. L. P. IV, 587; VI., 700. 

Although there are some apparent violations of this law, yet 
upon examination it will be found, that in each case there is a 
strong emphasis on the last word, as in the line quoted by Herman. 
D. M. E. Lib. II., c. xxvi. 

Ingentem remis Centaurum promovet, ille 
Instat aquae, &c. 

See also V. M., III., 219; IV, 593. L. III., 33, 287; IV, 


Even when there is no considerable pause at the end of the fifth 
foot, we sometimes find two monosyllables, and the effect is not 
inharmonious; e. g., 

Explorare labor, mihi iussa capessere/as est. V. JE. L, 77. 
Praecipitant curae, turbataque funere mens est. V. JE. XL, 3. 

See also V. G. II., 103; III., 484; IV., 84. M. II., 163; IV, 
224; VII., 310, 708; VIIL, 400; IX., 491; X., 9, 231; XL. 16: 
XII., 231, 565. 


8. A single monosyllable is rarely found in Virgil, at the end rf 
a line, and seems to be introduced for the sake of variety only; e. g., 

Et me Phoebus amat, Phoebo sua semper apud me. V. E. III., 62. 

Unus qui nobis cunctando restituit rem. V. JE. VI., 847. 

Quae vigilanda viris, vel quurn ruit imbriferum ver. 1 V. G. I., 313. 

Observe, however, that est is frequently found at the end of a 
line, when preceded by a dissyllable or trisyllable, which suffers 

Ad quern turn luno supplex his vocibus usa est. V. jE. I., 64 
Ac veluti magno in populo quam saepe coorta est. V. ^E. I., 148. 

There are at least seventy-nine examples of this in Virgil. 

9. When the last word is a dissyllable, and the word immediately 
before it is also a dissyllable, which does not suffer elision, then the 
last word but two ought to be a monosyllable, as 

Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus Iws regit artus. V. JE. IV., 336. 
"Turn consanguineus leti sopor, et mala mentis. V. &. VI., 278. 

There are but few lines in Virgil such as the following, 

rapit immensos orbes per humum neque ianto. 
Immittit, sonuere undae, rapidum super amnem. JE. XL, 562. 

To which add, M. V, 731 ; X., 302, 400,^440, 442, 471 ; XL, 143. 

10. If the end of the second foot coincides with the end of a 
word, the second foot ought to be a Dactyl, as 

Aut aliquis latet || error, equo ne credite, Teucri. F. JE. II., 48. 
Inde toro pater || Aeneas sic orsus ab alto. F. JE. II., 2. 

Unless the last word of the second foot be a monosyllable, as - 

Et quorum pars || magna fui, quis talia fando. F. JE. II., 6. 

11. If the sense of one line is carried on and concluded in the 
first word of the line following, the first foot in the second line 
ought to be a Dactyl, as 

Kunc age Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 

Gloria, &c. V. M. VI., 756. 

1 Other examples are G. I., 181, 247; II., 321 ; III., 255. M. I., 65, 105, 151 ; 
II., 170, 250, 355. 648; III., 375, 390; IV., 132, 314; V., 481, 638; VI., 346; 
VII., 592; VIII., 43, 83; IX., 320, 532, 723; X., 2, 107, 228, 259, 361, 734, 
743, 771, 802, 843, 864; XL, 373, 632; XII., 552, 851. 


Sylvius Aeneas pariter pietate vel armis 

Egregius, &c. F. -^. VI., 769. 

There are not many exceptions to this rule ; we find, however 

Ut cymbae instabiles, fluctu iactante, saburrani 

Tollunt, &c. F. <?. IV., 195. 

Hoc prirnum, nee si miserum fortuna Sinonem 

Finxit, vanum etiam, &c. F. JE. II., 79. 

Sometimes this is done, apparently for the sake of emphasis, as in 

Vox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita silentes 

Ingens. F. G. I., 476. 

"With regard to elisions, we may repeat that 

12. A short vowel may be cut off before another short vowel, 
which will retain its quantity, or before a long vowel or a diphthong, 
which of course remain long, as 

Bis conatus erat casus effingere m auro. F. ^E. VI., 32. 
Adforet atque ^na Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos. F. uE. VI., 35. 
Si nunc se nobis ille <mreus arbore ramus. F. JE. VI., 187. 

Also, a long vowel or a diphthong may be cut off before another 
long vowel or a diphthong, as 

Contra elata mari respondet CTnosia tellus. F. jE. VI., 23. 
Tendebantque manus xipae wlterioris amore. F. SE. VI., 314. 

Even a long vowel or a diphthong may be cut off before a short 
vowel, the latter remaining short, as 

Hoc fletu concussi animi moestusque per omnes. V. JE. IX., 498. 
Concurrunt Tyrrhenae acies, atque omnibus uni. F. JE. X., 691. 

but this is, comparatively, rare. 

With regard to the number of elisions, no certain rule can be 
laid down. In modern compositions it is better to avoid employing 
them very frequently, especially in monosyllabic words. A mono 
syllable, when elided at the beginning of a line, produces a very 
awkward effect, as 

Si ad vitulam spectas, nihil est, quod pocula laudes. F. E. III., 48. 

13. There are a considerable number of examples in Virgil of 
the lengthening of a short syllable by the force of the Caesura! 
pause, as may be seen by referring to the list given in pages 108, 109 ; 
there are also a few instances of hiatus, especially in the case oi % 


proper names ; but these and all similar licenses should be scrupu 
lously avoided in modern compositions. 

14. It is proper to remark also, that Yirgil never uses the open 
form of the genitive in nouns of the second declension which end 
in ium or ius; we have peouM 9 tuguri, oti, Capitoli, Mezenti, &c., 
never peculii, tugurii, otii, Capitolii, Mezentii ; this remark applies 
to all the writings of Horace also, and it cannot be the result of 
accident, since the open form would in many cases be much more 
-convenient. The double i is found occasionally in Propertius, and is 
very common in Ovid. For a full discussion of this critical canon, 
see the notes to Dawes s Miscellanea Critic, p. 28, ed. Kidd. 

15. Some of the old grammarians were of opinion that not only 
the Dactyl and the Spondee were admissible in Heroic verse, but 
that the Proceleusmatic, the Anapaest, and the Cretic were some 
times introduced. As examples of these, they quoted from Virgil 
such lines as 

Pdrietl | busque prem | unt arct |[ is et | quatuor addunt 
Flumo | rum rex | Eridan | us camp | osque per | omnes 
"Insulde \ loni | o in magn | o quas | dira Celaeno. | 

But we have already pointed out, in the chapters on Poetical 
Licenses and Elision, the manner in which these difficulties must 
be explained. It appears probable, however, from some lines of 
Ermius, if any reliance can be placed on such scraps, that he 
occasionally indulged in liberties of this kind. Thus, we find 
among his remains, 

Cdpitibu | nutantes pinus rectosque cupressos 

Meldnur \ urn, turdum, merulamque, uinbramque marinam. 

b. Dactylic Pentameter Acatalectic. 

This species of verse was so called in consequence of the manner 
in which it was scanned by some of the old grammarians, who 
viewed it as consisting of two Dactyls or Spondees, followed by a 
Spondee and two Anapaests, according to the following scheme : 

Fiigkll [ us glaci [ e pect [ iis amant | is erat 
Nil mihi | resciib | as at | tamen ips | e vem 
Lassa ret vidii | as pend | iila tel | a mantis | 
Flebam | success | u pos | se care | re dolos. 

Quintil. IX., c. 4; Terent. Maur. v., 2421. 


Hephaestio, however, who has been followed by almost all 
modern scholars, considers it as composed of two Dactylic Penthe- 
mimers, or, in other words, two Dactylic Trimeters C dialectic joined 
together. According to this, 

1. The first two feet may be either Dactyls or Spondees, they are 
followed by a Caesural syllable, then two Dactyls, and another 
Caesural syllable; thus, 


Frigid! | us glaci | e |j pectus am j antis er | at 
~Nll mihi | rescrib | as || attamen | ipse ven J I J 
Lassa | ret vidii | as || pendula | tela man | us | 
Flebam | success j u || posse car ] ere dol | os. | 

That this is the proper view to take of its structure seems certain, 
from the fact that a division of the verse takes place invariably at 
the end of the fifth half foot, as well in the Greek as in the Latin 
writers. 1 

Ovid is considered the model of this species of verse among the 
[Romans, and the wonderful smoothness and melody of his composi 
tions are the result of close attention to a number of minute 
observances, which were altogether neglected by the Greeks and 
by their imitators, Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius. 

Following the example of Ovid, the following points deserve 
particular notice : 

2. The first Caesura ought always to be strictly the last syllable 
in a word, and not rendered so by elision, as in the following lines 
from Catullus : 

Quam veniens una atque || altera rursus hyems. G. LXVIIL, 82. 
Troia virum et virtutum || omnium acerba cinis. C. LXYIIL, 90. 
Nee desistere amare || omnia si facias. C. LXXY., 8. 

3. If the first Caesural syllable be a monosyllable, which ought 
not to happen frequently, it must be preceded by a long monosyl 
lable, or by a word of the same time, i. e., a word consisting of two 
shprt syllables, e. g., 

1 No exception to this, even in Greek, except in a proper name. 

VVV %s AtOffKOVpibst) yS JSY]. 

CaUim. F. CXCII. 


-Et mihi si non vis \\ parcere, parce meis. 0. H. IV., 162. 
Tu dominus, tu vir \\ tu mihi frater eras. 0. H. III., 52. 
Nulla tibi sme me \\ gaudia facta, neges. 0. H. III., 112. 
Praeterito mdgis est \\ iste pudendus amor. 0. H. V., 44. 

An exception to this rule is made when the monosyllable is est, 
and the word before it suffers elision; such lines as the following 
are not uncommon : 

Litteraque invisa est, \\ hac mea parte tibi. 0. II. XVIII., 202. 
Quo nisi consilio est \\ usa puella tuo. 0. A. A. II., 368. 

But such as the following are very rare in Ovid : 
Sed sic inter nos \\ ut latuisse velint. 0. A. A. II. , 612. 
Quod licet inter vos \\ nomen habete meum. 0. T. V., iii., 58. 
lustaque quamvis est, \\ sit minor ira dei. 0. E. P. II., viii., 76. 
Quaere suburbana hie \\ sit mihi terra locum. 0. T. III., vi., 38. 

4. The last word of a Dactylic Pentameter is, in the great ma 
jority of instances, a dissyllable in Ovid. 

We occasionally find est in this place, preceded by a dissyllable 
which suffers elision 

Hie est cuius amans hospita capta dolo est. 0. II. II., 74. 

Nee repetor; cessas, iraque lenta tua est. 0. H. III., 22. 
More rarely two monosyllables, 

Praemia si studio consequor ista, sat est. O.T. V., vii., 68. 
But such a line as the following must be considered altogether 

O O 

unworthy of imitation : 

Omnis an in magnos culpa deos scelus est. 0. E. P. I., vi., 26. 

5. The trisyllabic ending, although very common in the Greek 
poets, in Catullus, &c., may be said to be altogether excluded from, 
the Ovidian Pentameter; we find one example only in his earlier 
works, and five others in the Epistles from Pontus, which together 
with the Tristia, were composed while the poet was plunged in the 
deepest despondency, and bear tokens of less accurate revision than 
his other productions 

Quae tamen externis danda forent generis. 0. H. XI Y., 62. 

To which siddfaciet, E. P. I., i., 66. Liceat, viii., 40. Retitent, 
III, v., 40. Videor, vi, 46. Tegeret, IV., ix., 26. 


6. The quadrisyllable ending is likewise very uncommon except 
in the Tristia and Epistles from Pontus ; we have, however, two or 
three examples in his other works 

TJnda simul miserum vitaque deseruit. 0. H. XIX., 202. 
Et circumfusis invi&jfluminibus. 0. F. Y., 582. 
Cantabat moestis tibia funeribus. 0. F. VI., 660. 

To which add, Ausoniae, T. I., iii., 6. Italia, iv., 20. Cyaneas, 
x., 34. Imperil, II., 232. Historiae, 416. Exsequiae, III., v., 40. 
Barbariae, ix., 2. JSarbaria, x., 4. Posteritas, IY, x., 2. Obse- 
quium, Y., vi., 30. Perlegere, E. P. II., ii., 6. Imperium, 72. 
J}almatiae, 78. ArticuliSj iii., 18. Ingenium, v., 26. Alcinoi, ix., 
42. Adspiciant, III., i., 166. Alcinoo, IY., ii., 10. Anticyra, 
iii., 54. Officio, v., 24. Alterius, vi., 6. Auxilium, 14. Oechalia, 
viii., 62. Utilitas, ix., 48. Danubium, 80. Imperii, xiii., 28. 
IngeniiSj 46. Invenies, xiv., 4. Ingenio, 18. Imposuit, 56. Auxili- 
um, xv., 26. 

7. The quinquesyllabic ending is still more rare than the quad- 

Lis est cum forma magna pudicitiae. 0. H. XYL, 288. 

Nee sedeo duris torva super ciliis. 0. H. XYII., 16. 

To which add, Adulterii, T. II., 212. Ericthonium, 294. Adul- 
terium est, 430. Adulteria, 514. Amicitiae, IY., v., 24. Patro- 
cinium, E. P. I., ii., 70. Erictlwnius, II., ix., 20. Amicitia, IY, 
iii., 12. Amicitiae, xiii., 44. 

8. As to the kind of words which conclude the line, they ought 
to possess some emphasis. They are usually nouns substantive, the 
personal and possessive pronouns, or verbs. Adjectives do not 
often occur in this place, adverbs still more rarely, and less fre 
quently than either, the present participle active. 1 

9. "We may further observe, that elisions should be resorted to 
sparingly, especially in the second half of the verse, w T here they are 
by no means harmonious. They may be allowed in the first of the 
two Dactyls, as 

Ultimus est aliqua decipere arte labor. 0. H. XII., 50. 
Incipis, incipiet desinere esse mea. 0. A. II., xix., 48. 

But when they fall on the second Dactyl, the melody of the line 
is destroyed, e. g., 

1 See on this head, and on all the topics connected with Dactylic Pentameters, the 
admirable remarks of Mr. Tate, which first appeared in the Classical Journal, and 
have since been printed in a separate form. 


Quis scit an haec saevas tigridas insula habet. 0. II. X., 86. 

10. At the beginning of the verse, it is better to have a Dactyl 
followed by a Spondee than the reverse, as may be seen in l 

Yix Priamus tanti totaque Troia fuit. 0. II. I., 4. 
Res est solliciti plena timoris amor. 0. H. L, 12. 

But this is not accurately observed. 

11. Although in this species of verse the last syllable of the line 
is common, yet a short vowel ought to be avoided; and such will 
be found to be the general usage of Ovid. 2 Thus, of the two 
following lines, the first is the more pleasing 

Dummodo quas fmdam corpore dentur aquae. 0. H. XVIII., 146. 
Cumque mea fiunt turbida mente/re& 0. H. XYIIL, 172. 

But the exceptions are far too numerous to allow us to lay this 
down as a positive rule. 

12. Dactylic Pentameters are never found in a system by them 
selves in the classic authors (unless seven lines in Ausonius can be 
taken as an exception), but always in combination with Hexame 
ters. Hexameters and Pentameters, placed alternately, constitute 
what is named the Elegiac Distich; so called, it would seem, from 
having been originally employed in mournful strains; but the 
original inventor of the measure was unknown even in the days of 

Yersibus impariter iunctis querimonia primum. 
Post etiam inclusa est voti sententia compos; 
Quis autem exiguos elegos emiserit auctor 
Grammatici certant et adhuc sub iudice lis est. 

Its province was, however, in process of time, much extended. 
It was used by the Greeks in hymns, epigrams, and even war songs ; 
and by the Romans in epigrams, epistles, and all kinds of amatory 

13. With regard to the structure of the Hexameter, when com 
bined with the Pentameter, little need be said in addition to the 
general observations already made, except that all the canons laid 
down in the last section ought to be observed with still greater 
strictness than in ordinary Heroics, the utmost grace and smooth 
ness being the object to be attained in Elegiac compositions, rather 
than variety, dignity, or force. 

Upon this principle, all inharmonious elisions, lengthening of 
short syllables by Caesura, monosyllabic, quadrisyllabic, and quin- 

1 Herm. D. M. E. ; II., c. xxviii 2 Ibid. 


quesyllabic terminations, Spondaic lines, and licenses of every 
description, should be avoided with care, and the utmost pains 
taken to render the verse smooth and flowing, by employing none 
but the best Caesuras. 

14. The rule laid down with regard to Hexameters, that, if the 
sense of one line be carried forward, and terminated in the first 
word of the next line, then the first foot of the second line ought 
to be a Dactyl, applies equally to the Hexameter, when followed 
by the Pentameter. Thus we seldom find in Ovid such a couplet 

/O " 

J Inde duae pariter, visu mirabile, palmae 

( Surgunt, ex illis altera maior erat. 0. F. III., 31. 

But generally, 

/ Semisepulta virum curvis feriuntur aratris 

\ Ossa, ruinosas occulit herba domus. 0. H. I., 55. 

( ISTos Pylon, antiqui Neleia Nestoris arva 

( Misimus, incerta est fama remissa Pylo. 0. H. I., 63. 

15. Finally, it is to be remarked, that each sentence ought to be 
included within a couplet. If the sense be continued beyond a 
couplet, which does not often happen, then it should be completed 
at the end of the second couplet, and never be permitted to extend 
beyond these limits, nor stop short in the middle of a couplet. 1 


c. Dactylic Tetrameter Acatalectic, 

Consists, as the name implies, of four feet. The first .two may be 
either Dactyls or Spondees; the third a Dactyl, rarely a Spondee; 
the fourth invariably a Spondee; thus 

r i 

Clbimiis | "0 soci | I comit | esque 
Certus en I im pro I mlsit V A I polio ! 

I -t- I | .L I 

Me nee | tarn pati | ens Lace | daemon | 
TO fort | es pei [ oraque | passl | 

Being in fact the same with the last four feet of the Heroic 

It is used three times by Horace, in combination with the Heroic 
Hexameter, in Od. I., vii. and xxviii., and Epod. XII. 

1 At the beginning of T. IV., iii., we have eight lines in succession before we reach 
a period. But in this and similar examples, the sense and construction of each couplet 
is complete within itself. 


Laudabunt alii claram Khodon et Mitylenen 
Ant Epheson bimarisve Corinthi 

In tlie following line a Spondee is found in the third foot, preceded 
by a Dactyl, answering to the Spondaic line in the Hexameter : 

Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arenae. 

Mensorem cohibent, ~^irchyta. If. 0. I., xxviii., 1. 

Horace has generally a Caesura at the beginning of the second or 
third foot, as in 

Unde potest || tibi defluat aequo. If. 0. I., xxviii., 28. 

Tempora testatus || nihil ultra. //. 0. I., xxviii., 12. 
It is, however, altogether omitted in 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. H. 0. I., xxviii., 34. 
And is monosyllabic in 

ludice te || non sordidus auctor. II. 0. I., xxviii., 14. 

Plurimus in || lunonis honorem. II. 0. I., vii., 8. 

The structure of the lines in Epod. XII. is much less regular, in 
consequence of the style and tone of that piece. 

d. Dactylic Trimeter Hypercatalectic } 
Consists of three Dactyls and a syllable. 

Ausonius will afford an example 

Parva etiain fuit Idalia, 
Nomine praedita quae Paphiae, 
Et speciem meruit Yeneris, 
Quae genita est mihi paene soror, 
Filia nam fuit haec amitae, 
Quam celebrat sub honore pio, 
Naenia carmine funereo. 

Auson. Parent. XXVIII. 

See also Epig. LXXVIIL 

A variety of this measure is found in Boethius, which admits of 
a Spondee in the first two places. 

e. Dactylic Trimeter with a Base, 
Consists of two Dactyls followed by a Spondee, with a Base, i. e., 


one long, or two short syllables, prefixed to the beginning of the 

Ausonius will afford an example. In the following quotation, 
the first line is an Iambic Trimeter, the rest are the verses in ques 
tion : 

Nee Herculanum genitum germana mea, 

Modul i amme I naenia I trlsti, 
i i i . 

Tacit | um sine hon | ore re j Imquat, 
Super | indole | cuius ad | ulti, 
Magn | ae buna | copia j laudls. 

Auson. Parent. XYII., 1. 

f. Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic* 

Otherwise called the Lesser Archilocldan, is a Dactylic Penthe- 
mimer, and identical with the latter half of the Dactylic Pentameter, 
being composed of two Dactyls and a Caesural syllable. Spondees 
are not introduced by Horace 

> ^ r I ^-^ 

I ^^ I 

Arboribusque comae. 

Horace uses this verse in Od. IV. , vii., alternately with the 
Dactylic Hexameter 

Diffugere nives redeunt iam gramina campis 

Arboribusque comae 
Mutat terra vices et decrescentia ripas 

Flumina praetereunt. 

g. Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic, 

Otherwise called Adonic, consists of a Dactyl followed by a 

Terriiit | urbem 
Yisere I montes. 

It is usually subjoined to three Epichoriambic verses, thus con 
stituting what is called the Sapphic Stanza, which will be particu 
larly described hereafter. 

1 We might name it with equal, or, perhaps, greater propriety, DACTYLIC DIMETER 





The Choi-iambic verses chiefly used by the Latin poets, are of 
four kinds, the construction of which is exceedingly simple and 
easily explained. 

The first foot is a Spondee, the last an Iambus (in one species, a 
catalectic syllable), and between these, one, two, or three Choriamb! 
are interposed. We shall consider them in succession. 

a. Choriambic Tetrameter Acatalectic, 


Otherwise called the Greater Asclepiadean, is composed of a Spon 
dee, three Choriambi, an Iambus 



Tu ne | quaesieris, || scire nefas, || quern mihi quern ] tibi. 
Finem | di dederint | Leuconoe || nee Babylon [ ios. 

Tenta I ris numeros. || Ut melius || quidquid erit, pati \ H. 0. I., 

[xi., 1. 

In Horace, Od. I., xi., xviii. ; IY., x., consist solely of this 
measure. The first and the second Choriambus ought each to end 
with a word, as in the above examples. This rule has been trans 
gressed once only by Horace, and this single exception is in a word 
compounded with a preposition 

Arcan | ique fides || prodiga per \\ lucidior | vitro. I., xviii., 16. 
This species of Choriambic verse is used once by Catullus. Carnu 

Alphene immemor, atque || unanimis || false sodalibus ! 

He does not, however, regularly observe both the divisions of the- 
verse noticed above, but he has no line without one or other of 
these pauses 

3STec facta impia fallacum hominuni || coelicolis placent. 4. 
Certe tute iubebas animam || tradere, inique, me. 7. 
Si tu oblitus est, at || Di meminerunt, meminit Fides. 11. 
Quae te ut poeniteat || postmodo facti faciet tui. 12. 

b. Choriambic Trimeter Acatalectic, 

Otherwise called the Lesser Asclepiadean, is composed of a 
Spondee, two Choriambi, an Iambus 


Maecen ] as atavis | edite reg | ibus 

O et | praesidium^et | dulce decus | meum. I., i, 1. 

In Horace, Od. I., i. ; III., xxx. ; IV., viii., consist solely of this 
measure j it is found in several odes, combined with other species of 
Clioriambic verses, as will be noticed below. 

The first Choriambus ought always to end with a word, as in the 
above examples. This rule has been twice transgressed by Horace ; 
in one of the instances, however, in a word compounded with a 
preposition, and in the other, in a proper name 

Dum flagrantia de \ torquet ad oscula. II., xii., 25. 
ISTon stipendia Garth ] aginis impiae. 1 IV., viii., 17. 

In the following lines, a short syllable is lengthened in the 
division of the verse : 

Quam si quidquid ardt \\ impiger Appulus. 2 III., xvi., 26. 
Certa sede mariet, \\ humor et in genas. I., xiii., 6. 

In the following, the same takes place in the Caesural syllable at 
the beginning of the first Choriambus : 

Perruplt Acheronta Herculeus labor. I., iii., 36. 

c. Choriambic Dimeter Acatalectic, 

Otherwise called Glyconian, is, as it appears in Horace, composed 
of a Spondee, a Choriambus, an Iambus 

Sic te I Diva potens | Cypri. H. 0. I., iii., 1. 
Dianae sumus in fide. C. XXXIV., 1. 

This species of Choriambic verse is not used in a system by itself, 
in the works either of Horace or Catullus, but in combination with 
other species of Choriambic verse, as will be noticed below. 

In many editions of Horace, we twice find a Trochee in the first 
place instead of a Spondee, viz., in I., xv., 24 

Teucer et, Sthenelus sciens, 

"Where the best copies now have 

Teucer, te Sthenelus sciens. 
And again in I., xv., 36 

Ignis Iliacas domus. 

1 See Bentley s note on this line. 
* Some read here non piyer. 


For which has been substituted 

Ignis Pergameas domus. 
Catullus, however, frequently uses a Trochee in the first place 

Rustica agricolae bonis. XXXIV., 19. 
Cmge tempora floribus. LXI., 6. 

And also an Iambus 

Puellae et pueri integri. XXXI V., 2. 

In the following line, Horace lengthens a short final syllable by 
virtue of a Caesural pause 

lt adamantines. H. 0. III., xxiv., 5. 

d. Choriambic Dimeter Catalectic, 

Otherwise called Pherecratean, as it appears in Horace, is 
composed of a Spondee, a Choriambus, a Catalectic syllable 

Grato | Pyrrha sub antr | o. H. 0. I., v., 3. 
ISTon abs | condis amor | em. C. LXL, 205. 

This kind of verse, like the last, is not found in a system by itself, 
in the works either of Horace or Catullus. 

In Horace, the first foot is invariably a Spondee. 

In Catullus, although a Spondee is sometimes employed in the 
first foot, as in the line quoted above, a Trochee is far more 

common, 1 as- 

sonanturn. XXX I V., 12. 
Dicta lumine Luna. XXXIV., 16. 
Tectd frugibus exples. XXXIV., 20. 

An Iambus also sometimes occurs, as 

Puellaeqiie canamus. XXXIV., 4. 
Hymen O Hymenaee. LXI., 40, 50. 

1 1 have little doubt that the Trochee was originally the only foot admissible, in the 
first place, of this and the three above mentioned species of Choriambic verse. The 
Trochee at the beginning, and the Iambus at the end, would thus make up a complete 
Choriambus, ^ | ^-/ , the two members of which were separated from each other 

by one, two, or three, interposed Choriambi w < . So in the 

Greek fragment of Alcaeus, from which Hor. C. I., xviii., is copied 



And in one instance a Spondee is found in the second place instead 
of a Choriambus 

ISTutriunt humore. LXL, 25. 

This species of verse, as it appears in Horace, is by some considered 
to be a Dactylic Trimeter Acatalectic, and is scanned 


Pyrrha sub 


Combinations of the Four last mentioned species of Verse with 

each other. 

Horace has three combinations. 

1. A distich formed by placing the Glyconian (c) and Lesser 
Asdepiadean (b) alternately 

(0.) v^ -^ -^ | " 

Sic te Divsi potens Cypri 

Sic fratres Helenae lucida sidera 

Ventorumque regat pater 

Obstrictis aliis praeter lapyga. I., iii., 1. 

In this are composed Od. I., iii., xiii., xix., xxxvi. ; III., ix., xv., 
xix., xxiv., xxv., xxviii. ; IV., i., iii. 

2. A stanza of four lines, the first three Lesser Asdepiadean (6), 
the fourth Glyconian (c) 




Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium 

Victor, Maeonii carminis alite, 

Quam rem cunque ferox navibus aut equis 

Miles te duce gesserit. I., VI., 1. 

In this are composed Od. I., vi., xv., xxiv., xxxiii. ; II., xii. ; 
III., x^., xvi. ; IV., v., xii. 

3. A stanza of four lines, the first two Lesser Asdepiadean (6), 
followed by a Pherecmtean (d), and concluded by a Glyconian (c) 

(c.) -- 



Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urguet odoribus 

Grato Pyrrha sub antro 
Cui flavam religas comam. I., v., 1. 

In this are composed Od. I., v., xiv., xxi., xxiii. ; III., vii., xiii. ; 

ITT * * * "~~ "*""* 

V., xiii. 

Catullus has two combinations. 

4. A stanza of four lines, the first three Glyconian (c), the fourth 
Pherecratean (d) 

1st, 2d, and 3d, (c.) 

4th, (d.) 1 

Dianae sumus in fide 
Puellae, et pueri integri, 
Dianam, pueri integri, 

Puellaeque caiiamus. 

In this is composed Carm. XXXIV 

5. A stanza of five lines, the first four Glyconian (c), the fifth 
Pfierecratean (d) 

1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, (c.) ^ 

5th, (d.) 

Collis Heliconei 
Cultor, Uraniae genus, 
Qui rapis teneram ad virum 
Virginem, Hymenaee, Hymen, 
Hymen, Hymenaee. 

In this is composed Garni. LXL, the celebrated Epithalamium 
of Julia and Manlius. 

In addition to the four species of Ghoriambic Verse noticed 
above, there are three varieties which it will be necessary to 
describe. Of these, the most important is the ^ 

e. Epichoriambic Trimeter CatalectiCj 1 
Otherwise called the Lesser Sapphic. It is a variety of Choriam- 

When the preposition Epi (evi, in addition to), is prefixed to the word which 
marks the class to which a verse belongs, it points out that the variety in question 


bic Trimeter Catalectic, and is composed of the second Epitrite, a 
Choriambus, a Bacchius 

v i: _____ 

lam satis terr | Is nivis at | que dlrae. H. 0. L, ii., 1. 
Caesaris vis | ens monument | a magni. | C. XL, 10. 

1. In practice, however, it is more convenient to consider it as 
composed of a Trochee, a Spondee, a Dactyl, two Trochees 

lam sat | is terr | is mvis | atque [ dirae 
Caesar | is vis ] ens momi | menta | magni. 

2. Horace invariably has a Spondee in the second place; while 
Catullus, imitating the example of the Greeks, admits a Trochee 

Seu Sac | as sag | ittifer osque | Parthos. XI., 6. 

3. Horace generally makes the first syllable of the Dactyl Cae- 

Pindarum quisquis || studet aemulari. IV., ii., 1. 

Sanguinem per quos || cecidere iusta. IY., ii., 14. 

4. More rarely, the first two syllables of the Dactyl close a word, 
thus forming what we termed, when treating of Dactylic Hexame 
ters, a Trochaic Caesura 

Laurea donandus || Apollinari. IY., ii., 9. 
Pinus aut impulsa || cupressus Euro. IY., vi., 10. 

Horace, however, seems to have changed his opinion with regard 
to this pause. In the first three books of the Odes it occurs but 
seldom, e. g., I., x., 1, xii., 1, xxv., 11, xxx., 1; II., vi., 11; while 
in Book IY. it happens eleven times in Odes ii. and vi., four times 
in xi., and twelve times in the Carmen Saeculare. 

The form 

Nuntium curvaeque lyrae parentem, 

where the Enclitic que forms the second syllable of the Dactyl, 
occurs twice only in the first three books, viz., I., x., 6, 18, while 
in the fourth book it is found four times in Ode ii., once in Ode vi., 
and seven times in the Carmen Saeculare. 

admits some feet which do not properly belong to the class, as in the above instance, 
where the Choriambus is united with an Epitrite and a Bacchius. 


Once only is the Dactyl included in one word 

Quam locus circumvolat et Cupido. I., ii., 34. 

Where the difficulty may be removed by separating the preposition 
from the verb with which it is compounded, just as in Ode II., 
xvi., 33 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 

Mugiunt vaccae, &c. 

The Caesura takes place sometimes with elision, as III.,xxvii., 10 

Imbrium divina \\ avis imminentum. 

6 . In one instance Horace lengthens a short syllable in the 

Angulus ridet \\ ubi non Hymetto. II., vi., 14. 

6. Catullus, following the Greeks, neglects this Caesura alto 
gether, e. g., 

Seu Sacas sagittiferosque Parthos. XI., 6. 
Ultimi flos praetereunte postquam. XL, 22. 

We may now proceed to explain the construction of the 


Sapphic Stanza, 

So called from the two celebrated fragments of the gifted Sappho. 

7. The Sapphic Stanza is composed of three Lesser Sapphic verses, 
such as have just been described; to which is subjoined an Adonic 
or Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic (see above, p. 177.) Horace is con 
sidered as our model, and according to his usage we shall have the 
following scheme : 


lam satis terris nivis atque dirae 
Grandinis misit pater, et rubente 
Dextera sacras iaculatus arces 

Terruit urbem. 

8. In this stanza a close connection subsists between the third \ 
and fourth lines, 1 and hence Horace four times divides a word ] 
between them : 

1 They may possibly have been originally considered as forming one line. (See 
Monthly Review, January, 1798, p. 45.) 


Labitur ripa love non probante ux- 

-orius amnis. L, ii., 19. 

Thracio bacchante magis sub inter- 

-lunia vento. L, xxv., 11. 

Grosphe, non gemmis, neque purpura ven- 

-ale neque auro. II., xvi., 7. 

Pendulum zona bene te secuta e- 

-lidere collum. III., xxvii., 59. 

In tlie second and fourth of the above examples, the license, if it 
is to be considered as such, may be justified by separating the 
prepositions. In the last many editors read laedere. 

Bo Catullus 

Gallicum Hhenum horribilisque ultim- 

-osque Britannos. XL, 11. 

This division of a word is confined to the third and fourth verses ; 
no example being found of such a division at the termination of the 
first, second, or fourth. 

9. Elision sometimes takes place between the second and third, 
and the third and fourth lines. Thus in Horace 

2. Dissidens plebi numero beator(um) 

3. Eximit virtus, &c. II. , ii., 18. 

2. Mugiunt vaccae, tibi tollit hinnit(um) 

3. Apta quadrigis equa, &c. II., xvi., 34. 

2. Plorat, et vires animumque mores(que) 

3. Aureos educit in astra, nigro(que) 

4. Invidet Oreo. IV., ii., 22. 

3. Romulae genti date remque prolem(que) 

4. Et decus omne. C. S., 47. 

The following is a strange example of elision between the first 
and second lines : 

( Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari 

( (I)ule, ceratis ope Daedalea. 1 V., ii., 1. 

In Catullus we find 

( 2. Qui illius culpa cecidit; velni prat(i) 

\ 3. Ultimi flos, &c. XL, 22. 

( 3. Nullum amans vere sed identidem omni(um) 

\ Ilia rumpens. XL, 19. 

Yet we can scarcely pronounce the word Yule as has been suggested by some 
critics, for the Latin name lulus is elsewhere uniformly a trisyllable representing the 


10. Elisions of this kind are not, however, necessary; thus we 
find a hiatus between the third and fourth in 

Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 

Ocior aura. H. 0. L, ii. ; 47. 1 

Between the first and second 2 

Sive mutata iuvenem 

Ales, in terris, &e. H. 0. L, ii., 41. 

Between the second and third 3 

Aut super Pindo gelidove in Haemo 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 

Orphea silvae. H. 0. L, xii., 6. 

In this stanza are composed 

Catull. XL, LI. Hor. Od., I., ii., x., xii., xx., xxii., xxv., xxx., 
xxxii, xxxviii. ; II., ii., iv., vi., viii., x., xvi.; III., viii., xi., xiv., 
xviii.. xx., xxii., xxvii. ; IY., ii., vi., xi. 

Carmen Saeculare. 

f. Epichoriambic Tetrameter Catalectic, 

Otherwise called the Greater Sapphic, is composed of 
The second Epitrite, two Choriambi, a Bacchius 

Te Deos or | o Sybarm | cur properas | amando. 

Being the Lesser Sapphic, with the addition of a Choriambus in the 
third place. 

The first syllable of the first Choriambus ought to be Caesural, 
-and there ought to be a division of the verse after the first Choriam 
bus. 4 

g. Aristophanic Epichoriambic Dimeter Cataleotic, 

Is composed of 

A Choriambus and a Bacchius. 

i j 

Lydia die J per omnes. 

1 So also, I., xii., 7; xxii., 15. 

2 So also, I., xii., 25; II., xvi., 5; III., xi., 29. 

5 So also, I., xxv., 18 ; xxx., 6; II., iv., 6j III., xxvii., 10. 
4 Herman. D. M. E. III., c., xvi. 



The two last mentioned varieties of Choriambic verse are found 
once only in the Latin classics, in Hor. Od. I., viii., in which piece 
a distich is formed by placing (#.) and (/) alternately 

Lydia die per omnes 

Te Deos oro, Sybarin cur properas amaiiclo 

Perdere ? cur apricum 
Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis. 


In this class of verses, the feet admissible without restriction, are 
the Anapaest, the Spondee, and the Dactyl. ~No specimen of 
Anapaestic verse is extant in the purer Latin classics, and there 
fore it will not be necessary for us to dwell long upon the subject. 

The species most in use among the Greek tragedians, was the 
Anapaestic Dimeter A catalectiCj which is frequently found in systems 
interspersed with the Anapaestic Manometer Acatalectic, and these 
systems are usually closed by an Anapaestic Dimeter Catalectic, 
otherwise called a Paroemiac, it having been a favourite vehicle for 
Proverbs (Trapotjuiai); the Paroemiac is usually immediately pre 
ceded by a Monometer. 

In writing systems of this nature in Latin, if we wish to follow 
the Greek model, attention must be paid to the following points :- 

1. The last syllable of each verse is not common, but is subject 
to the ordinary laws of Prosody, unless at the end of a sentence, or 
any considerable pause in the sense. (See above, under Synapheia.) 

2. Each Dipode ought to end with a word. 1 

3. Dactyls ought to be employed sparingly in Latin Anapaests; 
when introduced, they ought to form the first foot in the Dipode, and 
ought to be followed by a Spondee in preference to an Anapaest. 

4. The third foot of the Paroemiac must always be an Anapaest. 
We shall give a specimen of each of these three species, premising 

that Seneca does not follow the example of the Greeks in closing a 
system of Dimeters by a Paroemiac. 

a. Anapaestic Dimeter Acatalectic. 

Indus gelidum potat Araxem 
Albim Persae, Elienumque bibunt. 

1 This does not apply to the Paroemiac. 


Yenient annis saecula seris 
Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum 
Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus 
Tethysque novos detegat orbes 
ISTec sit terris ultima Thule. 1 

Seneca, Medea., 373. 
The following are from Claudian 

Solitas galea fulgere comas 
Stilicho molli necte corona. 
Cessent litui, saevumque procul 
Martem felix taeda releget. 


Claud, in Nupt. Hon. et Mar. Fesc. 
b f Anapaestic Dimeter Catalectic or Paroemiac. 

r N , n 

L J 

Venient cito saecula, cum iam 
Socius calor ossa revisat 
Animataque sanguine vivo 
Habitacula pristina gestet. 

Prudent. Oathem. Hymn X., 37. 

Prudentius does not admit a Dactyl, and uses a Spondee in the 
first place only. Boethius is more lax, as may be seen in the 
following : 

Qui se volet esse potentem 
Animos domit ille feroces 
]STec victa libidine colla 
Eoedis submittat habenis. 
Etenim licet Indica longe 
Tellus tua iura tremiscat 
Et serviat ultima Thule 
Tamen atras pellere curas, 
Miserasque fugare querelas 
Non posse, potentia noil est. 

1 This is the celebrated pretended prediction of the discovery of America, which 
has by some unbelievers been put in competition with the prophecies of holy writ. See 
the admirable remarks of Bishop Horsley upon this subject, in Sermon XVII. T ho 
lines have, however, been very appropriately chosen by Mr. Washington Irving as the 
motto to his history of the Life of Columbus. 


c. Anapaestic Monometer Acatalectic. 

Take as a specimen 

O flos iuvenum 
Spes laeta patris 
Nee certa tuae 
Data res patriae 
Rhetor Alethi. 

Auson. Profess. VI., 1. 

In Seneca it is often mixed up with the Dimeter Acatalectic, 

. (J. I 

Arcus victor, pace relata, 

Phoebe, relaxa, 

Humeroque graves levibus telis 

Pone pharetras : resonetque mami 

Pulsa citata vocale chelys 

Nil acre velim. 

Agam. 322. 


Are divided into Ionic a maiore and Ionic a minore verses, 
according to the prevailing foot. 

Of these the most celebrated is the 

Ionic a maiore Tetrameter Bracliycatalectic, 

Otherwise called Sotadean, from Sotades, a Thracian who lam 
pooned Ptolemy Philadelphas. In its pure state, it consists of 
three Ionic a maiore feet, followed by a Spondee 

Tuto mans I Iras videt I e Httore I nauta 

Several of these Sotadean verses are to be found in the remains 
of the Greek poets, and they have been carefully analyzed by 
Hermann. In Latin, a short fragment of Ennius, and a few irregular 
lioes in Martial and Petronius Arbiter, are the only specimens of 


__ ^^\ -- v/^-V-^j^^ 

the measure, except sucli as are met with, in Plautus. 1 The Ionics 
a maiore of Martial, and these are but two lines, have the proper 
foot in the first two places, and a Ditrochaeus in the third, followed 
by a Spondee 

Has cuingeinm | a compede | dedicat cat | enas 

Saturne, ti bi Zoiliis, | annul os pri j ores. Ep. III., xxix. 

Of the ten lines in Petronius Arbiter, c. 132, some are formed 
upon the above model, as 

Nanique Ilia met | u fiigidi | or rigente | bruma 
Ter corripul terribilem manu bipennem. 

In others, the second long syllable of the Ditrochaeus is resolved 
into two short 

Ferrum timu | I quod tropic! | o mal | e dabat | usum 
Nee lam poter | am quod nioclo conf ic | ere lib | ebat. 

In another, this resolution is combined with the resolution of the 
first long syllable of the line 

, v lta non potii | I siipplici | o cap | iit aper | ire. 2 


We have one example of this class in Horace, Od. III., xii. r 
which is composed of a series of pure Ionic a minore verses. These 
are differently arranged by different editors, but are usually con 
sidered to be a system of Tetrameters Acatalectic. 

In these no foot is admitted except the Ionic a minore; and the 
lines are connected together by the law of Synapheia, being scanned 
continuously until we reach a full stop 

" ^-" I ^-^ " - 

Miserarum est neque aniori dare ludum, neque dulci 
Mala vino lavere ; aut exanimari metuentes 
Patruae verbera linguae. Tibi qualum Cythereae 
Puer ales, tibi telas, operosaeque Miner vae 
Studium aufert, Neobule, Liparaei nitor Hebri. 


Derived their name from the Iambus, of which foot they were 
originally composed, to the exclusion of all others. Afterwards, in 

1 AuL II., i., 30 ; III., ii. 

2 Those who wish for further information on this species of verse, may consult 
Terentianus Maurus, v., 2013; Euddiraan s Grammar; and Herman, D. M. E. IL, 


order to vary the rhythm, and diminish the labour of the poet, a 
Spondee was allowed in the odd places of the verse, the Iambus 
alone still occupying the even places. 1 In process of time, sundry 
modifications were introduced. In the even places, the long syl 
lable of the Iambus was resolved into two short ones, and thus the 
Tribrach, which is isochronous with the Iambus, gained admission. 
In the odd places, by resolving the first long syllable of the Spondee, 
an Anapaest was formed ; and by resolving the second syllable, a 
Dactyl. Thus, eventually, all these feet were employed in Iambic 
measures, subject to certain restrictions, to be hereafter specified. 
Iambic verse is said to have been invented, or at least perfected, by 
Archilochus, who made it a vehicle for lampoons against a faithless 

Archilochum rabies proprio armavit iambo ; 

and specimens of Iambic invective are still to be found in the 
Epodes of Horace. It was, however, soon appropriated to more 
noble purposes, and one species was selected by the dramatic 
writers, as suited above all others for their dialogue. This is the 

a. Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic, 

Otherwise called the Senariug, because it consists of six feet. 

This measure was brought to the highest perfection by the Greek 
tragedians. The laws by which it was regulated have been exa 
mined with uncommon care by modern scholars; and in this 
country, Porson and Elmsley have investigated their principles 
with so much acuteness and accuracy, that the subject may be said 
to be exhausted. 

In Latin our models are Catullus and Horace : the first has left 
four poems in this species of verse, viz., those which are numbered 
IV. [XX.], 2 XXIX., LIL, of which the first three are written in 
pure Iambics, that is, Iambics in which there is no admixture of 

1 Syllaba longa brevi snbiecta vocattir Iambus, 
Pes citus ; unde etiam Trimetris accrescere iussit 
Nomen lambei s, cum senos redderet ictus 
Primus ad extremum similis sibi : non ita pridem, 
Tardior ut paullo graviorque veniret ad aures, 
Spondees stabiles in iura paterna recepit, 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secunda 
Ccderet, aut quarta, socialiter. Hie et in Acci 
Nobilibus trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni. 
In scenam missus magno cum pondere versus, 
Aut operae celeris nimiuin curaque carentis, 
Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi, H. A P. 251. 

* The authenticity of this piece is very doubtful. 



Spondees or resolved feet ; while the last consisting of four lines 
only, contains Spondees in some of the odd places. Horace uses 
the Iambic Trimeter in a system by itself, in a poem of eighty-one 
lines (Epod. XVIL), and in several other Odes combined with 
other kinds of verse. Let us take, then, the canons established 
with reference to the Greek tragedians, which will be found to 
apply almost without change or qualification to Catullus and 

1. An Iambus is admitted in everyplace, which may be resolved 
into a Tribrach in every place, except the last, where there must 
be invariably an Iambus ; a Spondee may be used in the first, third, 
and fifth places, which in the first and third may be resolved into a 
Dactyl, and in the first into an Anapaest. In the case of a proper 
name, however, an Anapaest is admissible in any place except the 
last, provided it be included within the limits of a single word. 
The scheme of the verse will then stand thus 



_ -i r _ -j r T | r^ N> ^ _ "1 

~J [^ ~J L J L J 

Take the following specimens : 

Pure Iambic. Es impudicus et vorax et aleo. 1 

Spondee in 1 & 3. Per consulatum peierat Yatinius. 2 
Spondee, 1, 3, 5, Unxere matres Iliae addictum feris. 3 

f Tribrach ^ in l, &) g ed alius ardor aut p ue llae candidae. 4 
\Spondee in o. ) 

(Tribrach in 2 & 4,\ y e ctabor humeris tune ego nnics eques. 
\Spondee, 1 & 3. J 

( Tribrach ^ in 3, &) Libet iacere modo 

\iSpondee in o. ) 

( Dactyl in 1, \ 
{Spondee in 3 & 5. J 

an tiqua ilice. 6 
i rara tendit retia< 7 


/ D f tl A l 3 > t I Quo, quo. scelesti. ruitis aut cur dexteris. 
\Spondee in 1 cc 5. ) 

-f c - Ana P ae ? t }>^ I Positosque vernas ditis examen domus. 9 
\Spondee in 3 & 5. } 

When a long- syllable is resolved in Iambic verse, the two short 
syllables which result must both be in the same word. Thus, in 

1 CatulL XXIX., 11. 2 LII M 3. 3 Hor. Epod. XVIL, 11. 

XL, 27. 5 XVIL, 74. 6 II., 23. 7 II,, 33. l VII., I. II., 65. 


the two following lines, where the long syllable of the Iambus is 
resolved into two short, and forms a Tribrach, the second and third 
syllables of the Tribrach are both in the same word 

Aut herbd Idpathi prata amantis, et gravi. H. E. II., 57. 
Quod si pudicd mutter in partem iuvet. H. E. II., 39. 

So also, since the two short syllables of the Dactyl arise from the 
resolution of the second long syllable in the Spondee, these must 
both be in the same word 

Aut dmite levi rara tendit retia. H. E. II., 33. 

Quo, quo, scelestl, ruitis aut cur dexteris. H. E. VII., 1. 

The Tribrach, where it appears in Horace, is always divided 
between two words, as in the examples above ; when the Dactyl is 
not divided between two words, it always forms the first part of a 
word, as in 

Deripere Lunam vocibus possim meis. H. E. XVII., 78. 

The Anapaest in the first place is always included within a 

Positosqu.e vernas ditis examen domus. 

Observe, that resolved feet ought not to concur, as they do in the 
following lines : 

Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem. H. E. II., 3. 
Canidia brevibus irnplicata viperis. H. E. V., 15. 
"Alitibus atquS canibiis honricidam Hectorem. H. E. XVII., 12. 
Vectabor humeris tune ego inimlcis eques. H. E. XVII. ; 74. 

With regard to the number of resolved feet which may be 
interspersed, it is difficult to lay down any rule; but since their 
introduction was originally a license, they ought to be sparingly 
employed. There are altogether 311 Iambic Trimeters in Horace, 
and 31 instances of resolved feet, 1 thus allowing one in every ten 

1 Viz., Epod. L, 27; II., 23, 33, 35 bis. 39, 57, GI, 65, 67; III., 17; V., 15 
lis. 25; V., 49, 85, 91; VII., 1; X., 7, 19; XL, 27; XVII., 6, 12 ter. 42, 63, 
65, 74 bis. 78. 

Of these, the Tribrach occurs 10 times in the second place, 4 times in the ihird, 
twice in the fourth, once in the first. 

The Dactyl, 9 times in the first place, 3 times in the third. 

The Anapaest, twice in the first place. 



"Without restricting ourselves to this precise number, we ought 
never, in modern compositions, to have more than one resolved foot 
in a line, and a, fortiori ought carefully to avoid such a concurrence 
of resolved feet as we have pointed out above. Spondees, of course, 
are not considered as resolved feet, and may be used without 
limitation in their proper places. 

Horace never has a Tribrach in the fifth. 

2. Caesura. In every Iambic Trimeter, the first syllable of the 
third foot ought to be Caesural, or if the Penthemimeral Caesura 
be wanting, then it must have the Hepthemimeral 

Ait fuisse || navium celerrimus. C. IV., 2. 

Hhodumve nobilem || horridamve Thraciam. 0. IV., 8. 

Defixa coelo || devocare siclera. II. E. XVIL, 5. 

Cave! Cave namque || in malos asperrimus. II. E. VI., 11. 

flSTeque ullius natantis || impetum trabis. (7. IV., 3. 
1 Propontida trucemve || Ponticum sinum. C. IV., 9. 
( Exsucta uti medulla et || aridum iecur. H. E. V., 37. 

The Penthemimeral Caesura may be monosyllabic. 

Quid nos? quibus, te, || vita, si superstite. II. E. I., 5. 
Libenter hoc et || omne militabitur. II. E. I., 23. 
Feremus, et te || vel per Alpium iuga. II. E. I., 11. 
Satis superque || me benignitas tua. H. E. I., 31. 

There is no instance in Catullus of the total omission of the 
Caesura, and two only in Horace, viz. : 

Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis. II. E. I., 19. 
Quod si meis inaestuat praecordiis. H. E. XI., 15. 

In the last, the disagreeable effect is diminished by the preposition 
in, which may be separated in pronunciation from the verb with 
which it is compounded, as indeed may be urged in favour of 
iwzplumibus also. 

"We find one example of what is called the quasi Caesura, that 
is, an elision which gives a sort of pause to the voice, instead of a 

Parentibus<?we || abominatus Hannibal. H. E. XVI., 8. 

But such lines are by no means harmonious. 

3. P or sonic Pause. Porson, in his celebrated preface to the 
Hecuba, asserted that the following rule was always observed by 
the Greek tragedians : 

"When an Iambic Trimeter ends in a trisyllable or a quasi- 

SCAZON. 195 

trisyllable? preceded by a word of two or more syllables, then the 
fifth foot must be an Iambus or a Tribrach." 

There is no exception to this law in Catullus, whose Iambic 
Trimeters are, as we have stated above, almost all pure, but it is 
constantly violated by Horace, in those Odes in which Iambic 
Trimeters are combined with other kinds of verse, e. g. : 

Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum. H. E. I., 27. 
Nee ut superna villa candens Tusculi. H. E. I., 29. 
Libet iacere modo sub antiqua ilice. H. E. II., 23. 

While in Epod. XVII., where these form a system by themselves, 
it is but once neglected 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorem. 12. 

Choliambus or Scazon, 

Called also Ilipponactean, is a variety of the Senarius. It differs 
from it in this, that while the Senarius has invariably an Iambus 
in the sixth place, the Scazon has invariably a Spondee in the sixth 
place, and an Iambus in the fifth. In all other respects they are 
the same. Catullus is our model, who uses this measure seven 
LIX. He rarely indulges in resolved feet, although they now and 
then occur 

Quern nonm cittqua re videre Suffenum. C. XXIL, 19. 
Yidistis ipso rapere de rogo coenam. G. LIX., 3. 

In Doering s edition of Catullus we find in XXXYIL, 11, the 

Puella nam mea quae meo sinn fugit. 

1 A quasi-trisyllable is a dissyllable preceded or followed by a monosyllable, which 
is more closely connected vath it in construction than with the other word with which 
it is in immediate contact ; in like manner, three monosyllables closely connected 
in the same way, may be considered a quasi-trisyllable. Thus, in the lines 

Aut herba lapathi prata amantis, et gravi 
Malvae salubres corpori. 

Incoctus herbis me pepellit ? an malas 
Canidia tractavit dapes. 

Et gravi, an malas, are quasi-trisylldbles, while in 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc. 

Est in hoc cannot be considered a quasi- trisyllable, because est is more nearly connected 
with ducenda than with in. 


with, an Anapaest in the third place, a license unknown to Catullus. 
Doering inserts this in the face of a host of MSS., which give the 
far more elegant reading 

Puella nam me quae meo sinu fugit. 

The following may be taken as a specimen of this measure : 

Peninsularum, Sirmio, insularumque 
Ocelle, quascunque in liquentibus stagnis 
Marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus ! 
Quam te libenter, quamque laetus, inviso ! 
Yix mi ipse credens, Thyniam atque Bithynos 
Liquisse campos, et videre te in tuto. 
O quid solutis est beatius curis. C. XXXI. 

Comic Iambic Trimeter. 

Although it is impossible, without great violence to the text, to 
reduce to rule all the verses of Plautus and Terence, yet a considerable 
number of the lines which occur in the ordinary dialogue may be 
scanned, by considering them to be Iambic Trimeters A catalecticj 
which admit an Iambus, a Tribrach, a Spondee, a Dactyl, or an 
Anapaest, in every place except the last, which must always be 
filled by an Iambus. Such are the Comic Trimeters of the Greeks, 
and such is the measure in which the Fables of Phaedrus, and 
sundry pieces in Ausonius are composed. Thus, for example, in 
the following line, we have a Spondee in every place except the 
last : 

Nee ullo pacto laedi posset condita. Phaed. II., vi., 6. 
In the following a Dactyl in the fourth and fifth : 

Feles cavernam nacta in media pepererat. Phaed. II., iv., 2. 
In the following an Anapaest in the fourth : 

Hex urbis eius experiendi gratia. Phaed. I., xiv., 6. 
&c., &c., &c. 

We may conclude these remarks by quoting the passage in 
Priscian, in which he gives his opinion with regard to comic 

verses 1 

"Cum non solum Terentius, sed etiam Plautus, Ennius, Acci- 
usque et Naevius atque Pacuvius Turpiliusque, et omnes tani 
tragoediae quam comoediae veteris Latinae scriptores eodem metri 
modo lambici sint usi, ut omnibus in locis indifferenter ponerent 

" This opinion, however, differs from that expressed by Cicero, and quoted in the 



quinque pedes; id est, iambum, vel tribrachum, vel anapaestum, 
vel dactylum, vel spondaeum, absque postremo loco, in quo vel 
iambuin vel pyrrliicliium omnino posuisse inveniuntur ; miror 
quosdam vel abnegare esse in Terentii comoediis metra, vel ea quasi 
arcana quaedam, et ab omnibus doctis semota, sibi solis esse cog- 
iiita, eonfirmare." Priscian. de Vers. Com., p. 1319. 

b. la/nibic Trimeter Catalectic 


Consists of five feet and a syllable, and, as it appears in Horace, 
admits an Iambus in every place, which in the second may be 
resolved into a Tribrach; and a Spondee in the first and third; 
according to the following scheme : 

Mea j remd j t in | dorno | lacun j ar. H. 0. IT., xviii., 2. 

lam te j premet | nox fab | ulae j quS man j es. II. 0. I., iv., 16. 

Eegum | que piier | is nee ] satell | GS or | ci. H. 0. II., xviii., 34.. 

Horace does not use this verse in a system by itself, but twice in-, 
combination with others. 

In Od. I., iv., it is placed alternately with the Greater Arcki- 
lochian (the constitution of which will be explained below), and in 
Od. II., xviii., it is placed alternately with a Trochaic Dimeter 
Catalectic, which will likewise be described in its proper place. 

c. Iambic Dimeter Acatalectic 

Consists of four feet. As it appears in Horace, it admits an 
Iambus in every place, which in the second may be resolved into 
a Tribrach ; and a Spondee in the first and third, which in the first 
may be resolved into a Dactyl 

Dinars | it aest | uos | ms. //. E. III., 18. 
Yol hoed | us e | reptus j lupo. H. E. II., GO. 
Imbres nivesque comparat. H. E. II., 30. 
Videre properantes donrnm. H. E. II., 62. 
Ast ego vicissim risero. H. E. XV., 24. 


Horace uses this measure twelve times. 

In Epod. I ......... X., it is placed alternately with the Sen arms 

Mala soluta exit navis alite 

Ferens olentem Maevium 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus, 

Auster, memento, fluctibus, &c. Epod. X., 1. 

In Epod, XIY. and XY., it is placed alternately with the 
Heroic Hexameter 

Mollis inertia cur tantam diffuderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus, 
Pocula Lethaeos ut si ducentia somnos 

Arente fame traxerim. Epod. XIY., 1. 

d. Iambic Dimeter Hypercatalectic 

Is the name given to the verse which forms the third line in the 
Alcaic Stanza. 

According to the usage of Horace, the first foot may be either a 
Spondee or an Iambus, but is generally a Spondee, the second foot 
an Iambus, the third invariably a Spondee, and the fourth an Iam 
bus, followed by a syllable, according to the following scheme : 


Sylvae | labor | antes | gelu j que. II . I., ix., 3. 
Deprome quadrimum Sabma. H. I., ix., 7. 
Puer quis ex aula caplllis. H. I., xxix., 7. 

"We can scarcely consider it as a regular Iambic verse, since it 
-excludes the proper foot altogether from one of four places, and 
rarely admits it into another; but it must be remarked, that the 
practice of Horace differs in this respect from that of Alcaeus, who 
uniformlv has an Iambus in the third foot. This verse is some- 


times called the Alcaic Enneasyllabic, and will be fully discussed 
hereafter, when we describe the celebrated stanza, of which it forms 
a constituent part. 

e. Iambic Dimeter Catalectic 

Is not found in any of the purer Latin classics, but deserves 
notice, because it is the measure employed in the graceful songs of 
the Pseudo-Anacreon. We have one or two short specimens in 
fragments attributed to Petronius Arbiter. It appears to have 


admitted, in tlie first place, an Iambus, a Spondee, or an Anapaest, 
and in the later writers a Tribrach also ; the second and third feet 
are Iambi, followed by a Catalectic syllable 

Memphitides piiellae 

Sacris Deum paratae 

Tmctus colore noctis 

Manu puer loquaci 

^Egyptias choreas. Pet. Arl.frag. II. 

Triplici vides ut ortu 

Triviae rotetur Ignis 

Volucrique Phoebus axe 

Rapiduin pererret orbem. Id. frag. YI. 

We have another and somewhat longer example in Claudian, in 
which each verse invariably begins with an Anapaest, as in the 
last quoted Fragment of Petronius. The lines in Claudian are not 
in a system by themselves, but form part of a stanza of five lines. 
The first three are Anacreontics, the fourth is a pure Choriambic 
Dimeter, and the fifth a Trochaic Dimeter Brachycatalectic, com 
posed of a Dactyl, followed by two Trochees 

Age cuncta nuptiali 
Redirnita vere tellus 
Celebra toros heriles. 
""Omn nemus | cum fiiiviis. 
"Omne can J at pro | fmidum. 

Claud, in Nupt. Hon. et Mar. Fescen. 

These last two lines are again found combined in Auson. E idyll. 
VII., C. 2, and Sept. Sap. Sent. VI. 

Huddiman and many other prosodians consider these two as 
forming a mixed verse of one line, under the title of Choriambico- 
Trochaic Tetrameter Brachycatalectic. 

f. Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic 

Is a great favourite with Aristophanes, and is found in many 
passages of the Roman comedians. The only specimen of it in a 
pure shape in the Latin classics is a short poem by Catullus, C. 



As it appears in this piece, it is precisely the same with the 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, with an Amphibrachys (^ ^) or 
Bacchius (^ -- ) added after the sixth foot 

"Inept | e quae ] palam [ soles || habe | re tan | quam avit | a 
Quae nunc | tuis || ab ung | uibus |j reglut | ina et | remitte 
Cum de via mulier aves ostend it os citantes. 1 

In one line we have a Spondee in the seventh place 
"Inust | a turp | iter f tibi || nagell | a con | scrlblll | ent. 

Observe, that there is uniformly a division of the verse at the 
end of the fourth foot. 


Trochaic verses, like Iambic, originally admitted that foot only 
from which they take their name. They are so little used by the 
Roman poets, except in dramatic compositions, that we have not 
sufficient data to draw up a code of laws. In all probability, how 
ever, they followed, in their Tetrameters at least, the practice o the 
Greek tragedians, with whom this was a favourite measure. 

a. Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic 

Consists of seven feet and a Catalectic syllable. 

In all places the Trochee is the proper foot, which may in every 
case be resolved into a Tribrach. 

In the even places, i. e. } the 2d, 4th, and 6th, in addition to the 
Trochee, a Spondee is admissible, which may be resolved into an 
Anapaest : in the case of a proper name, a Dactyl is admissible in 
any place, except the fourth and seventh 

- N-/ V/J 

Cras am | et qui | ntmquam am | avit || quique am | avit eras [ 
am | et. 

The division of the verse takes place after the fourth foot, which, 
according to the practice of the Greek tragedians, must always end 
with a word. 

The following lines will serve as a specimen of this verse. They 

1 The text of this Hue is, however, certainly corrupt. 


are taken from the Pervigilium Veneris, a charming little poem, 
containing ninety-three lines, by some attributed to Catullus, but 
generally believed to be the production of a poet of the second or 
third century. It is unfortunately very corrupt, notwithstanding 
the labours of Pithoeus, by whom it was first published, in 1577, of 
Lipsius, Dousa, "Weitzius, Salmasius, Scriverius, los. Scaliger, and 
many others who have exercised their ingenuity in improving the 
text : 

Cras amet, qui nunquam amavit, quique amavit eras amet 
Yer novum, ver iam canorum, vere natus Orbis est. 
Vere concordant amores, vere nubunt alites, 
Et nemus comam resolvit de maritis imbribus. 

In the same measure is the following pretty epigram : 

Quando ponebam novellas arbores mali et piri 
Cortici summae notavi nomeii ardoris meL 
]STulla fit exinde finis vel quies cupidinis : 
Crescit arbor, gliscit arbor, ramus implet literas. 

Burman. Anthol. Lat. I., p. 687. 

We have a short epigram by Ausonius, in which the Trochaic 
Tetrameter Catalectic is placed alternately with the Senarias 

Ore pulchro, et ore muto, scire vis quae sim ? Yolo. 

Imago B,ufi rhetoris Pictavici. 
Diceret sed ipse vellem, rhetor hoc mi. Kon potest. 

Cur 1 ipse rhetor est imago imaginis. 

Auson. Ep. LI. 

b. Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic, 

as found in Horace, consists of three Trochees, and a Catalectic 
syllable. No resolved feet are admitted 

ebur nSque aureum. 

It occurs once only, Od. II., xviii., placed alternately with an 
lavnbic Trimeter Catalectic. 

ebur neque aureum 
Mea renidet in domo lacunar 

trabes Hymettiae 
Premunt columnas ultima recisas 
Africa : neque Attali 

Ignotus haeres regiani occupavi. 




This name may be applied to those verses in which two verses 
belonging to different classes are united, so as to form a single line, 
all the syllables of which are subject to the ordinary laws of prosody 
and versification. 

Take as an example the following line, the first part of which is 
a Dactylic Tetrameter Acatalectic, and the second a pure Trochaic 
Dimeter Brachycatalectic 

Solvitur | acris hy | ems grat | a vice | veris | et Fav | oni. 

Dactylic Tetram. Acat. 

Troch. Dim. Brachycat. 

Or the following, which is made up of an Iambic Penihemimer, fol 
lowed by a pure Dactylic Dimeter 


ut al 


Iambic Penth. 

stet nive 


Dactylic Dim. Acat. 

Among mixed verses those deserving especial notice are, first, 


which are formed by adding any number of Trochees to any Dac 
tylic verse. They receive their name from Aoyoe, discourse, and 
aofSrj, song, because Dactylic verse is the lofty language of poetry, 
while the Trochaic approaches more nearly to ordinary discourse. 
Of Logaoedic verses we may describe the 

a. Greater Arclvilochian, 

which is composed of a Dactylic Tetrameter Acatalectic folio wed by 
a pure Trochaic Dimeter Brachycatalectic. The first three feet may 
be either Dactyls or Spondees ; the fourth is always a Dactyl the 
last three Trochees 


Solvitur acris hyenis grata vice | veris et Favoni. 
The first syllable of the third foot ought to be Caesural, and the 

fourth foot ought to end with a word. 


Horace uses this species of verse once in Od. I., iv., where it is 
placed alternately with an Iambic Trimeter Catalectic^ 

Solvitur acris hyems grata vice veris et Favoni 

Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas 
Ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus et arator igni 

Nee prata canis albicant pruinis. 

b. Alcaic Decasyllabic, 

Composed of a pure Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic, followed by a 
pure Trochaic Manometer Acatalectic 

Mumma | constiter | mt ac i uto. 
Dact. Dim. Acat. + Frock. Hon. A cat. 

This forms the fourth line in the celebrated Alcaic or Horatian 
Stanza, of which we shall treat at large hereafter. 

c. Phalaecian Hendecasyllabic? 

As it appears in the later Latin poets, Martial, Statius, &c., is 
composed of a Spondee, a Dactyl, and three Trochees 

I N^ X I v^X 


Quoi don | o lepid | um nov urn lib \ ellum. (7. L, i. 
Dactyl. Dim. Acat. + Troch. Dim. BracJiycat. 

Catullus, however, with whom it is a favourite measure, uses a 
Trochee not unfrequently in the first place 3 

~Arula modo pumice expolitum. I., 2. 

And sometimes an Iambus 

Meas esse aliquid putare nugas. L, 4. 

1 Some prosodians consider this also to be a mixed verse, made np of an Iambic 
Penthemimer and a Trochaic Dimeter Bracliycatalectic, dividing it thus : 

Trahuntque siccas 

Iam. Penth. 

machinae carinas. 

Troch. Dim. Brachycat. 

2 This is considered by Hephaestio as an Antispastic Trimeter Catalectic, p. 5G, eel 

! In the specimen from the pen of Fhalaecus himself, out of eight lines, three begin 

\vith a Trochee. See Brunck. Analect. L, 421. 


In one line of a very irregular piece, we have a Tribrach in the 
first place, excused by the inevitable necessity of a proper name - 

Cdmmum mihi pessimae puellae. LV., 10. 
In one instance, he admits a hiatus to shorten a long svllable 

* O * 

Uno in lectulo erudituli ambo. LVIL, 7. 

We find also a syllable elided at the end of a line 

Quaenam te mala mens, miselle Ravid(e) 
Agit, &c. XL., 1. 

But these licenses are avoided by later writers. 

d. Pseudo-Pliolaecian 

Is a variety of the former, used by Catullus in one short piece 
(LY.) along with the regular Phalaecian. It consists of two Spon 
dees, followed by three Trochees 

Oramus si forte non molestum est. LY., 1. 
Femellas omnes, amice, prendi. LY., 7. 

Or of a Spondee followed by four Trochees 

Te in circo te in omnibus libellis. LV., 4. 1 

Catullus employs the Phalaecian Hendecasyllabic in I., II., 
III., Y., VI., VII., IX., X., XII., XIII., XIV., XY, XVI., 
LIY., LYI., LYIL, LVIIL, and in LY. he uses it in combina 
tion with the Pseudo-Phalaecian. 

e. Choriamlico- Trochaic Tetrameter Brachycataleclic. 

We have already considered this as two separate verses, and 
described their structure when treating of the Iambic Dimeter Cata- 

Among mixed verses, not Logaoedic, we reckon the 

1 But this line ought, probably, to be scanned 

T in circ | o te in | omni | bus lib | ellis. 



A Icaic Hendecasylldbic, 

Composed of an Iambic Penthemimer, followed by a pure 
Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic 

Dissolve frigus ligna super foco. H. I., ix., 5. 
Vides, ut alta stet iiive candidum. H. I., ix., 1. 

This forms the first two lines of the Alcaic Stanza. 1 \ 

Having now described the Alcaic Hendecasylldbic ; Alcaic Deca 
syllabic (page 203); and Alcaic Enneasyllabic (page 198), we "now 
proceed to discuss the Alcaic Stanza, which is formed by their com 

Tlie Alcaic Stanza 

Consists of four lines, the first two are Alcaic Hendecasyllabics, 
the third an Alcaic Enneasyllabicj the fourth an Alcaic Decasyllabic, 
according to the following scheme : 

1 and 2. 




Non si | trecen | is || quot quot e | tint dies 
"Amic | e plac j es || illacrim I abilem 

Pluton | a taur | is, qui | ter ampl um 
Geryon || en Tity | onque | tristi. 

It will be necessary to make a few remarks on each of the com 
ponent parts in succession, taking Horace as our model. 

First Two Lines of the Alcaic Stanza. 

1. According to the above scheme, it will be seen that the first 
foot in each of the first two lines may be either a Spondee or an 

1 We have a system of these in Claudian, Nupf. Hon. Aug. et Mar. 

Princeps corusco sidere pulchrior, 

Parthis sagittis tendere certior, ^ 

Eques Gelonis iraperiosior 

Quae digna mentis laus erit arduae ? 

Quae digna formae laus erit igneae ? &c. 



Iambus. Horace, however, gives a decided preference to the Spon 
daic commencement. Out of 634 Alcaic Hendecasyllabics extant 
in his works, eighteen only have an Iambus in the first place that 
is, about one in thirty-five. 

Once only do we find two lines in succession beginning with an 

Metu Deorum continuit ? quibus 

Pepercit aris ? utinam nova. I., xxxv., 37. 

2. The fifth syllable ought always to be Caesural; as in 
]STon si trecen | is || quotquot eunt dies. 

Horace directly violates this rule twice 1 

Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico. I., xxxvii., 14. 
Spectandus in certamine Martio. IY., xiv., 17. 

In three instances the Caesura falls , upon a preposition in com 
position, which may be separated from the word with which it is 
united; but this is harsh, especially in the first of the following 

1 ^^ 

lines : 

Hostile aratruni escercitus insolens. I., xvi., 21. 
Antehac nefas okpromere Caecubum. L, xxxvii., 5. 
Utrumque nostrum mcredibili rnodo. II., xvii., 21. 

There is no objection to an elision after the Caesura ; as in 

Hegum timendorwm in proprios greges. III., i., 5. 
Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat lovi. III., iv., 49. 

The Caesura may be monosyllabic 

Est ut viro vir latius ordinet. III., i., 9. 

Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm. III., iii., 49. 

In pulverem, ex quo destituit Deos. III., iii., 21. 

Horace three times lengthens a short syllable, by virtue of the 

r i 

Caesural pause 

1 Doering introduces a third in his edition of Horace, Od. III., ii., 5 : 

Vitamque sub divo trepidis agat. 
But all MSS. and former editions have 

Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat. 
Alcaeus frequently neglects the Caesura. 



Angustam, amice, pauperiem pati. III., ii., 1. 
Si non periretf immiserabilis. III., v., 17. 
ISTon sumtuoso* blandior hostia. III., xxiii., 18. 

Critics have endeavoured, in various ways, to amend these lines. 
In the first, they would read amid or amice; in the second, perirent; 
in the third, sumtuosd hostid, in the ablative. 

A hiatus is found after the Caesural syllable in 

lam Daedaleo ocior Icaro. II., xx., 13. 

where Bentley would read tutior, an emendation which he supports 
with even more than his wonted learning and ingenuity. 

Third Line of the Alcaic Stanza. 

Particular attention must be paid to this line, since upon its 
construction the harmony of the stanza chiefly depends. 

1. Although an Iambus is admissible in the first place, as in 

arma cessantes ad arma. I., xxxv., 15. 
Referre sermones Deorum, et. III., iii., 71. 

yet out of the total number of lines in Horace (317), ten only, or 
about one in thirty-one, begin with an Iambus. 

2. Observe that in Horace the third foot is invariably a Spondee, 
while in Alcaeus, so far as we can gather from his fragments, it is 
uniformly an Iambus. 

3. With regard to the words used at the beginning of the line, 
we must observe 

a. That a quadrisyllable word, scanned as such, is nowhere found 

at the beginning of a line. 

Three instances occur of a quadrisyllable, at the beginning 
of a line, in which the last syllable is elided 

Eobiginem aut dulces alumni. III., xxiii., 7. 
Funalia et vectes et arcus. III., xxvi., 7. 
Decurrere et votis pacisci. III., xxix., 59. 

b. Yery rarely, at the beginning of the line, is a monosyllable 

followed by a toisyllable, with which it is connected so closely 
as to form a quasi-quadrisyllable. This happens twice only in 


Lesblo sacrare plectro. I., xxvi., 11. 
Sors exitura, et nos in aeternum. II., iii., 27. 
In the latter the elision may seem to remove the objection. 1 

c. There must never be any pause in the sense after a dissyllable or 
trisyllable at the beginning of a line, nor after words so 
connected as to .form naturally such a combination ; 2 thus, such 
lines as the following are objectionable: 

Perstate, certatimque laeti. 8 
Victrix ; triumphatosque sensus. 4 
Post fata ; at aeternum virentL 5 

4-. The rules to be observed, with regard to the end of the line, 
have been accurately denned by Doctor Burney. 6 

The third line of the Alcaic Stanza should not terminate with a 
trisyllable followed by an enclitic or other monosyllable, nor with a 
word of four or more syllables, and as seldom as possible with two 

In the whole number of verses written by Horace, in the metre 
to which this canon refers, there is no example of a monosyllable at 
the end of a line following a word of more than two syllables, 
except in the case of elision. 

There is one instance in which a monosyllable, not enclitic, 
closes the line, the word before not suffering elision but being a 

Depone sub laura mea; nee. II., vii., 19. 

In the following lines monosyllables, not enclitic, close the line, 
the word before suffering elision : 

Hegumque matres barbarorum, et. I., xxxv., 11. 
Incude diffingas retusum in. L, xxxv., 39. 
Yulcanus, hinc matrona luno, et. III., iv., 59. 

To which add, piorum et, II., xiii., 23 ; triremi, et, III., i., 39. 
Deorum,et, III., iii., 71, and vi., 3 ; arvum et, III., xxix., 7. 

There are only three instances in Horace of quadrisyllables at 
the end of the third line of the Alcaic Stanza 

1 See Preface to the Musae Cantabriglenses, Loud., 1810 ; and the remarks by 
Mr. Tate in Classical Journal, vol. xi., p. 352. 

Mus. Cantab. Pref. 3 Yida. 4 X. Archius. 5 Ibid. 

6 Monthly Review, vol. xxv., p. 6. 


Hegnmque matres barbarorum, et. I., xxxv,, 11. 
Ab insolent! temperatum. II., iii., 3. 
Nodo coerces viperino. II., xix., 19. 
Horace ends this line with two dissyllables eight times 

Pones iambis, siveflamma. I., xvi., 4, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis. II., xiii., 27. l 


To which add, necte flores, I., xxvi., 7. Posse rwos, L, xxix., 11. 
Grande munus, II., i., 11. /Sfoe reges, II., xiv., 11. Parce, Liber., 
II., xix., 7. Afafue truncis, II., xix., 11. All of these are in the 
first two books of the Odes. 

Horace, in this part of the verse, never adds an enclitic to a 

From what has been said above, it will appear that the Iambus 
and Catalectic syllable, which close the line, ought to be arranged 
according to one of the following varieties : 

I. In one trisyllabic word 

Deprome quadrimum Sabina. L, ix., 7. 
Adpone nee dulces amores. I., ix., 15. 
Deproeliantes nee cupressi. L, ix., 11. 

II. A dissyllable followed by an enclitic 

Silvae laborantes geluque. I., ix., 3. 

III. A dissyllable preceded by a monosyllable which may be 

Portare ventis quis sub arcto. L, xxvi., 3. 
Morem verecundumg^e Bacclium. I., xxvii., 3. 

TV. A dissyllable preceded by a short syllable at the end of 
a hyper-dissyllabic word 

Hunc Lesbio s&cicsiYe plectro. I., xxvi,, 11. 

Combining these remarks with those made with regard to the 
first part of the line, it will be seen that this verse will be most 
pleasing in its effect, when it is formed according to one of the four 
following models : 

1 Taking in the following line 

Dura fugae mala, dura belli, 
we have eight dissyllables in succession. 


A. The first and best is when, the line consists of three trisyllabic 
words, as 

Audita | Musarum ji sacerdos 
Keferre I sermones I deorum. 

Or of words which unite naturally so as to form a similar combina 

In parte regnanto | beati 

~Nec suniit [ aut ponit j secures 
Excisus | Argivis ter uxor. 

B. 2sText in merit are those lines which have a quadrisyllable in 
the middle, a dissyllable at the end 

Si fractus [ illabatur | orbis. 

C. Or a quadrisyllable in the middle, and a trisyllable at the end - 

Visam | pharetratos ] Gelonos. 

D. Such a form as the following is unobjectionable, although the 
rhythm is inferior to that of the preceding : 

Delenit | usus | ncc Faterna, 
See MUSCLQ Cantabrigienses Pref. 

Fourth Line of the Alcaic Stanza. 

1. Each foot must not be comprehended in a word. This never 
takes place in Horace. 

2. In the greater number of lines there is a, Caesural syllable 
after the completion of the first Dactyl 

Insolit | os docuere nisus. IV., iv., 8. 

Egit am [ or dapis atque pugnae. IV., iv., 12. 

"Which may be a monosyllable - 

lupiter | in | Ganymede flavo. IV., iv., 4. 

"When this is neglected, we commonly find a Caesural syllable 
after the completion of the second Dactyl 

Ternpus Amazon! a securi. IV., iv., 20. 
"Which may be a monosyllable 

Fallere et effugere ] est j triurnphus. IV, iv., 52. 


Barely we find a Quasi-Caesura only, in one or other of these 

Vim stomach(o) adposuisse nostro. I., xvi., 16. 
Exsili(um) ) impositura cymbae. II., iii., 28. 
Et Scythi(um) | inviolatus amnem. III., iv., 36. 
Sollicit(am) [ explicuere frontem. III., xxix., 16. 
ISTominis Asdrubal(e) [ interemto. IV., iv., 72. 

But in the first four the prepositions may be separated from the 
words with which they are compounded ; and in the last, the proper 
name is a sufficient excuse. 

In the following lines, this Caesura is altogether neglected ; 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro. II., i., 36. 
Pocula praetereunte lympha. II., xi., 20. 
Hospitis ille venena Colcha* II., xiii., 8. 
Promere languidiora vina. III., xxi., 8. 

In the following, the preposition in composition may stand for a 
monosyllabic Caesura : 

Levia _>rsonuere saxa. I., xvii., 12. 
Porticus &cipiebat Arcton. II., xv., 16. 

Elision takes place twice in Horace between the third and fourth 
lines of the stanza 

C Sors exitura et nos in aetern(ur,i) 

\ Exsilium impositura cyrnbae. II., iii, 27. 

/ Cum pace delabentis Etrusc(iivi) 

\ In mare, nunc lapides adesos. III., xxix., 35. 

But it ought to be remarked, that, although such an elision is to 
be regarded as a rare license, Horace carefully avoids terminating 
a line with a short vowel, when the next line begins with a vowel. 
The following are the only exceptions which I have observed in all 
the Alcaic Odes : 

Fias recantatis arnica- 
Obprobriis, &c. I., xvi., 27. 

Di me tuentur, Dis pietas mea 

Et musa cordi est, &c. I., xvii., 13. 


Sparsisse nocturne cruore 
Hospitis. Ille venena Colcha 
Et quicquid, &c. II., xiii., 7. 

Indeed, an Alcaic line does not often end with a short vowel, 
even when the next line begins with a consonant. 

Horace employs this stanza in thirty-seven Odes, viz. : 

Od. L, 9, 16, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37. 
II, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20. 
III., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29. 
IV., 4, 9, 14, 15. / 


This name is given to those verses which, like Mixed Verses, 
consist of two verses of different classes, united into one line ; but 
they differ from mixed verses, inasmuch as the component parts 
are not subject to the ordinary laws of Prosody and Versification, 
since the last syllable of the first member of the verse may be 
either long or short, just as if it was the final syllable of a separate 

Of Asynartete verses we shall describe, first, the 

a. Elegiambic.* No 1. 

Which is composed of a pure Dactylic Penthemimer, followed by 
an Iambic Dimeter Acatalectic, according to the following scheme : 

Dactylic Pentium. + Iambic Dim. A cat. 

Scribere versiculos | Amore percussum gravi. II. .E. XL, 2. 
Inachia furere, \ silvis honorem decutit. II. E. XL, 6. 
Arguit et latere \ petitus imo spiritus. H. E. XL, 10. 
Libera consilia | nee coiitumeliae graves. H. E. XL, 26. 
Eervidiore mero \ arcana promorat loco. H. E. XL, 14. 
Vincere mollitia, \ amor Lycisci me tenet. H. E. XL, 24. 

1 From a, privative and a vu agree a, I joint together; hence dovvccprijTo; signifies, 
not jointed together. 

* From Elegus and Iambus, because the first part of the line is the same with the 
latter half of the Dactylic Pentameter, and the second part is an Iambic verse. 


It will be observed, that in the second, third, and fourth of these 
lines, the short final syllables in furere, latere, consilia, are con 
sidered long, in virtue of their position at the end of the Dactylic 
Penthemimer, while in the fifth and sixth there is a hiatus between 
the two members of the verse. 

There are in all fourteen lines belonging to this species of 
Elegiambic verse in Horace, and out of these the five given above 
exhibit irregularities. It is not used in a system by itself, but is 
placed alternately with the Iambic Senarian, in Epod. XI. 

Petti, nihil me, sicut antea, iuvat 

Scribere versiculos Amore percussum gravi. 

b. Elegiambic. No. 2, 

Is the same with .the preceding, except that the Iambic Dimeter 
is placed before the Dactylic Pentkemimer, thus : 

Iambic Dim. A cat. -{-Dactylic Pcnthem. 



- -, ** 

Tu vina Torqhato 

w V* 

move consule pressa meo. II. E. XIII. , t>. 

HedTicet in seclem vice. I Nunc et Achaenienia". H. E. XIII., 8. 
Levare diris pectora, \ solliciftudmT^uk //. E. XIII., 10. 

FmcTunjfc Sc&m&ndrijlumina \ lubiicus et Simois. If. E. XIII., 

It will be observed, that in the second, third, and fourth of these 
lines, the short final syllables in vice, pectora, flumina, are con 
sidered long, in virtue of their position at the end of the Iambic 

There are in all nine lines belonging to this species of Elegiambic 
verse in Horace, and out of these, the three given above exhibit 
irregularities. It is not used in a system by itself, but is placed 
alternately with the Heroic Hexameter in Epod. XIII. 

Horrida tempestas coelum contraxit et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt lovem ; nunc mare, nunc siiuae, 

Threicio Aquilone sonant : rapiamus amici 
Occasionem de die; durnque virent genua, &e. 

c. Priapeian, 

So called from being used in odes addressed to the god Priapus. 
It has received also the title of Stesichorean* By some it is classed 


among Trochaic verses, by others among Dactylics, and by a third 
party, among Antispastics. But from the accurate description of it 
given by Marius Victorinus, p. 2598, we are entitled to consider it 
an Asynartete. 

" Constat duobus metris, quorum prius est Glyconium octosylla- 
bum, sequens Pherecration syllaba deminutum, ita tamen, ut novis- 
sima Glyconii, id est, octava syllaba, longa sit, si natura brevi fuerit, 

" Nereus ut caneret fata j grato Pyrrha sub antro. 

" Igitur, quod hoc versu Priapi laudes plerique canendo prosecuti 
sunt, Priapeium nietrum nuncuparunt." 

This verse, then, is made up of a Glyconian (see p. 179), followed 
by a Pherecratean (see p. 180), the last syllable of the Glyconian 
being long or short, at pleasure, just as if it were at the end of a 
distinct line. 

The Priapeian is used three times by Catullus, and the constitu 
ent parts are, of course, formed according to the model which he 
follows when he uses separately, the Glyconian and Pherecratean, 
each admitting a Trochee 1 in the first place, as well as a Spondee, 
which is contrary to the practice of Horace. The scheme, therefore, 
is as follows : 

Glyconian + Pherecratean. 

Tantumdem omnia sentiens |] quani si iiulla sit usquam. C. XVIL, 


Quemdam municipem meum || de tuo volo ponte. C. XVIL, 8. 
Quercus arida rustica || conformata securi. C. XIX., 3. 
Et salire paratum habes || sed vereris inepta. C. XVII., 2. 
ISTutrivi magis et magis || ut beata quotaimis. (7. XIX., 4. 
Pro queis omnia honoribus || haec necesse Priapo. C. XIX., 17. 

It will be observed, that in the last two quoted verses, the final 
syllables in magis and honoribus are accounted long by the license 
of the Asynartete. 

Catullus employs these verses in a system in Carm. XVIL, 
XVIII., XIX., but the authenticity of the last is more than 

Observe also, that the two irregularities noticed above both occur 

1 Not, however, an Iambus. 



in this piece, and nothing similar is found in either of the two 
others,, with the exception of the following line in XYIL, 3 : 

Crura pontieuli adsulltantis, inredivivus. 

Where adsulitantis is a most unhappy conjectural emendation due 
to Scaliger. The reading of Yossius, asculis stantis, is far better, 
since it does not confound the two members of thje verse, but all the 
MSS. seem to have ex sulcis tantis, which is not intelligible. Lach- 
man has adopted assulis. 


Are those whose composition is so irregular and variable, that 
they cannot be classed with propriety under any of the above heads. 
Among these, we may fairly place 

Gcdliambic Verse. 

So called from the Galli , the priests of Cybele, by whom it was 
employed in their wild orgies. The only specimen of this verse 
extant is the magnificent poem of Catullus on Atys (LXIIL), which 
breathes the very spirit of the ancient dithyramb. In all probabi 
lity the poets never intended to confine themselves by any very 
rigid laws in compositions of this nature, and therefore the critics 
who have so laboriously and so unsuccessfully endeavoured to deter 
mine with precision the structure of this metre, have been struggling 
with a shadow. The whole poem on Atys contains ninety-three 
lines only, and consequently, even granting that these were formed 
according to some acknowledged scheme, yet if it admitted nume 
rous variations, as, from what we see, it must have done, the data we 
possess are not sufficient for the determination of the question. 

According to Yulpius, it consists of six feet, of which 

The first is generally an Anapaest, but sometimes a Spondeus or 
a Tribrachys. 

The second generally an Iambus, rarely an Anapaest, a Tribrach, 
or a Dactyl. 

The third generally an Iambus, rarely a Spondeus. 

The fourth a Dactyl or Spondeus. 

The fifth often a Dactyl, sometimes a Cretic, or Spondeus. 

The sixth an Anapaest, and sometimes an Iambus preceded by a 
Cretic, according to the following scheme : 



Another scheme, given by a German translator of the poem, is as 
follows : 

We subjoin a few lines as a specimen : 

Egone a mea remota haec ferar in nemora domo ? 

Patria, bonis, amicis, genitoribus abero ? 

Abero foro, palaestra, stadio et gymnasiis ? 

Miser, ah miser, querendum est etiam atque etiam, anime. 

Quid enim genus figurae est, ego non quod habuerim 1 

Ego puber, ego adolescens, ego ephebus, ego puer, 

Ego gymnasii fui flos, ego eram decus olei. 

Mihi ianuae frequentes, mihi limina tepida, 

Mihi floridis corollis redimita domus erat, 

Linquendum ubi esset orto mihi sole cubiculum. 

v. . , . . C. LXIIL, 58-G7. 

On the Union of different kinds of Verse. 

We have already noticed the combinations of different kinds of 
verse which are found in the purer Roman Classics ; but it is neces 
sary to explain the technical terms which have been invented by 
grammarians for the purpose of classifying them. 

In the first place, a poem receives the name of Monocolon, Dico- 
lon, Tricolon, &c., according to the number of different species of 
verse which it contains. 

When a poem contains one species of verse only, it is called Mono- 
colon (iLLOvot; and faoAov, a limb). The Eclogues, Georgics, and 
Aeneid of Virgil, the Satires and Epistles of Horace, the Metamor 
phoses of Ovid, are all examples of Carmina Monocola, since they 
consist of Hexameters alone; so also the first Ode of the first Book 
of the Odes of Horace is a Carmen Monocolon, since it is a system 
of Choriambic Trimeters, unbroken by any other species of verse ; 
and so on. 

When a poem contains two species of verse, it is called Dicolon. 
The Fasti and Epistles of Ovid, the Elegies of Tibullus and Proper- 
tius, which are composed of Dactylic Hexameters and Dactylic 
Pentameters placed alternately, are Carmina Dicola, so also those 
Odes which are composed in the Sapphic Stanza : the third of the 
First Book of Horace, which contains two different species of Chor 
iambic verse j and a host of others. 

When a poem contains thxee different species of verse, it is called 
Tricolon. Of this we ,have examples in the Alcaic Stanza, in 


Horace, Ode I., v., which is composed of three different species of 
Choriambic verse ; and many others. 

Another series of terms has been devised in order to point out 
the intervals after which the first species of verse used in any poem 
regularly recurs. 

When the first species of verse recurs regularly after the second 
line, the poem receives the epithet of Distrophon. 

Thus, poems composed in Elegiac verse are called Carmina Dicola, 
Distropha; but a poem in the Sapphic Stanza, although Dicolon, is 
not Distrophon, because the first species does not recur regularly 
until after the fourth line. 

When the first species of verse recurs after the third line, the 
poem receives the epithet Tristrophon, after the fourth line Tetra 
strophon, and after the fifth line Pentastrophon. 

According to this system, a poem written in the Sapphic Stanza 
is termed Carmen Dicolon Tetrastroph-on, in the Alcaic Stanza, -Car 
men Tricolon Tetrastrophon, while the Epithalamium of Julia and 
Manlius in Catullus (LIX.) is Dicolon Pentastrophon. 

Observe, that this system of nomenclature is by no means perfect, 
as it does not point out the circumstances under which the first 
species of verse is repeated. Thus, in the Alcaic Stanza, the first 
two lines are in the same species of verse, the third and fourth are 
different from this and from each other; the grammarians call a 
poem in this stanza Tricolon Tetrastrophon. But if a stanza of four 
lines is arranged in such a manner that the first line is one species of 
verse, the second and the third different from the first, but the same 
with each other, and the fourth different from any of the preceding ; 
or if the first and second are different from each other, the third and 
fourth different from the two preceding, but the same with each 
other; then in either of these cases the poem must still be called 
Tricolon Tetrastrophon. So a poem in the Sapphic Stanza is called 
Dicolon Tetrastrophon; but if a stanza were composed containing 
one Sapphic line followed by three Adonics, the poem would still 
bear the same appellation. 




ancient tradition, which seems to have been received without suspi 
cion, and transmitted without variation, by historians, philosophers, and 
poets, 2 declared that an Oriental settler (Cadmus) from Phoenicia, intro 
duced the knowledge of letters into Greece. All Roman writers who 
have, touched upon this topic agree, that the Greeks first imported an 
alphabet into Italy. The statement of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 3 who 
says that letters were brought by the Arcadians, of Livy, 4 who attributes 
this specially to Evander, of Tacitus, 5 who makes it the joint work of 
Evander and of Demaratus of Corinth, and of Isidorus, 6 who refers it 
to Carmenta were, in all probability, derived from the tradition more 
accurately expressed by Pliny 7 and Solinus, 8 who relate that the alphabet 
was brought into Latium by the Pelasgians, if we understand by Pelas- 
gians, that ancient and widely diffused tribe, which was the common 
mother of the Greeks, and of the earliest civilized inhabitants of Ausonia. 
There is, indeed, sufficient evidence, from the number and form of the 
characters, as they appear upon the most ancient monuments of the two 
countries, to prove that the old Greek and Roman alphabets were nearly 
if not altogether identical, and substantially the same with the Hebrew, 
the Phoenician, and the Samaritan alphabets. It may be proper to say 
a few words upon each of these separately. 


The Hebrew alphabet, written in the square character, which is usually 
referred to as the standard of comparison when treating of the ancient 

The student may consult with advantage the very elaborate Varronianus, by 
Dr. Donaldson (second edition, 1852), and the elegant treatise On the Alphabet, by 
Professor Key, of the London University. 

A very complete collection of all the passages in the old grammarians connected 
with this topic is contained in the Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache of Schneider, 
Bd. I. & II., Berlin, 1819, 1821. 

Herod. V., 58, 59; Plutarch. Symp. IX., prob. 3; Zenodotus, ap. Diog. LaerL 
in Vita Zenonis. See also, Plin. H.*N. VII., 5G; Clem. Alex. Strom. I., &c. 
3 Antiq. Rom. I., c. 3. 4 I., c. 7. 5 Ann. XL, 14. c Orig. I., 4. 

7 11. N. YIL, 56, 57, 58. * Cap. II., &c. 


Semitic dialects, as known to us, consists of twenty-two letters, with the 
names of which all are familiar, as they are employed in the Bible to dis 
tinguish the twenty-two sections of the CXIXth Psalm. They are ar 
ranged as follows : 

1. Aleph, M 8. Cheth, n 16. Ayin, V 

2. Beth, n 9. Theth, ft 17. Pe, D 

3. Gimel, 3 10. lod, * 18. Tsadi, S 

4. Dalefh, T 11. Capli, 3 19. Kopli, p 

5. He, H 12. Lamed, b 20. EesJt, 1 

6. Van, *) 13. >/em, ft . . 21. Sfaw, a? 

7. Zatw, T : 14. Nun, 3 22. Tau, fl 

15. Samedi, D 

Some grammarians add a twenty-third, namely, Sin, but this is merely 
a Shin, or S, without the aspiration, and the character is the same, except 
that the point is placed over the left limb, E7 ; hence it is not usually re 
garded as a distinct letter. 

It is confidently asserted in many works upon etymology, that the old 
Hebrew alphabet consisted of only fifteen, or according to others, of 
sixteen characters, and that Van, Zain, Chetli, Theth, Samech, Tsadi, and 
Kopli were added by degrees at different periods. But there is not the 
slightest historical foundation for this statement, and it appears to have 
been invented because the ancient Greek and Roman alphabets were sup 
posed to have originally consisted of fifteen or sixteen letters ; but this 
supposition, as we shall point out below, is itself at variance with all the 
trustworthy evidence to which we can appeal. 


The Phoenician alphabet, believed by the ancients to have been the 
parent of all the European alphabets, is known to us only from a very 
limited number of inscriptions and coins, in many of which the legends 
cannot be deciphered with certainty. In several comparative tables of 
alphabets, the Phoenician characters corresponding to the Hebrew Van, 
Zain, Theth, Samecli, and Pe are wanting ; but Gesenius 1 has succeeded 
in establishing a complete correspondence between the Phoenician and 
Hebrew alphabets, with the exception, perhaps, of Zain, for which the 
Phoenican character cannot be identified with certainty. 2 

1 Scripturae Linguaeque Phoeniciae Monumenta; Lips. 1837, 3 parts in 4to. 

<J Since writing the above, I have been informed by my friend Mr. Weir, the ac 
complished Professor of Oriental Languages in the University of Glasgow, that in the 
important Phoenician inscription, discovered a few years ago at Sidon, after the 
above mentioned work of Gesenius was published, a character occurs several times 
which unquestionably corresponds with the Hebrew Zain, thus rendering the identi 
fication of the two alphabets complete. 



The Old Hebrew (sometimes called the Old Samaritan) alphabet is 
made known to us by coins exclusively, chiefly those of the Maccabaeari 
dynasty. It seems to correspond very closely with the Phoenician and 
Hebrew alphabets, but the characters for Zain, Tlieth, and Samecli have 
not been identified. The whole twenty-two letters are used regularly in 
the Samaritan of MSS. 


The alphabet employed by the Greeks during the highest period of 
their literature consisted of twenty-four letters 

A, B, r, A, E, Z, H, 0, I, K, A, M, N, H, O, H, P, 2, T, T, <D, X, T, a. 

The tradition, that letters were introduced into Greece from Phoenicia, 
is mentioned without an expression of suspicion by Herodotus, 1 who de 
signates alphabetical characters by the terms ypappuro:, <pQtvtx.v)ict and 
ypocftpxToC KctOj&rti a. Two late writers, the elder Pliny 2 and Plutarch, 3 
have recorded that the Cadmean alphabet contained sixteen letters only 

A, B, P, A, E, I, K, A, M, N, O, n, P, 2, T, T ; 

and their statement was long received without question. Pliny, who alone 
enters into details, says that Palamedes, in the time of the Trojan war, 
added 0, 3>, X, H, and that Simonides of Ceos introduced H, n, Z, T. 
He adds, that Aristotle maintained that the ancient number of letters 
was eighteen 

A, B, T, A, E, Z, I, K, A, M, N, O, H, P, 2, T, T, <D, 

and that 0, X, were introduced not by Palamedes but by Epicharmus. 

But it will not be difficult to show that these accounts, which, it will be 
observed, are conflicting, are altogether unworthy of credit. 

1. The reference to Palamedes throws this portion of the statement of 
Pliny altogether beyond the pale of historical criticism. 

2. No notice is here taken of two letters which, it is well known, 
belonged to the Greek alphabet at a very early period, although they 
subsequently fell into disuse the Digamma and the Koppa, corresponding 
to the Hebrew Vau and Kopli. Both of these are found on the oldest 
Greek inscriptions and coins ; both, when they ceased to be used in 
writing, were retained as marks of number the Digamma as the mark cf 
6, its proper place as corresponding to Vau, and Koppa as the mark ot 
90, its proper place between H (80) and P (100), and both appear in 
their proper places and under their ancient forms in the Latin alphabet 
as F and Q. Moreover, it is highly probable that the symbol called 
Sanpi, 2), used to designate 900, was originally a letter, perhaps the 
Hebrew Tsadi; but this is merely a conjecture. 

3. The character H was certainly not invented or introduced by Simo- 

1 L, 58, 59. 2 H. N. VII., 57. 3 Sympos. IX., Qu. 3. 


nides, for it occurs in inscriptions before his time. In these, however, it has 
the same force as among ourselves that of a strong aspirate ; and it is not 
improbable that Simonides may have first employed it to represent long e. 

4. 0, which corresponds in place to the Hebrew Theth or Teth, is found 
in the oldest inscriptions. 

5. O and X, although probably invented by the Greeks, since they find 
no place in the Hebrew alphabet, are met with in all the oldest inscrip 
tions, with the single exception of that one engraved on a portion of a, 
Doric pillar brought from the island of Melos, known to scholars as the 
Columna Naniana, and now or lately preserved at Venice in the Palazzo 
Tiepolo. In this we read twice HH for <X>, and once KH for X; but it 
must not be concealed that many competent judges have regarded this 
inscription as spurious. 

6. The letters wanting in the oldest Attic inscriptions, that is, in those 
dating before the close of the Peloponesian war, are H with the force of 
long e- to; and the double consonants % and Y. Eta and Omega had no dis 
tinguishing mark, but were written E, O ; while 3 and T were written 
each as two separate consonants, X2 and <T>2. It does not follow, how 
ever, that the characters in question were absolutely unknown up to the 
close of the Peloponesian war ; we can only assert that they were not 
admitted into public documents before that period. 

Much new light has been thrown upon the whole question by the dis 
covery, a few years ago, in a tomb at Cervetri, the ancient Caere, of a 
small black earthenware vase, now preserved in the Vatican in the Museo 
Gregoriano. Round the base of this vessel is an alphabet in very ancient 
characters ; and round the body the consonants are coupled with the 
vowels in turn, so as to form a syllabarium or primer. The most expe 
rienced antiquarians and the most acute philologers have decided that this 
is the oldest monument in existence bearing upon the history of the Greek 
alphabet, and that there is every reason to believe that it is a relic of the earli 
est inhabitants of Agylla (afterwards Caere) which is uniformly represented 
by ancient writers to have been one of the most ancient cities in Italy, and 
to have been founded at a very remote epoch by Greeks or Pelasgians. 
The alphabet on the vase consists of twenty-five letters, in very archaic 
characters, 1 arranged as follows : 

A, B, C, 2 A, E, F, Z, H, 0, I, K, A, M, N, H, O, II, Q, P, 2, T, T, X, $, . 

It will be remarked that 

1. We here find the F, or Digamma or Van, and the Q or Koph, both 
of which subsequently dropped out of the Greek alphabet, being retained 
as marks of number only, while both were preserved as letters in the Latin 

2. The long vowels, Eta and Omega^ are both wanting, as in Latin. 

1 For a minute description of the vase and a fac-simile of the inscriptions, see the 
very elaborate and interesting -work by Mr. Dennis, entitled Cities and Cemeteries of 
Etruria, vol. ii., p. 53; and for a full discussion of the philological bearing of this 
monument, see the paper by Lepsius in the Annali of the Roman Archaeological 
Institute for 1836. 

2 This is the most ancient form of r. 


3. The character H here, as in other early Greek monuments, denotes 
merely a strong aspiration, the force which it retained in the Latin, and 
still holds in modern alphabets. 

4. As far as arrangement is concerned, X is placed before <>. 

5. The above alphabet, down to T, corresponds exactly in arrangement 
with the Hebrew, omitting Tsadi, and the four letters not belonging to 
the Hebrew alphabet, viz., T, 3>, X, T, are all placed together, exactly as 
we should have expected, at the end. 

The conclusion which we draw from the above remarks, and which 
seems almost irresistible, is, that the original Greek alphabet was abso 
lutely identical with the Phoenician, Samaritan, and Hebrew; and we 
shall proceed to show that it was identical with the Latin also. 


The Latin alphabet, in the earliest form known to us, consisted of 
twenty letters : 

A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, E, S, T, V, X. 

The letter G was introduced at some date after B.C. 259 ; while Y and Z, 
which found a place only in Greek, or at least in foreign words, were not 
brought into general use until a still later period. 

That X was regarded as the last letter in the Latin alphabet proper, is 
proved by the words of Quintilian (L, iv., 9) ... et nostrarum ultima X ... 
and by the account given by Suetonius in his life of Augustus (c. 88) 
of the secret writing employed by that Emperor; while Cicero (Do 
jST. D. II., 37) reckons the number of letters at twenty-one, including, of 
course, G. 

Upon some of the letters it may be useful to make a few remarks. We 
shall begin with the cognate group of gutturals, C, G, K, Q ; and, first, of 

C, G. 

We have pointed out above that G is omitted in the earliest form of the* 
Latin alphabet, and it will be observed that C occupies the place held by 
P in the Greek alphabet. It seems certain that C originally had the sound 
of G, or rather, perhaps, a sound intermediate between G and K. When 
G was introduced it superseded C in all those words in which the Gamma 
sound predominated, while the character C was retained in those words 
in which it had the Kappa sound, and in process of time almost entirely 
superseded K. 

That C had originally a Gamma sound, and that the character G was 
introduced at a comparatively late period, can be proved by satisfactory 

1. Plutarch (Q. R. 51), when endeavouring to establish an etymological 
connection between the words f&efy&pos and macellum y observes that C 
(or K) and G are cognate letters, and that the Romans did not make 
use of G until a late period, it having been added to their alphabet by 
Spurius Carvilius o\^s yct^ I^JJO-OCWTO TU <yc& t up,ci, K*j&X/09 2/ro^/oy TTOOG-- 
fif/ovTOf. This person is supposed to have been the freedman of Spurius 
Carviiius Ruga, celebrated as the first Roman who repudiated his wife, an 
event which *xook place B.C. 235 -B.C. 227. The statement that G was 


introduced at a comparatively recent epoch is to be found also in Festus, 
Qnintilian, Ausonius, and many of the later grammarians. 

2. The inscription on the base of the Duillian column, the earliest 
monument of the Latin language on which any reliance can be placed, 
was engraved, in all probability, soon after the event which it commemo 
rates, that is, soon after B.C. 259. Here we find no trace of G, but read 
stead of Legiones, Magistratus, Exfugiunt, Pugnando, Cartaginiensis, &c. 
Again, in the Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus, which belongs to B.C. 
GNOSCIER AGRO, &c. ; thus corroborating the evidence of Plutarch as 
to the time when G was introduced. 

On the other hand, in the epitaph on Scipio Barbatus, who was consul 
JB.C. 298, and must have died before B.C. 250, we read the words GNAIVOD 
PROGNATUS SUBIGIT, which would seem to contradict the assertion 
that G was introduced as late as B.C. 237. But, in the first place, a 
doubt may arise as to the fact of the inscription having been correctly 
copied ; for the difference between the form of C and that of G, as the 
latter appears upon the older monuments, is very slight, and can scarcely 
be distinguished on the coarse peperino of which Scipio s tomb is com 
posed. A slight flaw in the stone might thus be easily mistaken for the 
cross stroke of the G ; and some editors actually give SUBICIT for SUBIGIT ; 
while Quintilian, as we shall see below, tells us that the praenomen Cains 
or Gains was one of those words in which C was always retained, although 
pronounced like G. In the second place, even if we admit that the inscrip 
tion has been accurately copied, there is another consideration which 
deserves serious attention. The epitaph on Lucius Scipio, the son of 
Barbatus, exhibits the language under a more archaic form than that upon 
his father, while the tomb of Barbatus is remarkable for its graceful shape 
and ornaments, displaying evidently the taste of a Greek artist. Hence 
we are led to the conclusion that both the tomb and the inscription may 
have been tributes paid to the memory of Barbatus a considerable period 
after the date of his decease. 

3. Not only does the Latin C occupy the same place in the alphabet 
as the Greek F, but it is well known that in early Greek inscriptions the 
r has exactly the form of a semicircular C. Thus, on the oldest coins of 
Gela, Rhegium, and Agrigentum, we find the legends CEAA2 PECINON 

Even after G had been fairly established, the character C still lingered 
in some words. Thus in the praenomens GAIUS and GNEUS the G sound 
was quite distinct ; but it was the usual, although not uniform practice, 
down to a late period, to employ the abbreviations C. and Cx., in prefer 
ence to G. and GN. So also Servius on Virgil (G. I., 194), tells us that the 
word amurca (oipopyYi), although written with a C, was pronounced 
amurga ; and in the Praenestine Kalendar, preserved in the Vatican, we 
remark PRVCVM for FRVGVM. Moreover, in a few words, as far as 
we can trust existing MSS., C and G seem to have been employed indif 
ferently we have as good authority for gurgulio, vigcsimus, trigesimus 
as for curculio, vicesimus, tricesimus; while on a set of consular denarii, 


supposed to belong to a Gens Ogulnia, a Gens Carvilia, and a Gens Ver- 
(jilia, we find the two former names sometimes as OCVL. CAR. and 
sometimes as OGVL. GAR. 

It must be borne in mind that the Latin C was always sounded hard, as 
in the English word Cat, and never had the S sound, which we give to it 
in such words as certain and civil. In fact, the sound of C seems to have 
been identical with that of K ; and hence the Latin proper names Cicero 
and Caesar, which we pronounce as Sissero and Seesar, were written by 
the Greeks Ktxs^av and Koctarx^. How C came in process of time to have 
the force of S in certain words may be perhaps explained from the fact 
that the character C, which in the oldest Greek inscriptions represented 
Gamma, was frequently employed in Greek inscriptions of a late date to 
represent 2. Thus the epithet 2g/3ao-rof (Augustus), continually appears 
on Greek imperial coins under the abbreviated form CEB. 


There seems to be no foundation whatever for an assertion to be found 
in two very late grammarians, Isidorus of Seville 1 and Petrus Diaconus, 2 that 
K was introduced into the Latin alphabet by a schoolmaster named Salvius 
or Sallustius. On the contrary, there is every reason to believe that K, 
which is found in the Hebrew, Phoenician, and oldest Greek alphabets, was 
one of the original constituents of the Latin alphabet also. At no period, 
however, does it seem to have been extensively employed, and it entered 
into those words only in which it was followed by the vowel A. 3 After 
the introduction of G, C was completely identified in sound with K, which 
from that time forward almost disappeared from the language. Hence 
Quintilian, Ausonius, and the grammarians, speak of it as a superfluous 
letter, used only as a mark or abbreviation for a very few words, chiefly 
KAPUT KALUMNIA KALENDAE and the proper name KAESO. Car- 
ihago seems to have been frequently written Karthago; but we read 
Cartacininensis on the Duillian column. 

We find a few examples of K in inscriptions and on coins down to a late 
v OLKANO ; and the names KALENUS and PALIKANUS on denarii of the 
Gens Fufta and Gens Lollla. These may probably be regarded justly as 
mistakes of the artizans, but they at the same time prove that the letter 
and its sound were not forgotten. On the other hand, the appearance of 
K in the words KARUS, KARISSIMUS, KARITAS, &c., is of such frequent 
recurrence, that it cannot be purely accidental ; and Velius Longus (p. 
2218) says ... religiosi quidam (i. e., persons scrupulously precise in the 
matter of orthography) epistolis subscribunt KARISSIME per K et A. ... 

The very rare cases in which K is followed by some letter other than A 
belong to words transplanted from the Greek such as KLEPSYDRAEIUS 
KRISTUS, or are evident blunders of the stone-cutters, as Kos. for Cos. 

1 I-, 4. 2 ^ 1582 . 

The only examples of K in the older inscriptions are 1. In the epitaph on, 
Cnaeus Scipio Hispanus, where we read SL. IVDIK, i. e., Stlitibus iudicandis, and, 
2. In the S. C. regarding the Tiburtines, where the word KASTORVS, i. e., Castoris, 



We have seen that Q, or Koph, or Koppa, was a constituent of the 
Hebrew, Phoenician, and early Greek alphabets ; and it seems from the 
first to have belonged to the Latin alphabet also. There is no foundation 
for the assertion made by some of the grammarians, that it was introduced 
at a late period, and was merely an abbreviation for the combination 
CV. 1 

Q, as we have already stated, disappeared at an early period from the 
words of the Greek language, and was retained merely as a mark to denote 
the number ninety. 

On the other hand, Q was at all periods employed as a letter by the 
Romans, but only to a very limited extent. It was not used except when 
followed by the vowel V, and when V was itself followed by another 
vowel, with which it coalesced, so as to form one syllable, producing a 
sound which, according to Quintilian, was entirely unknown in Greek, and 
not capable of being expressed in Greek characters. Of this we have 
examples in such words as Qua, Quae, Quaero, Queror, Quintus, Quoties, 
Quum, Equa, Inquire, Liquor, Reliquus in all of which Qu and the vowel 
following coalesce, so as to form one syllable, although the combination is 
not regarded as a diphthong, and in no way affects the natural quantity of 
the vowel following V. Thus Queror and Quirites are respectively a dis 
syllable and a trisyllable, with the first short. Inqulro is a trisyllable, with 
the second long. 

We know that in those words in Greek into which Q originally entered, 
such as 90PIN0O2, it was eventually superseded by K, and it is probable 
that, when enunciated independently, it was not distinguishable in sound 
from C or K. There is no pretext, however, for terming it a superfluous 
letter in Latin, for it seems to have been always employed in preference to 
C, in cases similar to those noticed above, when V was followed by a vowel 
with which it coalesced ; whereas when V is preceded by C, and followed 
by a vowel, it does not coalesce with the latter, but forms a distinct sylla 
ble thus, it is correct to write reliquus aqua aequus ; not relicus acua 
aecus; while, on the other hand, we must write aciio acmtur ; not aqua 
aquitur. There are a few, and only a few, doubtful exceptions, in such 
words as cum (adv.) cuius cui which certainly appear, towards the close 
of the republic, to have been used indifferently with, if not in preference 
to, the more ancient and correct forms quom quoins quoi. 

But since Q, when pronounced independently, was identical in sound 
with C or K, it was natural that persons not conversant with the strict 
rules of orthography should occasionally employ it erroneously instead of 
C, especially before Y, even when V was not followed by another vowel. 
Hence Charisius (p. 83) thinks it necessary to warn his readers that they 
ought to write pecunia, and not pequnia ; and we actually find this word 

1 See Vel. Long., p. 2218, Terent. Maur., p. 2399. Hence Mar. Victor., p. 2452, 
calls Q a nova litera; but in p. 2468 he places it among the original sixteen Cadmean 
letters ; and in p. 2459 expressly says, that it was not a letter of Roman invention. 
Isidorus (I., 4) goes so far in ignorance as to assert that Q was to be found neither in 
Hebrew nor Greek. 


written with aQ in inscriptions (e. g., Orell., n. 745) ; so also QURTIUS for 
CURTIUS (Orell., n. 3946), and QULINA for CULINA (Orell., n. 3302). 
But these mistakes are not common, and there seems to have been rather 
a tendency to supersede Q, even in the regular combination Qu, by C. 
Thus Priscian (p. 560) gives Arquus Coquus Oquulus Quur Quum 
as archaic forms of Arcus Cocus Oculus Cur Cum: and in the S. C. 
de Bacchanalibus we have OQUOLTOD for OCCULTO. In several words Qu 
appears in the root, and is replaced by C in the derivative, as Sequor, Secun- 
dus; Torqueo, Torcular; Quatio, Concutio ; Aliquis, Alicubi, Alicunde, &c. : 
and, on the other hand, we occasionally find Qu in the derivative, while it 
has disappeared from the root, thus Cunire, Inquinare; Stercus, Sterqui- 
linium; Colo, Inquilinus; Lacus, Laquear ; Quercus, Querquetulanus. 

We may proceed to quote a few of the most important passages bearing 
upon the four letters which we have now discussed. 

Festus, s. v. PRODIGIA, p. 229, ed. Mutter 

Prodigia quod praedicunt futura, permutatione G literae, nam quae nunc 
C appellatur, ab antiquis G vocabatur. 

And again, s. v. ORCUM, p. 202 

Orcum quern dicimus, ait Verrius ab antiquis dictum Uragum quod et 
V literae sonum per O efferebant : per C literae formam mhilonunus G 
usurpabant. See also s. vv. ACETARE, QUINCENTUM. 

Auson. Eidyll. XII., 20 

Haec tribus in Latio tantum addita nominibus K, 
Praevaluit postquain Gammae vice functa prius C, 
Atque alium prae se titulum replicata dedit Q. 

Plutarch, Q. R., 51 

ycx.% TO x. wpog TO y cvyytueiotv # nap ctvTot; 6\}/s yap e%py<rttTO 

And again, 56 

xai -TT^WTOJ vsue 

The date assigned to this divorce varies from B.C. 235 -B.C. 227. See 
Clinton on B.C. 231. 

QuintiL I., vii., 28. .... Nam et Gains C litera notatur, quae inversa 
Q mulierem declarat ;..... nee Gneus earn literam in praenominis nota 
accipit qua sonat. 

Diomed., p. 417. G nova est consonans, in cuius locum C solebat 
apponi, hodieque cum Gaium notamus Caesarem, scribimus C. Caesarem. 
Comp. p. 420. 

Mar. Victorin., p. 2469 ..... C autem et nomen habuisse G et usum 
praestitisse, quod nunc Caius per C. Cneius per CN., quamvis utriusque 
syllabae sonus G exprimat, scribuntur. And precisely to the same effect. 
Terent. Maur., p. 2402, 2410. 

Again, Mar. Victorin.) p. 2459, when speaking of G, says Pro quo 
apud antiquos C poni solitum, ut, pro agro Gabino, Cabino; pro lege, 
lece ; acna pro agna ; auctio certe ab augendo dicta est ; et numeri cum 
habeant C, ut ducenti, trecenti, sexcenti, G reliqui habent, ut quadringenti, 



nongenti: [cum G] tertio [quoque] ordine, ut apud Graecos quoque, posi- 
tum est C pro G, et suoloco K, post receptum C, supervacuum esse coepit- 
In p. 2468, Marius Victorinus commits the mistake of supposing that 
the Latin G is the same with the Greek <r, the symbol for the number 6 ; 
while in reality the character in question is merely one of the forms of the 

It will be observed that Marius Victorinus, in the passage quoted above, 
says that K became superfluous after the introduction of C. We shall 
find that the same opinion was held with regard both to K and Q by 
several of the grammarians who precede him. 

Quintil. I., vii., 10. Nam Kquidem in nullis verbis utendum puto, nisi 
quae significat etiam ut sola ponatur. Hoc eo non omisi, quod quidani 
earn, quoties A sequatur, necessariam credunt : quum sit C litera, quae 
ad omnes vocales vim suam perferat. 

Again, I., iv., 7. At grammatici saltern omnes in hanc descendent rerum 

tenuitatem : desintne aliquae nobis necessariae literae an rursus 

aliae redundent (praeter illam aspirationis notam, quae, si necessaria est, 
etiam contrariam sibi poscit) ut K quae et ipsa quorundam nominum nota 
est, et Q, cuius similis effectu specieque, nisi quod paulum a nostris obli- 
quatur, Kappa, apud Graecos nunc tantum in numero manet : et nostra- 
rum ultima X, qua tamen carere potuimus, si non quaesissemus. 

Again, XII., x., 30, when speaking of Q, he observes Duras et ilia 
syllabas facit, quae ad coniungendas demum subiectas sibi vocales est utilis, 
alias supervacua ; ut equos hac et equum scribimus ; quum etiam ipsae hae 
vocales duae efficiunt sonum, qualis apud Graecos nullus est, ideoque scribi 
illorum litteris non potest. 

Diomed., p. 417, when describing the consonants Ex his quibusdam 
supervacuae videntur K et Q, quod C litera harum locum possit implere, 
sed invenimus in Kalendis, et quibusdam similibus nominibus, quod K 
necessario scribitur : et quod secundum consuetudinem Q scribitur, cum 
in una eademque syllaba V litera antecedat, et habeat sibi adiunctam aliam 
vocalem, ut, Quirinus. 

And again, p. 419 K consonans muta supervacua, qua utimur quando 
A correpta sequitur, ut, Kalendae, Kaput, Kalumniae. 

Priscian, I., p. 543. K enim et Q quamvis figura et nomine videantur 
aliquam habere differentiam, cum C tamen eandem tarn in sono vocum, 
quam in metro continent potestatem : et K quidem penitus supervacua est, 
nulla enim ratio videtur cur, A sequente, K scribi debeat. Carthago 
enim et Caput, sive per C sive per K scribantur, nullam faciunt, nee in 
sono nee in potestate, eiusdem consonantis difFerentiam. Q vero propter 
nihil aliud scribenda videtur esse, nisi ut ostendat sequens V, ante alteram 
vocalem in eadem syllaba positam, perdere vim literae in metro. 

Again, p. 544 Auctoritas quoque tarn Yarronis quam Macri, teste 
Censorino, nee K nee Q neque H in numero adhibet literarum. 

Terent. Scaur. ,p. 2252. K quidam supervacuam esse literam iudicave- 
runt, quoniam vice illius fungi C satis posset, sed retenta est, ut quidam 
putant, quoniam notas quasdam significaret, ut Kesonem, ut Kaput, et 
Kalumniam et Kalendas. He adds, that the ancients never used this 
letter except when it was followed by A. 

On K, Q, see also Val. Prob., p. 1486 ; Donat., p. 1737 ; Serg., p. 


1828; Cledon., p. 1883; Mar. Victor., p. 1945; Vel. Long., p. 2218; 
Terent. Maur., p. 2400. 

F, V. 

The consonants F, V, deserve especial notice, since they are the repre 
sentatives in Latin of a Greek letter, on which the researches and 
controversies of the learned have bestowed no small celebrity the Aeolic 

No scholar now imagines that Latin was derived from the Aeolic dialect 
of Greek, and scarcely any one doubts that the Greek language, the Latin, 
and various branches of the Teutonic, had a common parent. Certain 
consonants existed in this ancient tongue, which, gradually, were either 
lost or modified in some of those which sprung from it, and among these 
was a strong, rough labial, which is still extant in many old Greek inscrip 
tions and coins, which was unquestionably still in use, partially at least, in 
the time of Homer, but subsequently disappeared from almost all the 
dialects except that of the Aeolians, by whom it was both written and 
pronounced long after it had been dropped by the other Greeks, except 
as a mark of number. 

From this circumstance, the later grammarians, who supposed it to be 
peculiar to this dialect, attached to it the epithet Q Aeolic, while they gave 
it the name of " Digamma " from its form, which is that of two Gammas, 
one placed above the other, F. 

Its proper appellation is Vau, the name which it has in the Hebrew 
alphabet, and which it bore among the Aeolians. (See Priscian, p. 545.) 

There is a well known passage in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 1 where it is 
described as a Gamma with two horizontal lines joined to the perpendicular. 

Tovro B qv uavep yappct, ^tTTotts eirt ^tctv opdqv STrt^ewyyvftsvov rctig 

So also Agnaeus Cornutus, quoted by Cassiodorus 2 
Est quaedam litera in F literae speciem figurata, quae digamma nominatur 
quae duos apices ex Gamma litera habere videtur. 

This description completely corresponds with its appearance upon 
ancient monuments, where it is for the most part found under the shape 
F, or F* thus presenting a complete type of the Roman F. 

The fact that many of the forms of the original language, especially 
those connected with this letter, were preserved in the Aeolic dialect and 
also in Latin, gave rise to the erroneous opinion alluded to above, that 
the latter was derived from the former. This circumstance also renders 
Latin of great use to the Greek scholar, by enabling him to enlarge with 
certainty the scanty list of words once written with the Digamma, which 
he can collect from ancient monuments ; while, at the same time, it is in 
the highest degree interesting to the Latin philologer, by enabling him to 
trace, distinctly, the connection between the two languages, in many cases 
where the ordinary rules of etymology would have afforded little assistance. 

We shall now proceed to point out the different aspects which the Di 
gamma assumes in Latin, adding a few examples in each case, the number 
of which may be easily increased by the intelligent student. 

1 A. R. I., 20. 2 P. 2282. 

8 For this and its other shapes, see Boeckh, Corpus Inscrip. Graec. 


1. The Digamma is represented by F in several Latin words, while it 
has totally disappeared from the corresponding Greek ones. 

Thus, fayyvpt or p#y<y, is the same with Frango^ 

ptyseu Frigeo. 

2. In many cases where the Digamma was attenuated into one of the 
softer labials, r, /S, 0, we find in Latin the old rough F. 

Thus, 3-Ax<y, orAsxro?, . . . Flecto. 

Trztpa, iropo;, . . . Foro (to pierce). 

fipv*>i .... Frutex, Fructus. 

/3/?^, .... Fremo. 

Qspa, .... Fero. 

(Dor. 0#yoc), . . Fagus. 

(Dor. Qetpot), * . Fama. 

-, . . . Flamma. 

., Fuga. 

. Folium. 

<Pva, .... Fui. 

(Aeolic form of ^), . . Fera. 


3. But the Digamma appears in Latin most frequently as the con 
sonant V. 

a. At the beginning of a word. 

Old Greek. Later Greek. Latin. 


fc, Vis. 

F/CJ/, /oy, Viola* 


In the middle of a word, 

A chivi. 

~ / r 

vctFv;, vxvs, naVis. 

fis, oVis. 


1 ^enlts was used by the Aeolian Alcaeus, according to Trvpho. Thiersch, G. G. 


c. Both at the beginning and in the middle. 
Old Greek. Later Greek. Latin. 

FeAgFy, /As*>, VolVo. 

4. It is sometimes found under the still softer form of B. 
sr/Fy, cr/<y, biBo. 

We are told 1 that the ancient forms of 

Hordeum, Hoedus, Hircus, Hariolus, 
were Fordeum, Foedus, Fircus, Fariolus, 

which is analogous to what took place in Greek, where we see the Di- 
gamma passing into the aspirate, in such words as seTrepog, sana, EAsi/jj. 

Several words occur in Homer in which the Digamma appears to be 
assumed or omitted according to the convenience of the poet. a Of this we 
find an apt illustration in Latin, where 

Cupivi and Cupii, 

Petivi ... Petii, 

Audiverant ... Audierant, 

Amaverunt ... (Amaerunt) Amarunt, 

and the like, were in use at the same time, the V being retained or re 
jected at pleasure. 

We have thus seen that when the Digamma disappeared from the more 
highly cultivated dialects of Greek, traces of its former presence remained 
in the softer sounds of 0, sr, /3, while in other cases it vanished totally, or 
left its shadow only in an aspirate. 

It not unfrequently passed also into the vowel T. 

Thus, /3ot/, , /3oos, which in Latin is 5os, &otns, 

was manifestly /3oF$, /3oFo?, the Latin losing all trace of the Digamma in 
the nominative, and recovering it in the genitive, while exactly the re 
verse takes place in the Greek. 

So the v in A^AXgy?, O^vffasvs, is the remnant of the Digamma which is 
lost in Achilles, Ulysses. 

Now, precisely the same changes took place internally in the Latin 
language itself, the consonant V passing frequently into the vowel V. 
Thus we have 

Faveo, favitor, fautor ; 

Lavo, lavatus, lautus ; 

Navis, navita, nauta ; 

and this fact is particularly valuable, as it serves to explain the poetical 
licenses (which have been noticed in the body of this work, under the head 
of Archaisms), by which silvae, solvunt, evolvam, pervolvent, &c., are 
scanned as siluae, soluunt, evoluam, pervoluent, &c. 

The Digamma, under its proper form, was always a consonant : so was 
the Ilooan F. But the Roman character V discharged the functions of 

ic&i. I., c, 4 ; Terentius Scaurus, p. 2250 ; Velius Longus, p, 2230. 

2 Thiersch, G. G. CLVIIL 


two distinct letters, a consonant and a vowel ; when a consonant, it re 
presents the Digamma when a vowel, it corresponds to our own U. 

Agnaeus Cornutus, in the compilation of Cassiodorus, Putsch., 2282. _ 
Nos hodie V literam in duarum literarum potestatem cocgimus ; nam 
modo pro digamma scribitur, modo pro vocali. Yocalis est cum ipsa 
per se est. Hoc enim cum caeteris quoque vocalibus patitur. Si cum 
alia vocali, digamma est, quae est consonans. 

The Emperor Claudius endeavoured to reform his native language by 
restricting V to the discharge of its duties as a vowel, and restoring the 
discarded Digamma in the form of an inverted F, to supply the place of 
V as a consonant. 

This is noticed by Quintilian I., c. 7, when treating of this subject. 
Nee inutiliter Claudius Aeolicam illam ad hos usus vi literam adiecerat. 

And Priscian, p. 545, ed. Putsch. V vero loco consonantis posita 
eandem prorsus in omnibus vim habuit apud Latinos quam apud Aeoles 
digamma. Unde a plerisque ei nomen hoc datur, quod apud Aeoles habuit 
olim digamma, id est, Faw, ab ipsius voce profectum, teste Varrone et 
Didymo, qui id ei nomen esse ostendunt ; pro quo Caesar hanc figuram & 
scribere voluit ; quod quamvis illi recte visum est, tamen consuetudo an- 
tiqua superavit. 

Accordingly, we find an inscription engraved during the reign of Clau 
dius. as follows : 





vm. IMP. xvi. cos. iv. 





However, subsequent inscriptions confirm the assertion of Priscian, that 
the innovation was speedily abandoned, although we again find in an 
inscription of the reign of Vespasian, the word TERMINAiilT, although, 
inconsistently enough, in the same line we have ALVEI, where V is a 

Possesses the same force in the Latin alphabet as in our own that of 
a strong aspiration. This was the force of the character in the early 
Greek alphabet also ; but, as we have seen above, it was eventually 
employed to denote Eta, or long e, the change, according to the commonly 
received account, having been introduced by Simonides of Ceos. 

The ancient Romans employed the aspirate more sparingly than their 
descendants parcissime ea veteres usi sunt etiam in vocalibus, quum oedos 
trcosque dicebant are the words of Quintilian (I., v., 20) ; and after the 


use of the aspirate had become more common, it again fell out of use ia 
the decline of the language, as we shall prove below. Hence it comes to 
pass that there are many words, both native and foreign, in which inscrip 
tions and MSS. sometimes insert, and sometimes omit H, at the com 
mencement of a word. Thus we find ave, have ; arena, harena ; olus y 
Iwlus; aruspex, liaruspex ; erus, Jierus ; edera, hedera; ordeum, liordeum; 
arundo, harundo; Etruria, Etruscus, Hetruria, Hetruscus ; Adria, Hadria; 
Annibal, Amilcar, Asdrubal, Hannibal, Hamilcar, Hasdrubal ; and many 
others. In some of these the pronunciation may have been always doubtful 
even among the best educated, as in the case of the word humble in our 
own language ; and in others H may have been written, but not pro 
nounced, as in honest, honour, Jiour, humour, while in many the pronuncia 
tion may have varied at different epochs. That there was a tendency 
among Koman, as among English provincials, to misplace the aspirate, is 
evident from the words of Gellius (X. A., XV., 6) rusticus fit sermo si 
aspires perperam ; and what ridicule such blunders brought down upon, 
the perpetrators may be seen from the well known epigram of Catullus 
(LXXXII.) : 

Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet 

Dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias. 
Et tune mirifice sperabat se esse locutum, 

Quom, quantum poterat, dixerat hinsidias. 
Credo sic mater, sic Liber, avunculus eius, 

Sic maternus avus dixerat, atque avia. 
Hoc misso in Syriam, requierunt omnibus aures, 

Audibant eaaem haec leniter et leviter. 
Nee sibi postilla metuebant talia verba : 

Quum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis: 
lonios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset, 

lam non lonios esse, sed Hionios. 

In many cases where H occurred in the middle of a word, it was dropped 
or retained at pleasure. Thus mihi and mi; niliil and nil; cohors and 
cors; 1 vehemens and vemens ; prehendo and prendo; seem at one period to 
have^been used indifferently. Agnaeus Cornutus, in the compilation of 
Cassiodorus, p. 2286 Vehemens et Vemens apud antiques, et apud Cicero- 
nem lego aeque Prehendo et Prendo, Hercule et Herde, Nihil et Nil ; and 
Eutychius, in the same compilation, p. 2311, gives as examples of this 
usage ut veho, traho ; vexitraxi; mihi, mi; nihil, nil; prehendo, prendo ; 
vehemens, vemens; et similia. When Quintilian says (L, v., 21) Inde 
durat ad nos usque vehementer et comprehendere et mihi he seems to indi- 
cate^that h was commonly pronounced in these words in his time ; but the 
fashion changed ; for, at a later period, we read in Velius Longus (p. 2229) 

1 It is true that cohors is generally used to denote a company of men, and cors for 
a walled enclosure or court-yard : but this is not universal ;" for we find in Ovid,. 

p T-rr 7__ 

Abstulerat multas ilia cohortis aves. 

And in Martial, VII., liii 

Non porcus, non cortis aves, non ova supersunt. 
While CHORS, in the sense of a cohort, is common in inscriptions. 


- Et de H litera quaeritur ut in his, veliemens, reprehendit, cum elcgan- 

tiores et yeementer dicunt, et reprendit secundum primam positionem, 
prendo enim dicimus non prehendo ; and again, p. 2234 cum superius de 
aspirations loquerer ostendi id quoque, ilium sibi locum fecisse, cum alio- 
quin non desideraretur ut in vehemente et reprehenso, cum veemens et 
reprensus sine aspiratione emendatius dicatur. That there was a general 
disposition in the decline of the language to drop the aspirate is sufficiently 
attested by Marius Victorinus (p. 2466), who, when speaking of the use of 
H in certain words, observes Sed credo vos antiquitatem sequi, sed cum 
asperitas vetus ilia paulatim ad elegantioris vitae sermonisque est limam 
perpolita, sic vos quoque has voces sine H secundum consuetudinem nostri 
seculi scribite, where there can be little doubt that, when the gramma 
rian uses the term antiquitas, he does not refer to the earliest epoch of the 
language, when, as we have seen above, the H was very sparingly intro 
duced, but to the age of Cicero and Augustus, which was abundantly 
ancient relatively to himself. 

^When Quintilian, as quoted above, says Parcissime ea veteres usi sunt 
etiam in vocalibus ; and when Cicero declares (Orator, XL VIII., 160) 
Quin ego ipse, quum scirem ita maiores locutos esse ut nusquam nisi in 
vocali aspiratione uterentur, locpebar sic ut, pulcros, Cetegos, triumpos, 
Kartaginem dicerem, aliquando, idque sero, convicio aurium quum extorta 
mihi veritas esset, usum loquendi populo concessi, sententiam niihi reser- 
vavi, they mean that, according to ancient usage, H was never employed 
except at the beginning of a syllable, and when followed by a vowel, as in 
honestus, inhonestus, nihil, and the like. Hence there are no characters in 
the Latin alphabet corresponding to the Greek OX, nor, properly speak 
ing, were the combinations ch, ph, rh, th, ever employed except in foreign 
words, epecially those transplanted directly from the Greek, such as 
Charta, Chirograplium, Chlamys, Machina, Machaera, Schola; Phalerae, 
Pharmacopeia, Philosophus, Asphodelus, Sphaera ; Rheda, Rhetor, Pyrrhus, 
Parrhasius; Thronus, Thesaurus, Thyasus, Thyrsus, Asthma, Isthmus, 
Phaethon, Diphthongus, Erichthonius, and the like. 

The natural disinclination of the Romans to an aspirate may be seen 
distinctly in numerous words which, although not transplanted directly 
from the Greek, were derived from a common source. Thus we have 
dyxto, ango ; vetpfry, nebula; dfttpa, ambo ; o%i^, scindo ; hoy^Y), lancea; 
&$vy, apua; atphotaTov, aplustre ; (payo;,fagus ; (Pw/iy fama ; <pvyn,fuga; 
(pv h hov, folium ; <pega,fero, &C. 1 

Even Greek proper names were at first metamorphosed, in order to get 
rid of the aspirate ; thus Ennius uniformly used the forms Bruges and 
Burrus, instead of Phryges and Pyrrhus ; * and in the epitaph on Scipio 
(See p. 249) we find ANTIOCO instead of ANTIOCHUM. 

Towards the close of the Republic, however, the use of the aspirated 
consonants became more common ; not only were they restored to the 
foreign words adopted at an early period, such as Triampus, Kartago, 3 but 
were introduced into words where they were entirely out of place (erupit 

1 These and many other examples are given by Schneider. 

2 Cic. Orat., XLVIIL, 160; Quintil., I., iv., 15. 

3 To these we may, perhaps, add Brachium, which in an old inscription (Grut., p. 
509), appears as BRACIO. 


nimius usus) such as pulcher, sepulchrum, chorona, lachryma, chenturiones, 
praechones, and, what seems strange, even into some Roman proper names, 
such as Gracchus, Cethegus, Orcliivius, Mafho, Oiho, Chaepio which were 
anciently written Graccus, Cetegus, Mato, Oto, Caepio. Some of these 
new forms Cicero, as he tells us, found himself compelled to adopt, while 
others he steadily rejected. 1 

The character I, in the Lathi alphabet, possesses, like V, a double 
power : it is not only a vowel, but, in certain words, when standing at 
the beginning of a syllable, before a vowel, it has the force of a consonant. 
Thus lovis is uniformly a dissyllable, and Julius is uniformly a trisyllable ; 
in both of these I acts as a consonant, and is regarded as such in prosody ; 
Thus in 

Ante lovem nulli subigebant arva coloni. V. G. L, 125, 

the syllables Ante lov form a Dactyl, without any hiatus : and in 
Aut ut erunt patres in lulla templa vocati. O. E. P. IV., v., 21. 

the syllable in, which is naturally short, is lengthened by position before L 
Nothing similar to this takes place in Greek where I is always simply a 
vowel ; but we find an analogy in our own language in the case of Y, 
which acts as a vowel in such words as type, symptom ; and as a consonant 
in such words as yard, year, young, beyond; and just as we cannot distin 
guish Y, a vowel, from Y, a consonant, by the eye, so the Romans had no 
mark to distinguish I, when used as a vowel, from I, when used as a con 
sonant. The character J, now frequently employed to represent I, when 
used as a consonant, was, as we have stated in the Preliminary Remarks, 
entirely unknown to the Romans, and ought never to find a place in 
the text of the Classics. 

The use of I as a consonant is limited. 

1. We find it at the beginning of certain simple words, and it enters 
into their direct derivatives and compounds. The list is not long : 

laceo and lacioj laculum, &c., Ab- 

iicio, De-Ucio, Con-iicio, &c. 

Janus, lana, lanua, lanitor^ &c. 

lento, lentaculum. 
focus, locor, &c. 
lovis, luglans (i. e., lovis-glans). 

lubeo, lussum, &c. 

ludaea, ludaei, ludaicus, &c. 
lus, luro, lustus, lustinus, Index, 

ludicium, &c. 
lungo, lugum, lugis, luncus, &c., 

Bi-iugus, Quadri-iugus, &c. 
lalius, lulianus, &c. 

luno (i. e., lovino). 
luppiter (i. e., lovis-pater). 

luvo, luvenis, lunix, luvenalis, &c* 


1 Cic. Orat. XLVIIL, 160 ; Qumtil. L, v., 20. 


2. I has the force of a consonant in the middle of a few simple words. 
Thus, eius, cuius, huius, maior, peior, mains, peius, which are commonly 
written ejus, cujus, hujus, major, pejor, majus, pejus, are all dissyllables, 
pronounced e-yus, cu-yus, hu-yus, ma-yor, pe-yor, ma-yus, pe-yus of 
which the ancient orthography was ei-ius, cui-ius, hui-ius, mai-ior, pei-ior, 
mai-ius, pei-ius. 

3. I has the force of a consonant in the middle of a very few words of 
doubtful etymology; thus we have Baiulo, Baiulus, leiunus commonly 
written Baiulo, Bajulus, Jejunus. Ejulo is clearly ei-ulo, ulo being the 
root of ululo ; ejero and pejero are certainly derived from luro. 

The use of I with the force of a consonant was, as we have stated above, 
altogether unknown to the Greeks, and hence the Romans never gave to 
I a consonantal power in words transplanted directly from the Greek 
thus, lacchus, lalysus, Iambus, lapyx, lason, lasonides, laspis, have the 
same number of syllables in Latin as in the corresponding Greek words, 
la^o, , ^Ivfrvaos, lotftfiot, Iawv%, locaav, I0-o://<W, lawn. 

There is an apparent exception to this principle in the Ovidian line 
(Met. V., Ill) 

Tu quoque, lapeiide, non hos adhibendus in usus, 

where not only has the I at the beginning of lapetide the force of a con 
sonant, so as to save the elision of the final vowel in quoque, but it forms 
one long syllable with the short vowel which follows it. This, however, 
falls under the Poetical License already explained in p. 118 ; for it will be 
observed that the word ~Iapetides could not find a place in a Dactylic line 
unless the regular pronunciation were modified. Elsewhere we have uni 
formly ~Japetiis ("la^rg ro,-) as a quadrisyllable and "Idpetwnides ( IxKtTio- 
vftys) as a heptasyllable 

Coeumque ~Iapetumque creat saevumque Typhoea. V. G. L, 279. 
~2apetwmdes Atlas fuit, ultima tellus. 0. M. IV., 630. 

It must be remarked, however, that although the foreign word ludaeus 
must, in all probability, have passed into Latin through the Greek lot* Baio;, 
we find that the initial I in ludaea, ludaeus, ludaicus, has invariably the 
force of a consonant. 

Incerti ludaea dei, mollisque Sophene. L. P. II., 593. 
Persuadere cupit credat ludaeus Apella. //. S. L, v., 100. 
ludaicum ediscunt et servant et metuunt ius. /. XIV., 101. 

If the character J were always used strictly to indicate those cases in 
which I has the force of a consonant, there could be no greater objection 
to its use than to that of the rounded U; but it has, in many cases, given 
rise to confusion. Thus, we are frequently told that the first syllable in 
ejus, major, pejor, and the like, is long because in these and similar words 
j has the power of a double consonant the truth being, that in these words, 
according to the ancient orthography, the first syllable was a diphthong ; 
while the introduction of J into such words as Troja, Trojanus, Achaja, 
i is a positive blunder. This will be seen at once, if we consider the 


various forms of these words in Greek, most of which were adopted in 


Thus we have in Greek Tpoia, where ot is a diphthong, and hence the 
division of syllables in Latin is Troi-a, Troi-anus. Troi-ugena, in which 
also oi is a diphthong the pronunciation being Troi-a, Troi-anus, 
Troi-ugena not Tro-ya, Tro-yanus, Tro-yugena ; again, ^we have in 
Greek, Tpa$, Tpag;, Tpuos, Tpai os, TpuiKOs ; Tpaas, Tpase-^ss ; Tpuiccs, 

aiottisti and in Latin, Tros, Troes, Trous, Troius, Troicus, Trotades. 

Again, in Greek we have A#7o/, Axetfxos, A%ts or A#2/,- (sc. yj), 
xcTicti, A#ott8&, Ajcfl6ljete?, in which it would appear that the second 
syllable of the word was sometimes written as a diphthong at, and some 
times simply as a long ex.. The latter form was preferred in Latin, for we 
generally find Achams, Acliaiciis, Acliaia, Ackais, Aclictias, Achaiades, 
but also Achae,us, and the digammatized form Achwi. 

Lastly, the name of the son of Telamon, and of the son of Peleus, is 
always written in Greek as A/**, the first syllable being a diphthong, and 
must be divided in Latin Ai-ax, and not A-yax. 1 


Hium et omnis humo furnat Neptunia Troia. 2 V. M. III., 3. 
Troianas ut opes et lamentabile regnum. V. &. II., 4. 
Troiugena, interpres divom, qui numina Phoebi. V. ^E. III., 359. 
Huius Ericthonius, Tros est generatus ab illo. 0, F. IV., 33. 
Tros, ait, Aenea, cessas, neque enim ante dehiscent. V. &. VI., 52. 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena. V. ^E. I., 176. 

1 There is a passage in Velius Longus (p. 2219) which might lead one to suppose 
that the proper name Aiax was pronounced Ai-yax, and, therefore, might be correctly 
written with a double I, as Aiiax Et in plerisque Cicero videtur auditu emensus 
scriptionem qui et Aiiacem et Maiiam per duo ii scribenda existimavit but I can 
scarcely doubt either that the text is faulty, or that the memory of the grammarian 
failed him, for we read in Quintilian (I., iv., 11) Sciat enim Ciceroni placuisse Aiio 
Maiiamque geminata I scribere and hence, it is probable that Longus was quoting 
from Quintilian, and not directly from Cicero, and that Aiiax was by mistake substi 
tuted for Aiio. We cannot decide the question positively, for the remark does not 
occur in any extant work of Cicero. 

Velius Longus tells us in the same passage, that some grammarians considered that 
Troiia ought to be written with a double i, and that such persons wrote coniiicit with 
three i s misapprehensions which prove how little the true doctrine, with regard to 
I, was understood by these persons. 

2 T^OIK and Troia are invariably dissyllables in the best Greek and Roman poets. 
The only opposing example of which I am aware in Greek is to be found in Soph. 
Ai., 1190, where some edd. have Tg0Y, a trisyllable, but the reading is doubtful; 
while in Latin, Troia occurs nowhere as a trisyllable, until we come down to the (so- 
called) Tragedies of Seneca, which cannot be received as authorities, e. g., 

Misit infestos Troiae ruinis. (Sapph.) Senec, Tro., 824. 
The forms T^utec and Tgaa, found in Pindar, may be regarded as adjectival. 


Troaque 1 Peliacae stcrnebat cuspidis ictu. 0. M. XII., 74. 
Trolus Aeneas Libycis ereptus ab undis. V. M. L, 600. 
ISTe careant summa Troica bella manu. 0. E. P. II., xx., 14. 
milii Polydamas et Trbiades Labeonem. P. S. L, 4. 

O miserae, quas non manus, inquit, Achdia 1 bello. V. M. V., 623. 
Parcius Andromaclien vexavit AcTidia 3 victrix. 0. H. Till.. 11. 


Post certas hiemes uret AcJidicus" 2 (sc. ignis). (Choriamb.) H. 0. L, xv., 35 

Per tot et Haemonias et per tot Achdidas urbes. 0. M. V., 306. 

Imperiumque peti totius Achdidos addit. 0. M. VII., 504. 

Inter Achaladas longe pulcherrima matres. 0. H. III., 71. 

Atthide tentantur gressus, oculique in Acliaeis (sc. finibus.) L. VI., 1113. 

Nee pudor obstabit, non possum ferre, Quirites, 

Graecam urbeni, quamvis quota portio faecis Achaei. L S. III., 61. 

Quidquid delirant reges plectuntur AcJdvi. H. E* I., ii., 14. 

quisquam Aiacem possit superare nisi Aiax. 0. M. XIII., 389. 
Unius ob noxam et furias Aiacis Oilei. V. 2E. I., 41. 

It is from the erroneous employment of J in the above, and similar 
cases, that we now write in English such barbarisms as Trojan, Ajax, 
Jason, Jasper, giving to J, in these and in other Latin words, such as 
Jove, Jury, Jejune, the hard, dental, hissing sound, which we believe to 
have been unknown to Greeks and Romans alike. 

R, S. 

That in the earlier forms of the language S found a place in many words 
in which it was eventually superseded by R, is proved by the most satis 
factory evidence. Thus Varro : 4 In multis verbis, in quo antiqui dicebant 
S, postea dictum R ; and gives as examples, foedesum for foederum, plusima 
for plurima, meliosem for meliorem, asenam for arenam, ianitos for ianitor^ 
and adds that Camena was originally Casmena, and then Carmena, the r 
being ultimately dropped. In like manner Quintilian : 5 nam ut Valesii 
et Fusii in Valerias Furiosque venerunt, ita ar~bos, labos, vapos etiam et 

1 This seems to be the only example in Latin poetry of the adjective Trous, and the 
reading is doubtful, for many of the best MSS. have Totaque. 

2 In these and other passages, the MSS. vary between the form Achdius and 

3 In Forcellini we are told that the poets sometimes make Achaia a quadrisyllable. 
I do not remember any passage in which it is not a quadrisyllable. 

4 L. L. VIL, 26, ed. Mull. 5 I. 0. L, iv. 13. 


clamos et lases aetatis faerunt ; and Livy says 1 - -Furies Fusios scripsere 
quidam; and again- consules creat L. Lncretium Tricipitinum et T. 
Veturium Geminum, sive ille Vetusius fuit. Additional examples may be 
collected from Festus and the grammarians. 3 The forms of the language, 
moreover, during the period of greatest refinement, would alone be 
sufficient to establish the fact in question without any external testimony; 
for arbos, labos, honos, lepos, kept their ground side by side with arbor, labor, 
honor, and lepor;* and traces of the same are to be found in the inflections 
of many nouns and verbs; thus, the genitives aeris, mar is, inoris, come 
from the nominatives aes, mas, mos-, gero gives gessi, gestum; Jiaurio gives 
Tiausi, haustum; haereo gives haesi; uro gives ussi, ustum; quaero and quaeso 
were obviously originally the same. 

But while we freely acknowledge the prevalence of S in ancient 
times, we shall scarcely be disposed to admit the assertion of Pomponius 
in the Digest, that the letter R was first introduced by the celebrated Appius 
Claudius Caecus, It will be observed that, in all the examples quoted, 
the change takes place in the middle or at the end of a word, never at the 
beginning ; and we should have great difficulty in believing, even upon 
much stronger evidence, that Rome and the Romans were for four centuries 


and a-half called Soma and Somani without any classical writer giving a 

hint of so remarkable a transformation. 

The words of Pomponius (Digest, I, ii., 2, 36) are as follows: 
Idem Appius Claudius, qui videtur ab hoc processisse, R literam invenit^ 

ut pro Valesiis, Valeriis essent et pro Fusiis, Fur Us. He had previously 

mentioned that this Appius constructed the Appian Way, and was the 

author of Actiones, and a work, De Usurpationibus. 
After carefully considering the above passage, we are constrained to 

adopt one or other of the following conclusions: 

1. That Pomponius made the assertion through pure ignorance; or, 

2. That, although he has expressed himself carelessly, he intended 
merely to state that Appius Claudius introduced the letter R into the 
names Valesii, Fusii, which thenceforward were written Valerii, Furii. 
Schneider brings forward, in corroboration of this view, a passage from 
Cicero (Epp. ad Fam. IX., 21) : 

Sed tamen, mi Paete, qui tibi venit in mentem negare, Papirium 
quemquam umquam nisi plebeium fuisse? Fuerunt enim patricii minorum 

entium, quorum princeps L. Papirius Mugillanus, qui Censor cum L. 
empronio Atratino fuit, quum antea Consul cum eodem fuisset, annis 
post Romam conditam cccxn. Sed tune Papisii dicebamini. Post hunc 
tredecim fuerunt sella curuli ante L. Papirium Crassum, qui primum 
Papisius est vocari desitus. Is Dictator, cum L. Papirio Cursore magistro 
equitum factus est, annis post Roman conditam ccccxv., &c. 

From this we learn 1. That the PapiriiwQYe originally called Papisii. 
2. That the change of spelling from Papisii to Papirii took place in the 

1 III., 4. 2 III., 8. 

Vel. Long., pp. 2230, 2233, 2238 ; Terent. Scaur., pp. 2252, 2253, 2258. 
4 Many etymologists maintain that these and similar words were originally arbors^ 
labors, honors, lepors ; and so aers, mars, mors, for aes, mas, mos. 


person of L. Papirius Crassus, who, be it observed, was contemporary 
with the Appius Claudius spoken of by Pomponius ; and hence we infer 
that it was at this epoch that the introduction of r into the names Papisii, 
Valesii, Fusii took place; but had E, been before entirely unknown, 
Cicero would scarcely have failed to notice a circumstance so curious as 
the introduction of a new letter. 


X, as we have already pointed out (p. 223), was the last letter in the 
Latin alphabet proper; but the assertions of Isidorus (I., 4), and Petrus 
Diaconus (p. 1582), that it was not introduced until the age of Augustus, 
are altogether erroneous ; for it is found in all the most ancient monuments 
of the language the Duillian column the epitaphs on the Scipios the 
.S. C. de Bacchanalibus and it must have been included in the twenty-one 
letters of Cicero. 1 Priscian suggests (p. 540), that its place at the end of 
the alphabet proves that it was an addition to the original number of 
letters, for 3, the corresponding character in Greek, stands before 
O, and the same holds good of the Hebrew Samech. But we must 
receive this suggestion with caution ; for, according to the same argument, 
G ought to be the last letter of all, for it certainly was not adopted until 
after the admission of X. 

It will be observed that the character X does not correspond in form, 
with the Greek 3, to which it is equivalent, but with the Greek aspirate, 
Chi; but this apparent discrepancy is in reality a proof of the identity of 
the two alphabets at a remote period; for, in the older Greek inscriptions, 
& appears under the forms | H, +, X, while Chi was originally 

written \[/. 

When Quintilian says (I., iv., 9) et nostrarum ultima X, qua tamen 
-carere potuimus si non quaesissemus he means that X is a double con 
sonant ; that is, an abbreviated form of two letters combined, rather than 
an independent letter ; and this is the opinion expressed by nearly all the 
old grammarians. Thus Maximus Victorinus, p. 1945: Ante X literam, 
quae postea in compendium inventa est, rex per gs, item pix per cs veteres 
scribebant. There can be no doubt that, in the great majority of cases, X 
stands for CS or GS, as is abundantly evident in such words as dux 
(duds), duxit (duco), felix (felicis), lex (legis), rex (regis), auxit (augeo). 
In some cases the origin of X is not so obvious, as in fluo, fluxi ; struo, 
struxi; veho, vexi; but the dormant c reappears injluctus, structor, vector. 
In other words, however, X must represent different combinations. Thus, 
in nilor, nixus s. nisus, it seems to be equivalent to ts (the Hebrew Tsadi), 
In Ulixes (Ulysses, Olvcazvi), it is equivalent to double s, and so proximus 
may be prossimus or propsimiis for propissimus. It is more difficult to 
explain nix, nivis ; but as cases occur in which c and v are interchanged, 
we may compare nics, nivis, with vivo, vicsi, and with nico, and nicto, 
which give conniveo, connixi. 

It being established that X is generally equivalent to CS or GS, it is 
not surprising that we should occasionally find in inscriptions such 

1 See above, p. 228, and compare Cic. Orat. XLV., 153; Varro L. L. VIII., 31. 


and the like, and that in certain compounds the orthography should have 
remained doubtful, as in exul, exilio, exilium, and exsul, exsilio, exsilium; 
expecto and exspecto; exto and exsto, and the like. 

Y, Z. 

Y and Z, as stated in the Preliminary Remarks, were always regarded 
as purely Greek letters, and not as constituents of the Latin alphabet. 
When Cicero reckons the number of letters at twenty-one, he manifestly 
excludes Y and Z ; while Quintilian, as we have seen, designates X as 
nostrarum ultima; and in another place (I., iv., 7), he speaks in the fol 
lowing terms of the question which had arisen among grammarians with 
regard to the imperfections of the Latin alphabet desintne aliquae nobis 
necessariae literae, non quum Graeca scribimus, turn enim ab iisdem ditas 
mutuamur the two letters here indicated being Y and Z. 

Y and Z, then, are employed exclusively in words taken directly from 
the Greek, and adopted into the Latin language after it had been fully 
developed as a distinct tongue, and in some foreign words which became 
known to the Romans through the medium of Greek, the greater number 
of the words in each of these classes being proper names. 

It is impossible to determine the precise period at which these two letters 
came into common use ; but it is natural to suppose that this would take 
place at the period when a knowledge of Greek literature was beginning 
to be widely diffused among persons of education. 

First, with regard to Y. Y was employed to represent the Greek T, 
under the circumstances described above. Thus it is introduced with pro 
priety into such foreign words as Satyri (Sarygo/, the woodland deities) 
Thymius (0v^z/o?) Zepliyrus (Zt(pvoQ$) Zacynthus (ZowvvQos) Cyrus 
(Kt;oo<r) Cambyses (Ketftfivyyis) ; but in words which are found both in 
Greek and Latin, in consequence of being derived from the common 
parent of both, the Greek T appears sometimes as V, sometimes as I, and 
occasionally is represented by other vowels. Thus %v&), Qvyy, xi//3sgTjj^ 
appear as duo, fuga, gubernator; arvhos, fay, as stilus, silva; Khva> is 
recognized in clueo, cliens, inclitus; Salvor/, in lacrima orlacruma; vv%, 
d yxvgct, (pfXAoz/, in nox, ancor a, folium ; x.vgo$ in socer ; hence it is inaccu 
rate to write stylus, sylva, inclytus, lacryma ; but it is a positive barbarism 
to write Satyra instead of Satura or Satira, and to transform the Roman 
proper name Sulla into Sylla. 

It is certain that Y was not employed in the time of Ennius, who, as 
Cicero tells us, wrote Burrus and Bruges, 1 adding, that these words were 
written in his day Pyrrlius and Phryges, by the aid of two Greek letters 
(0 and v) a remark which sufficiently disproves the statement of Isidorus 
(I., 4) and Petrus Diaconus (p. 1582), that Y was not written until the 
age of Augustus. In consequence of the introduction of Y at a compara 
tively late period, we find that u is retained in a few Greek proper names, 
with which the Romans became acquainted at an early epoch in their 

^ " Cic. Oral. XLVIIL, 160. Comp. Cornut. ap. Cassiod., p. 2286, and Donated 
Terent. Hecyr. I., ii., 8. 


history. Thus the name of the Greek colony in Campania is uniformly 
written Cumae, not Cymae; and Cornutus (ap. Cassiod., p. 2286) considers 
that it is more correct in the text of the older writers to use Suria and 
Suracusae than Syria and Syracusae, the forms which ultimately prevailed. 
In like manner Z, the representative of the Greek Zeta, is employed in 
words which passed directly from Greek into Latin, such as Zona (&I>Y}), 
Zelotypus (fy^orvTros), Zytlium (fftfoj), Zamia (V"00> Zepliyrus (&Qvo$) 
Zancle (gayxh /i), Zygia (v?ua), Trapezita (T^^^IT^) ; and although 
we have no certain evidence as to the exact period when it came into use, 
it was probably introduced at the same time, and under the same circum 
stances as Y, and, like Y, was not written by the very earliest authors, 

such as Accius. Thus Marius Yictorinus, p. 2456 Accius nee 

Z literam nee Y in libro suo retulit. 

We may conclude this portion of our subject by noticing 

The Etruscan Alphabet. 

The number of inscriptions in Etruscan characters is so limited, and the 
process of deciphering them is, in some instances, so uncertain, that much 
doubt might have prevailed upon this subject, had not a small cup, now 
in the possession of Prince Borghese, been discovered in a tomb at 
Bomarzo, bearing on it an inscription which proved to be an Etruscan 
alphabet, written from right to left, in the Etruscan character. This, 
represented in Roman letters, runs as follows : 

A, C, E, F, Z, H, TH, I, L, M, JST, P, S, R, S, T, V, TH, CH, PH. 

It will be observed that, on comparing this with the Roman alphabet 

1. The vowel O, and the consonants B, D, G, K, Q, X, are altogether 

2. S, and the aspirate TH, occur twice, with distinct characters, which, 
however, seem to be freely interchanged in inscriptions. It is not impos 
sible that one of the two S s may have been aspirated, and thus they would 
correspond with the Hebrew Sin and Shin. 

3. The F, Digamma^ or Van, occupies the fourth place, B and D being 




THE oldest specimen of the Latin language is a hymn or litany chaunted 
on high festivals by the Fratres Arvales, a corporation of priests, instituted 

1 For a full account of, and discussion upon this curious relic, see Dennis s Cities and 
Cemeteries of Etruria, vol. i., p. 225, and the Bulletins and Annali of the Archaeolo 
gical Institute of Rome for the years 1830, 1831, 1832, and 1834. 


in a very remote age, and maintained in full vigour until the middle of 
the third century of our era, the emperors themselves having been fre 
quently, it would appear, chosen members of the college. In the year 
1778, the workmen employed in forming the foundation of the Sacristy of 
St. Peter s at Rome, dug up a long inscription containing numerous details 
with regard to the Acta, or proceedings of this body, commencing with the 
admission of Drusus, son of the Emperor Tiberius, into the fraternity. In 
a subsequent portion of the inscription we find a record of the admission 
of the Emperor Elagabalus, and minute particulars of the ceremonies per 
formed at a great solemnity celebrated on the 29th of May. We are told 
that the priests, after having offered sacrifice in the grove of the Dea Dia, 
returned to the temple, and various rites having been completed 

Deas unyuentaverunt, et aedes clusae, et omnes foris^exierunt. Ibi 

sacer dotes, clusi, saccincti, Ubellis azceptis, carmen descindentes tripo- 
daverunt in verba haec 









post tripodationem deinde signo dato publici introier. et libellos receperunt. 1 

It is evident that the above form of prayer is merely a curiosity, and 
cannot be regarded as throwing much, if any, light upon the history of 
the language. It was probably handed down for generations by oral 
tradition, and, as it gradually became unintelligible to those who employed 
it, would undergo all manner of alterations and corruptions. Moreover, 
the copy which we possess could not have been made earlier than A.D. 
218, and seems to have been carelessly engraved. But with all these 
drawbacks, it has always been regarded with great interest by scholars, 
and great pains have been bestowed upon the arrangement and interpre 
tation of the words. 

The inscription in full was published by MARINI in a work entitled, Gil Atti e 
Monumenti Dei Fratelli Arvali (Rom., 1795, 2 torn,, 4to), in which the editor has 
collected every notice to be found in ancient writers or inscriptions with regard to the 
Fratres Arvales, the whole forming a remarkable monument of learning, industry, and 
ingenuity. See Orelli, C. I. L., No. 5054, and vol. i., p. 392 ; Grotefend, Aus- 
Jiihrliche Granmatik der lat. /S^pr., 176 ; Egger, Latini Sermonis Reliquiae, &c., p.. 
68, Paris, 1843. 


Grotefend would divide and arrano-e thus 


Ennds, Lases, iuvate ! Neve luerem, Mars, sins 
Incurrere in pledris ! Satur furere, Marmar 
Limen salis sta berber ! Semunis alternei 
Advdcapit conctds ! Ennds, Marmdr, iuvato 
Triumpe, Triumpe ! 

which he explains 

Age, nos, Lares, iuvate ! Neu luem, Mars, siris incurrere in plures (or, 
in flores)! Satur furere, Mavors ! Lumen solis sta fervere ! Semones 
alterni advocate cunctos ! Age, nos, Mavors, iuvato. Triumpe, &c. 

Klausen arranges thus 

E nos, Lases, iuvate 

Neve luerve, Marmar, sins incurrere in pleoris : 

Satur furere, Mars, limen sali, sta berber. 

Semunis alternei advocapit conctos 

E nos, Marmor, iuvato : 

Triumpe, triumpe, triumpe, triumpe, triumpe. 

Which he explains 

Age, nos, Lares, iuvate. Neve, luem, Mars, sinas incurrere in plures : 
satur furere, Mars, pede pulsa limen, sta verbere : Semones alterni advo- 
cabite cunctos : Age, nos, Mars, iuvato. Triumpe, &c. 

The fragments of the Carmina Saliorum, of the Leges Regiae, of the 
first Lex Tribunicia, of the Leges XII. Tabularum, and of other public 
documents which have been preserved by Yarro, Cicero, Livy, Festus, 
Aulus Gellius, and the grammarians, are, like the Litany of the Fratres 
Arvales, of little value in philological researches. The meaning, indeed, 
is, in most cases, quite intelligible, but they have passed through so many 
hands, and have been evidently altered and modified to such an extent, 
both by those who quoted originally, and by successive transcribers, that 
it is almost impossible to place any reliance upon them when investigating 
the early forms of the language. 1 


The oldest monument of the Latin language available for critical 
purposes is the inscription engraved on the base of the Columna Rostrata, 
erected in the Forum, in honour of the naval victory achieved by Duillius, 
in the year B.C. 259. The tablet from which the following mutilated 
fragment is copied was dug up, in the year 1565, by labourers who Trere 
making excavations at the bottom of the Capitoline hill, near the arch of 
Septimius Severus, and it is still preserved in the Museum of the Capitol. 

1 The student will find most of the fragments here referred to collected and arranged 
in the useful and convenient compilation by Egger, entitled Latini Sermonis Veins- 
tioris Reliquiae Sdectae, 8vo, Paris, 1843. 


"We are told by Livy (XLIL, 20) that the original pillar was overthrown 
from the foundation (iota ad imum) by lightning B.C. 172. It was 
probably restored forthwith, and appears to have been in existence as 
late as the time of Servius, the commentator on Virgil (see G. III., 29.) 
After carefully examining the tablet in the Capitolme Museum, I feel 
inclined to agree with those scholars who believe that this^ is not the 
original tablet, but a copy or restoration , but even if we admit^this to be 
the case, it has evidently been copied so carefully that the ancient forms 
have not been lost nor seriously modified : 


....... D .. XEMET. LEGION . . . 





M. CAPTOM- NVMEI cb cb cb DCC 
. . . TOM. CAPTOM. PRAEDA. NVMEI cccbpo 
CAPTOM. AES. cccboo ccclooo cccboo cccboo ccclooo cccboo 
cccboo ccclooo cccboo cccboo cccboo cccboo cccboo cccboo 

cccboo ccclooo cccboo ccclooo cccboo 


El ... CART. 1 

The following is the interpretation given by Ciacconius, the deficiencies 
being supplied by conjecture : 

Caius Duilius Marci filius consul adversum Carthaginienses in Sicilia 
rem gerens Egestanos cognatos populi Romani arctissima obsidione exemit ; 
Legiones Carthaginienses omnes maximusque magistratus elephantis 
relictis novem castris effugerunt ; Macellam munitam urbem pugnando 
cepit, inque eodem magistratu prospere rem navibus mari consul primus 
gessit; remigesque classesque navales primus ornavit paravitque diebus 
sexaginta, cumque eis navibus classes Punicas omnes paratasque summas 
copias Carthaginienses praesente maximo dictatore illorum in alto mari 
pugnando vicit, trigintaque naves cepit cum sociis, septirememque ducis, 

1 The different copies of this inscription taken by different scholars vary slightly, 
some inserting, and some omitting a letter here and there. In the copy given above 
nothing has been admitted which is not distinctly legible on the tablet as it now 


quinqueremes triremesque naves viginti depressit. Aurum captum nummi. 
ILL M. DCC. Argentum captum praeda nummi C. M. Grave captum aes 
vicies semeL centena millia pondo. Triumphoque navali praeda populum 
Komanum donavit, captives Carthaginienses ingenues duxit ante currum, 
primusque consul do Siculis, classeque Carthaginiensium triumphavit. 
Earum rerum ergo Senatus Populusque Komanus ei hancce columnam 


In the year 1616, a stone bearing an epitaph inhonour of Lucius Cornelius 
Scipio, son of Scipio Barbatus (No. 3 of the folio wing collection), was found 
at Rome, a short way inside of the modern Porta S. Sebastiano, and therefore 
outside of the ancient Porta Capena. This relic is now preserved in the 
Barberini Library. 1 More than a century and a-half afterwards, in 1780, 
workman engaged near the same spot, in repairing some cellars attached 
to a small farm, discovered two subterranean chambers, one above the 
other, excavated in the tufo rock. The lower contained a sarcophagus of 
a very graceful form, 2 and a number of sepulchral inscriptions ; the tenor 
of which proved that this tomb was the burial place of the illustrious 
family of the Scipios, which was known, from the words of Livy, to have 
been situated in this locality. 3 The sarcophagus and the various monu 
mental tablets, composed of a volcanic stone known by the name of 
Peperino or Marmo Albano, were carefully collected and transferred to the 
Vatican, where they may now be seen. They immediately attracted the 
attention of the learned ; they have been repeatedly copied and illustrated ; 
and the most ancient among them are universally recognized as the most 
curious and valuable authorities for the earlier forms of the Latin language. 
Ennio Visconti published, in his Opere Varief fac-similes of the whole, 
executed, he assures us, with the most minute accuracy (colla piuminuta 
esatezza), and added an elaborate commentary. These fac-similes we 
have followed as the authority for our text. 

No. 1.. 

Epitaph on Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, who was^Consul B.C. 298. 
He was the grandfather of the elder Africanus and of Asiaticus. 
In front of the lid of the sarcophagus 


In front of the body of the sarcophagus, in four lines 


1 Maffei, Ant. Grit. Lapid., p. 449. Visconti, Opere Varie, L, p. 2; Milan, 1827. 

2 Almost every one is familiar with the shape of this monument, In consequence < 
the multitude of miniature copies which have, for many years past, been fabricated 
at Rome, and which are dispersed all over Europe and America. 

3 Liv. XXXVIII., 55, 56. 4 Vol. i., pp. 1-70 5 ed. Milan, 1827. 




In line second, the plate of Visconti, which professes to be an exact 
representation of the tomb, gives VIRTUTEI, as above ; while Visconti, in 
his commentary, makes VIRTUTE to be the reading on the monument a 
proof that it is most difficult in these matters to arrive at u la piu minuta 

"VVe remark also that the inscription on the lid is altogether omitted by 
Orelli (No. 550), and that Yisconti takes no notice of it in his commentary, 
although it is represented on his plate. 

Another curious circumstance is that, upon a close inspection of the 
sarcophagus, it is evident that a line and nearly a-half, which originally 
formed the commencement of the inscription, have been chiselled out. 
It would be foolish to hazard a conjecture upon the cause of this. 

It will be observed that four short horizontal marks ( ) appear in the 
body of the inscription. It has been imagined that these were intended 
to indicate a division into (poetical?) lines, which would thus be distri 
buted : 

( Cornelius Lucius Scipio Bargains Gnaivod Patre Prognatus 
\ Fortis Vir Sapiensque 

Quoius Forma Virtutei Parisuma Fuit 

Consol Censor Aidilis Quei Fuit Apud Vos 

Taurasia Cisauna Samnio Cepit 

Subigit Omne Loucana Opsidesque Abdoucit. 

The epitaph, written in the Latin of the Augustan age, would run 
thus : 

Cornelius Gnaei Filius Scipio. 

Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus, Gnaeo patre prognatus, fortis vir 
sapiensque, cuius forma virtuti parissima fuit, Consul, Censor, Aedilis, qui 
fait apud vos ; Taurasiam, Cisaunam, Samnio cepit, subigit omnem Luca- 
niam, obsidesque abducit. 

No. -2. 

Epitaph on Cornelia, the daughter of Cneus, and wife of Hispallus ; 

This was engraved on the wall immediately above the sarcophagus of 
Barbatus \ and although we can tell nothing certain of the person to whom 
it refers, it is supposed, from the very archaic form of the characters, to 
be one of the oldest inscriptions of the series. 

Here Visconti in his plate gives CNF, as represented above, but in his 
commentary he has GNF, and so Orelli a discrepancy of some importance 
in a very old inscription. See above, p. 224-.. 


No. 3. 

Epitaph on Lucius Cornelius Scipio, son of Barbatus. He was Consul 
B.C. 2GO ; 




In the last line Orelli (No. 552) reads MERITO. 
Written in ordinary Latin, the above would run 

Cornelius L. F. Scipio, 

Aedilis, Consul, Censor. 
Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt R l ... 
Bonorum optimum fuisse virum 
Lucium Scipionem. Filius Barbati, 
Consul, Censor, Aedilis hie fuit a 2 ... 
Hie cepit Corsicam Aleriamque urbem 
Dedit Tempestatibus aedem merito. 

It is evident that the Latinity in this inscription bears a more archaic 
stamp than that in the epitaph on Barbatus. We have above (p. 224) 
pointed out that it is not improbable that the tomb and epitaph of Bar 
batus may belong to a period considerably later than his death, and there 
fore that the epitaph on his son may in reality be the oldest in the series. 

No. 4; 

Epitaph on Publius Cornelius Scipio, son of the elder Africanus. He 
was Flamen Dialis, and became, by adoption, the father of the younger 
Africanus, who was, by blood, the son of Aemilius Paullus : 


In line first Orelli (No. 558) has APICEM and GESSISTEI, and in line 
sixth entirely omits the word FACTEIS. 

In consequence of the tablet having been broken across from top to 

1 Supplied by conjecture Romani. 2 So also opud vos. 


bottom, the T in TUA, the N in HONOS, the E in ATQUE, the I in 
LICUISSET, and the S in FACTEIS, have been obliterated. 

The above differs but little from ordinary Latin. We have Aplce for 
Apicem, Gesistei for Gessisti, Sei for Si, Licuiset for Licuisset, Tibe for 
Tibi, Utier for Uti, Facteis for Factis, Superases for Superasses, Gremiu 
for Gfremium. 

No. 5. 

Epitaph on a youth, Lucius Cornelius Scipio, supposed by some scholars 
to have been the son of Gnaeus Scipio Hispallus, who was Consul B.C. 
176 : 




In line sixth Orelli (No. 555) has L MANDATUS, and 

at the end of the inscription M . . merely. 

Here we have Posidet for Possidet, Quoiei for Quoi or CMZ, Quei for 
Qui, Virtutei for Virtute, Quairatis for Quaeratis. 

No. 6. 
Epitaph on Lucius, son of Scipio Asiaticus : 


Qualst. for Quaest., Mortuos for Mortuus, Antioco for Antiochum. 

No. 7. 

Epitaph on Gnaeus Scipio Hispanus, supposed by some to have been th& 
brother of the preceding: 






In line third Orelli (No. 554) has SAC. FAC. 

JSl. ludik. is for stlitibus (i. e., litibus), iudicandis. 

No. 8. 
Epitaph on a son of the preceding : 

. . RNELTVS. L. F L. N 


No. 9. 

Mutilated fragment. 
. . 0. ADVEIXEI 


The following curious document is the celebrated S. C. de Bacchanalibus, 
the history of which is to be found in Livy, Bk. XXXIX., 8-16. It was 
passed B.C. 186. The copy given below was found upon a bronze tablet, 
dug up in the southern part of the kingdom of Naples, in 1640, and now 
preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna. I have carefully compared 
the text with a fac-simile of the original, inserted in the 7th volume of 
Drakenborch s Livy, and have preserved the distribution into lines ; 







1 This is carelessly engraved for N, i. e., NONIS. A similar slip is seen in the 
preceding word, CONSOLVERVIVT, for CONSOLVERVNT; and in the first 
word of line third, ESEIVT for ESENT. Such a mistake, however, is less startling 
in the original document, where the letters are represented by the combination of 
simple strokes without tips thus, IV approaches very closely to N. 

2 SACANAL seems to be a blunder for BACANAL. 

3 VTRA is a blunder for VERBA. 

4 A blunder for NOSTER. 

5 A blunder for COSOLERETVFv. 




















1 A blunder for NEQVE. 

* A. blunder for OQVOLTOD, i. e., occulto. 







RANO. . . 

(Q.) Marcius Lucii Filius, Spurlus Postumius Lucii Filius, Consules, 
Senatum consuluerunt Nonis Octobris apud aedem Bellonae. 

(Scribendo adfaerunt M. Claudius Marci Filius, Lucius Valerius Publii 
Filius, Q. Minucius Caii Filius.) 

De Bacchanalibus qui foederati essent, ita edicendum censuere. Ne 
quis eorum Bacchanal habuisse velit. Si qui essent, qui sibi dicerent 
necesse esse Bacchanal habere, iis uti ad Praetorem Vrbanum Romam 
venirent, deque iis rebus ubi eorum verba audita essent, uti Senatus noster 
decerneret ; dum ne minus Senatoribus centum adessent, quum ea res 

Bacchas Vir ne quis adiise velit Civis Romanus, neve Nominis Latini, 
neve Sociorum quisquam, nisi Praetorem Vrbanum adiisent, isque de 
Senatus sententia, dum ne minus Senatoribus centum adessent, quum ea 
res consuleretur, iussissent, censuere. 

Sacerdos nequis vir esset, Magister neque Vir neque Mulier quisquam 
esset, neve pecuniam quisquam eorum communem habuisse velit, neve 
magistratum, neve pro magistratu, neque virum, neque mulierem quis 
quam fecisse velit, neve posthac inter se coniurasse, neve convovisse, neve 
conspondisse, neque compromisisse velit, neve quisquam fidem inter se 
dedisse velit. Sacra in occulto ne quisquam fecisse velit, neve in publico 
neve in privato, neve extra urbem sacra quisquam fecisse velit, nisi 
Praetorem Vrbanum adiiset, isque de Senatus sententia, dum ne minus 
Senatoribus centum adessent, quum ea res consuleretur, iussissent, censuere. 

Homines plus quinque universi viri atque mulieres sacra ne quisquam 
fecisse velit, neve interibi viri plus duobus, mulieribus plus tribus, adibisse 
velint, nisi de Praetoris Vrbani Senatusque sententia, uti supra scriptum 

Haecce uti in Conventione edicatis ne minus trinum nundinum, Sena 
tusque sententiam uti scientes essetis, eorum sententia ita fuit. 

Si qui essent, qui adversum ea fecissent, quam supra scriptum est, iis- 
rem capitalem faciendam censuere. 

Atque nti hocce in tabulam ahenam incideretis, ita Senatus aeqnum 

Vtique earn figi iubeatis, ubi facillime nosci possit. 


Atque uti ea Bacchanalia siqua sunt, extra quam siquid ibi sacri est, ita 
uti supra scriptum est, in diebus decem quibus vobis tabellae datae erunt, 
faciatis uti dismota sient in agro Teurano. 


The following S.C. was found, we are told, inscribed upon a tablet of 
bronze, at Tivoli, in the sixteenth century. It was for a long period in 
the possession of the Barberini family, in whose library it was seen by 
Ficoroni and Visconti, in the eighteenth century, but is now lost. 

It appears from the tenor of the document that, upon some occasion 
or other, doubts had been cast on the loyalty of the inhabitants of Tibur 
towards Rome, but that the Tiburtes had appeared before the Senate to 
justify themselves, and that the Senate passed this decree, expressing 
their full satisfaction with the statements of the Tiburtes, and the confi 
dence which they reposed in their good faith. 

Maffei 1 expressed an opinion that the inscription was a forgery, but 
scholars in general have pronounced in its favour; and Visconti 2 has sup 
posed, with much probability, that it refers to occurrences which took 
place at the epoch of the Marsian war. Niebuhr, however, in his Roman 
History* would carry it back to the period of the second Samnite war (B.C. 
305), in which case it would be undoubtedly " the oldest of all Roman 
documents." But while I feel the greatest respect and deference for the 
genius and learning of that illustrious philologist, I must look upon this 
as one of those rash and ill-considered assertions in which he was too apt 
to indulge. No one who studies the phraseology of this S. C. could rea 
sonably suppose that it presented the language in an earlier stage than the 
inscription on the Duillian column, and the first two or three epitaphs on 
the Scipios ; while, on the other hand, the forms which it exhibits corre 
spond very closely with those which we find in three interesting relics, of 
undoubted authenticity, which belong to the last century of the Republic 
the Decree Arbitral of Q. and M. Minucius Rufus on the boundary 
disputes between the Genuates and Viturii, pronounced in B.C. 117 4 ; the 
fragments of the Lex Thoria Agraria 5 passed in B.C. Ill ; and the frag 
ments of the Lex Servilia de Repetundis, 6 passed about B.C. 100 : 





1 Maffei, Art. Crit. Lapid., p. 344. 2 Iconogr. Rom. I., p. 131, ed. Milan. 1818. 

3 Vol. iii., p. 264, Engl Trans., 1842. 

4 See Orelli, No. 3121. 

5 Correctly edited for the first time by Rudorff, in the Zeitschrift fur geschichtlicke 
JRechtswissenschaft, Band x., 1839. 

p First correctly edited by Klenze, in a work published at Berlin, 4to, 1825, 
entitled, Fraymenta legis fierviliae repetundarum^ &c. 









ESSE. . , 




Niebuhr imagines that the L. Cornelius named above is no other than 
the Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, whose epitaph stands first among 
the monuments of the Scipios. 

The decree of the Minucii, the Lex Thoria and the Lex Servilia, are 
too long for insertion ; but we earnestly recommend them to the attention 
of the student. We shall conclude with a short u Dedications Formula," 
found at Capua, which belongs to the same period as the Lex Thoria and 
the Lex Servilia, and presents us with one or two remarkable forms 
(Orelli, No. 2487) : 












M. YALERIYS L. F. Z. M. 2 


1 The above copy is taken from the work of Yisconti, cited above. He says 
** Yoici la copie exactedel mscription telle que je 1 ai prise moi-meme, en 1790, sur la 
tablette de bronze que je retrouvai parmi les restes du cabinet des princes Barberini, a 

2 The letters Z, M, are corrupt. 3 . e., B.C. 108. 


Where we observe Venervs, Coiravervnt, Loidos, for Veneris, Cur aver unt y 




ONE of the chief obstacles which embarrass a young scholar in acquiring 
a knowledge of Latin Prosody, and in composing Latin verse, is the diffi 
culty of remembering the quantity of syllables, when it depends upon 
authority only, since these exceed in number those for which any rule can 
be laid down. But this difficulty would have had no existence, if either 
the Romans who lived during the bright period of their literature had 
preserved the orthography of their rude ancestors, or if, on the other hand,, 
the true pronunciation had been transmitted to us in all its purity. In 
the former case the quantity of all syllables would have been made known 
to us by the eye, and in the latter case by the ear. 

But although the ancient method of writing disappeared almost imme 
diately after the establishment of the language in a settled form, and 
although the wildest theorist can scarcely believe that he pronounces Latin 
as it was rolled forth by Cicero when he denounced the traitor in the 
Senate-house, or by Virgil when he recited his Georgics to Augustus ; yet 
it will be not merely interesting, but practically useful, briefly to state all 
that we know, or can safely infer upon these two topics ; and first, as to the 
Ancient Orthography 

The old grammarians explicitly state, that in the earliest times long 
syllables were distinguished in writing, by doubling the vowel. Thus,, 

" Semivocales non geminare, diu fuit usitatissimi moris ; atque e con- 
trario, usque ad Accium et ultra, porrectas syllabas geminis, ut dixi, voca- 
libus scripsere." 1 Again, Marius Victorinus 

" Naevius et Livius, cum longa syllaba scribenda esset, duas vocales 
ponebant, praeterquam quae in I literam inciderant, hanc enim per E et I 
scribebant." 2 

Lucilius seems to have been one of the enemies of this custom, for in 
his Satires 3 he expresses his determination to reject the practice of doubling 
the vowels 

A primum est ; hinc incipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt. 
A, primum longa et brevi syllaba ; nos tamen unum 
Hoc faciemus, et uno eodem, ut diximu , pacto 
Scribemus Pacem, Placide, lanum, Aridum, Acetum. 

That is, he will write Pacem, lanum, Aridum, which have the A long,. 
in the same manner as Placide and Acetum^ which have the A short. The 
best commentary we can have upon these assertions of the grammarians > 

1 1., vii., 14. 2 P., 2456. 8 Lib. IV., frag. 1. 


is to be found in ancient inscriptions, some of which were carved before 
these changes had been introduced, while in others the old forms were 
retained through ignorance or contempt of the new system. We shall 
take one or two specimens of the manner in which each vowel is found 
represented when its quantity is long. 

1. A. We find in different inscripffons in the collection of Gruter 
AA; PAASTORES ; 2 THRAACVM ; 3 VAARVS;* FAATO ; 5 for a, pastor es, 
Thracum, Varus;Fato: so also in Fabretti FAATO NAATAM; 6 forfato 
natam; and in some old MSS. of Horace, inEp. I., iv., Vala is written 

2. JE. The double E is uncommon; we have, however, SEEDES* for 
sedes, and Lipsius 8 quotes from a coin FAVSTVS FEELIX for Faustus Felix. 

Long E is sometimes represented by the diphthong OE, as in EPHOEBO ; 9 
FOELICI ; 10 PROSCOENIUM ; ll for ephebus, felici, proscenium. 

3. I. It does not appear to have been the custom to double long I, but 
its quantity was expressed in writing in two different ways. 

a. By increasing its length so as to make it overtop the other letters ; 
thus, on the Duillian Tablet : 

PR!MOS ; CARTACINIENCIS : MAR!D ; for prim os, Carihaginiensis, marl. 

This was, in fact, merely an abbreviation for the double I, for which it 
repeatedly occurs even in the age of Augustus ; thus, on the Monumentum 
Ancyranum ; 
MuNicipIs ; STIPEND!S ; COLON!S ; for municipiis, stipendiis, coloniis, &c. 

b. In the greater number of instances, long I was expressed by the 
diphthong El ; thus, on the Duillian Tablet : 

LECIONEIS ; CASTREIS ; CLASEIS ; for Legionis (ace. pi.), castris, classis 
(ace. pi.) ; so also on the tomb of Scipio Barbatus : 

VIRTVTEI ; QVEI ; for Virtuti, Qul. A great many examples will be 
found in Gruter, e.g., IBEI ; 12 VBEi; 13 VTEI; M OPEREi; 15 CEivis; 16 EiTVR; 17 
IPSEIVS ; 18 DEICITO ; 19 &c., for ibi, ubl, utl, operl, cwis, itur, ipslus, dlcito^ 

We find this mode of spelling still in use in the age of Augustus. On 
the Mon. Ancyr. we observe, QVADRIGEIS ; LAVREIS ; for quadrigis, 
lauris ; on the Cenotaphium C. Caesaris, DEVICTEIS, for devictis, &c. 

Hence the constant confusion both in MSS. and printed copies of the 
classics, with respect to the nominatives and accusatives plural, masculine 
and feminine, of the third declension. The termination was originally eis, 
and from this sprang the two others in is and es, according as E or I was 
-dropped. In the best MSS. of Plautus, we find indifferently 

Aedeis, Aedes, Aedis, 

And both of the more recent forms often occur in the same inscription 
Thus, on the Mon. Ancyr. : 


1 DCXXIX., lin. 29. 2 CL., 7. 3 CCCCLXXX., 6. 4 CLXXL, 8. 

8 MXLVL, C. ti Fabrett., 421. 7 Grut., CLXXL, 8. 8 De rect. L. L. pron. 

9 Gruter, DCLXXXIX., 4. 10 CCLXXIIL, 6. u CLXVIIL, 10. 

13 CLXXL, 8. CCVL, 2. 15 CCVL, 2. 16 CCVL, 2. 17 CLXXL, 8. 
18 DXLL. 7. 19 CCVL, 2. 


entes, minores, curules, plures, agentes ; and, on the other hand, FIXES ; 
GENTES ; REGES, in the ordinary shape. 

4. O does not appear to have been doubled, at least we find no trace of it. 

5. V. Long Y is represented in various ways. 

a. It is doubled inMvvcius ;* Ivvs ; 2 CONVENTVVS ; 3 DOMVVS ; 4 ARBI- 
TRAxvv; 5 PECULATW, 6 &c., for Mucius, ius, conventus, domus, dbitratu, 
peculatu, &c. 

b. More usually by the diphthong OY, which was the sound of long Y, 
as we shall see in next section. Thus, on the tomb of Barbatus, LOVCANA, 
ABDOVCIT; for Lucaniam, abducit; so also LovGET; 7 lovsix; 8 IOVSE- 
iussitj iusserunt, inducebamus, ob iniurias, iudicati, &c. 

c. The diphthong 01 is found instead of long Y ; thus, on the tomb of 
Lucius Scipio, son of Barbatus, OINO, PLOIRVME, for unum, plurimi; so 
also COIRAVIT ; 12 LOIDOS ; 13 MOINICEPIEIS ; M OITILE ; 15 for curavit, ludos, 
municipiis, utile, &c. 

d. In like manner OE sometimes represents long Y, as OETANTUR; W 
POENIBITVR ; " COERAVix; 18 OETIER ; 19 for utantur^punibitur^ curavit,utier; 
and on the Duillian Tablet, POENICAS for punicas. 

In Plautus, all the best MSS. have Moenitum, m Admoenire " Admoe- 
nivi ; ** for munitum^ admunire, &c. ; and the form moenia was always retained. 
So in Pomoerium we detect moerus, the ancient shape of murus, and ex 
amples of the same kind might be multiplied to a great extent. 

After the method of doubling long vowels, or representing them by 
diphthongs, was abandoned by literary men, long vowels were distinguished 
by an Apex, that is a straight horizontal line placed above them ; the 
mark which is still used in books on Prosody, to distinguish long syllables. 
Isidorus 23 says 

" Inter figuras literarum et Apices veteres duxere. Est autem linea 
iacens super literam aequaliter ducta." 

The apex was next discarded from general use, and attached to those 
words only which were spelt in the same manner, but differed from each 
other in meaning and quantity. Quintilian, 24 " Ut longis syllabis omni 
bus apponere apicem ineptissimum est, quia plurimae, natura ipsa verbi 
quod scribitur, patent ; sic interim necessarium, cum eadem litera alium 
atque alium intellectum, prout correpta vel producta est, facit ; ut mains 
utrum arborem significet an hominem non bonum apice distinguitur. Palus 
aliud priore syllaba longa, aliud sequent! significat. Et cum eadem litera 
nominativo casu brevis, ablativo longa est, utrum sequamur, plerumque 
hac nota monendi sumus." So too, Terentius Scaurus, 25 u Apices ibi poni 
debent ubi eisdem literis alia atque alia res significatur. ut Venit et Venit; 

r T^ in 

JLegit et Legit. 

Moreover, when the doubling of the vowel fell into disuse, another 

-v,v,n. 2 DCXXVIII. 3 LXXXIII., 4. 4 CVL, 13. * CCIV. 
DCXXVIII. 7 MLIV., 1. 8 CLXXL, 8. 9 CCIV. 10 CCCCXCIX., 12. 
11 CCIV. 12 LIX., 8. 1S Ibid. CCIII. 15 CCCCXCIX., 12. 

16 CCII. 17 DCCCCXL., 7. 18 LXI., 5. 19 Festus in verb. PuUica Pondera. 
w Bacch. IV., ix., 2. 21 Pseud. L, ill, 150. 22 Cist. II., ii., 5. 

3 Orig. 2 * L, vii,, 2. M P., 2264, ed. Putsch. 



expedient, different from the apex, was partially introduced to mark the 
quantity of long syllables. This was doubling the consonant (it was chiefly 
resorted to in the semi- vowels, L, M, N, K, S), which immediately fol 
lowed the long vowel, in words such as summits, nummus, classis. That 
the object of those who introduced this practice was to remedy any incon 
venience which might arise from the rejection of the double vowel, seems 
probable from the fact, that these two innovations were made almost at 
the same period. We have seen, from a passage in Quintilian, at the 
"beginning of this section, that the doubling of the long vowel continued 
until the time of Accius ;* and Festus 2 informs us that Ennius first intro 
duced the double consonant: 

" Nomen Solitaurilia antiqua consuetudine per unum L emmciari 
non est mirum, quia nulla tune geminabatur litera in scribenda ; quam 
consuetudinem Ennius mutavisse fertur." ]STow, since Accius, in whose 
time the doubled vowels disappeared, was the immediate successor of 
Ennius, who invented the doubling of the consonant, the above inference 
seems fair. The statement that the double consonant was not known 
until the time of Ennius, is confirmed by the oldest inscriptions. Thus, on 
the Duillian Tablet, 

CLASEIS ; SVMAS; NVMEI; for classes, summas, nutmni so also on the 
tomb of Scipio Barbatus, PARISVMA for parissima ; and on that of his son, 
FUISE for Fuisse, &c. 

In some words, such as Classis, Summus, Fuisse, the new mode of 
spelling became general, while in others it seems to have depended upon 
fashion, or the taste of the scribe. Hence we find MSS. constantly fluc 
tuating between 

Numus and Nummus, anciently NOVMOS. 
Litus and Littus, LEITVS. 

Litera and Littera, LEITERA, 

And many others. 



IT is almost unnecessary to observe, that everything connected with 
the pronunciation of a dead language must necessarily be involved in 
great obscurity, which, from the very nature of the subject, it is impossible 
entirely to dispel. Several of the old grammarians, indeed, who wrote at 
a period when Latin was still spoken over a large portion of the civilized 
world, have left us carefully worded descriptions of the manner in which 
the different letters ought to be enunciated, and many of these are, in 
themselves, highly ingenious. But to undertake to explain, in writing, 

1 That is to say, did not fall into general disuse until then, for it is omitted in some 
words on the Duillian Tablet; but this may, perhaps, be attributed to tke changes 
supposed to have been made upon that inscription, when it was copied. 

2 In voc. Solitaurilia. 


delicate distinctions of sound, is, in most cases, a task as hopeless as to 
endeavour to make a man born blind comprehend the gradations of colour 
in the rainbow. What information do we gain as to the true sounds of 
E and I, or their difference from each other, when we are told by 
Victorinus Afer that 

E, represso modice rictu oris, reductisque introrsum labiis effertur. 

I, semicluso ore impressisque sensim lingua dentibus vocem dabit. 

And by Terentianus Maurus, that 

E quae sequitur vocula dissona est priori, 
Quia deprimit altum modico tenore rictum, 
Et lingua remotos premit hinc et hinc molares, 
I porrigit ictum genuinos prope ad ipsos, 
Minimumque renidet supero tenus labello. 

And by Martianus Capella 

E spiritus facit lingua paullo pressiore, 
I spiritus prope dentibus pressis. 

Any one who will take the trouble to make the experiment will find, 
that any of these, or all of them combined, agree perfectly with each of the 
modifications of sound which E and I assume in English words. 

But although the direct testimony of the grammarians is of little use, 
yet their negative evidence is of great value. In no case do they attribute 
more than one sound to each consonant, or more than two to each vowel, 
which seems to prove that the Homans were strangers to those capricious 
variations and unaccountable anomalies, which render the correct pronun 
ciation of English often perplexing to ourselves, and always hopeless to a 
foreigner. The two sounds usually assigned to each vowel are the long 
sound and the short sound. We have seen, in the last section, that long vowels 
were, in ancient times, distinguished from short vowels in writing, and this 
circumstance will aid us much in our attempts to determine their true 
pronunciation ; but in so far as the short vowels are concerned, whether 
they differed in time only from the others, or whether the organs of speech 
wore compressed in a peculiar manner in enunciating them, are points 
upon which we have no precise information; but since the long vowels 
were originally represented by simply repeating the short vowel, it would 
seem that the difference of time was the principal, if not the only dis 

In addition to the light thrown upon this subject by the old grammarians, 
we derive considerable assistance from inscriptions. It is evident, from 
the numerous memorials of this description which have been preserved, 
that the ancient stone-cutters were a very illiterate race of m^n, since the 
most palpable errors in orthography perpetually occur. But when we 
find the same blunder frequently repeated in the same or similar words, or 
in letters in similar positions, it is a fair inference that they accommodated 
the spelling to the pronunciation, as we see happen every day among 
ourselves, in the works of common masons and itinerant sign-painters. 
Thus, when we find long V continually represented by 0V, in inscriptions 
which were sculptured long after the custom of doubling the vowels had 


fallen into disuse, we may safely conclude that it was sounded either like 
the English ou in mouse, or like the French ou in cour, that is, the English 
00 in poor. 

From modern Italian also we may learn something, and it will not be 
going too far to say, that in those particulars in which their pronunciation 
differs from that of the other nations of Europe, there is a presumption, 
at least, that they have derived this from their mighty ancestors. 

The principal authors who have treated of this subject, are 
Erasmus, Dialogus de Recta Linguae Graecae et Latinae Pronunciatione. 
Lipsius, De Recta Pronunciatione Linguae Latinae. 
Middleton, De Latinarum Literarum Pronunciatione Dissertatio. 

The two former are elaborate treatises, containing much that is fanciful ; 
the latter is brief and imperfect, and founded almost entirely on the 
orthography of ancient inscriptions. We shall endeavour to give the 
student, in a short compass, everything of importance that is known on 
this topic, leaving it to himself to follow out the inquiry by such analogies 
and conjectures as his ingenuity may suggest. 

In beginning with the vowels, we may repeat, that the long vowels were 
clearly distinguished from the short ones at all times, in sound, and 
-anciently in writing also. 

A. There seems little doubt, that the sound of A, adopted by the 
English, in their pronunciation of Latin, who make it the same with the a 
in mate, fate, &e., is quite erroneous ; while that used in Scotland and upon 
the Continent, where it is enunciated broad and full, as in Papa, is more 
nearly correct. The former will by no means accord with the concurrent 
testimony of the old grammarians, 1 who all tell us, that it is to be uttered 
with the mouth wide open (rictu patulo), the tongue being suspended so as 
not to touch the teeth. It would appear to have been equivalent in 
certain foreign words to the English a in all, since we find AncHiLAWS, 2 
AvROMATORivs, 3 for Arcldlaus, aromatorius. 

That long A was distinguished from short A, by merely dwelling upon 
it for a greater length of time, seems probable, from the long quantity 
being indicated by merely repeating the A, as in AA, PAASTORES, THRAA- 
CVM, &c., quoted in the last section. 

E. Suidas quotes a line from the Greek comic poet Cratinus 

*O d faiQtog uffTreg K^ofictTov, @YI, fiq, teyuv fia 

from which we can at once deduce the s6und of the Greek aj, since the 
pronunciation of a sheep is not liable to change. Now, in Greek words, 
transplanted into Latin, the general rule is, that the r, is represented by 
long e, as in cetus (XJJTOJ), thesaurus (0wot>v ^o?), &c. ; and from this we 
conclude, that the sound of e was similar to that of e in the French bete. 
Thus it would appear, that the English, who give it the force of double e 
in peevish, and the Scotch, who make it the same as the a in pale, are 
equally wrong. If we take as an example the word sede, according to the 
former, it is seedee; according to the latter, say day ; while it ought to be 

1 Vid. Martianus Capella ; Terentianus Maurus ; Victorinus Afer, and for the Greek 
, Dionvs. Hal. 

2 Gruter. DLXXXVI., 6. 3 DCXXXVL, 7. 


sede. If this be the true doctrine, it will lead us to the correct pronuncia 
tion of the diphthong ae, since we find it perpetually confounded in 
inscriptions with long e, and sometimes with short e also. Thus 


for letum, optime, Procne, pridie, quieti, diebus, &c. And also, PRAE- 
CIBVS, 7 BENAE, 8 CRiMiNAE, 9 EXTAERVM, 10 &c., for precibus, bene, crimine, 
exterum, Sec. 

I. Having pointed out in the last section, that long i was, for the most 
part, written in ancient times as the diphthong El, we can have little 
difficulty in deciding that it should be considered as the same with the 
English i, in the words mite, might, sprite, indite ; and hence we ought to 
say, Teityre, Deico, Capteivi, and not Teetyre, Deeco, Capteevee, as we do 
in Scotland. 

This is further confirmed by the manner in which the Greeks spell 
Roman names ; thus, Antoninus, Faustina, become ANTHNEINO2, 
<AY2TEINH, and reciprocally Ng/Ao? appears in Latin as Nllus; while 
Cicero clearly intimates, Ep. IX., 22, that terni, bini, were pronounced 
ternei, binei. 

I, in Latin, is used not only as a vowel, but also as a consonant. It 
seems clear from what we have already stated upon this subject (pp. 2, 
14, 15, 235), that /, when a consonant, corresponded in sound to our F, 
in such words as youth, York, &c. ; and this is preserved in modern 
Italian, in which jeri, ajuto, major, are pronounced yeri, ai-yuto, mai- 

0. O seems to have two proper sounds only in all languages, the long 
open O, as it appears in the English no, bone, stone, the German brot, the 
Italian bono, and the closer sound, as in not, moral; both of these are 
distinctly described by Victorinus, as appertaining to the Latin O, which 
represents both the Omicron and the Omega of the Greeks. In English 
we have at least two additional sounds attached to this letter, which 
appear in love, move, &c. 

V (vowel). In the Menaechmi of Plautus, IV., ii., 87, we find the 
following lines : 

MEN. Quis is Menaechmus est ? Mu. Tu istic inquam. MEN. Egone ? 

Mu. Tu ! MEN. Quis arguit ? 

Mu. Egornet. PE. Et ego : atque huic amicae detulisti Erotio. 
MEN. Egon dedi? PE. Tu, tu istic inquam: vin afferri noctuam. 
Quae Tu, Tu, usque dicat tibi ? 

1. e., Do you wish a night-owl to be brought which will keep repeating to you 
Tu, Tu ? Kow we know that the night-owl s cry is Ton, Ton, ou being the 
same as the double oo in boot, and this consequently fixes the sound of the 
Latin long V. In the last section we quoted some inscriptions in which 
OV was substituted for long V, which confirm what has been said above, 
although, in themselves, they would not have been sufficient to decide the 


4 CCLXXXVL, 7. 5 DLXIII., 7. 6 DCLXXXVL, 1. 

7 Grut. XVIL, 7. 8 DCCCCXLIV., 5. 9 DCCCCXCIIL, 5. 
10 DCCLXXVI., 2. 


matter, as we might have supposed that OV was similar to the English 
diphthong in lout, clout, &c. 

We pointed out, in the same place, that long V was sometimes repre 
sented by OI and OE, which seems to imply a connection between them in 

But with regard to V where it occurs short, or is lengthened by position 
only, we cannot speak with the same confidence. That a marked difference 
did exist between long Y and short Y, is expressly stated by Yarro. 
u Quidam reprehendunt quod Pluit et luit dicanms in praeterito et 
praesenti tempore. Falluntur. ISTam est, ac putant, aliter, quod in 
praeterito Y dicimus longam, Pluit et luit in praesenti breve." Short Y 
frequently answers to the Greek T, as in tiva, duo; (pwyyi, fuga; *2vKhct;, 
Sulla; Papvhos, Romulus, &c., and as Quintilian attributes to the latter 
a soft, sweet sound, it may have resembled the u in mute, curate, or perhaps 
the French u in nuages, pluviose. 

But in addition to these, the principal sounds of Y, we ought to remark, 
that it is constantly interchanged with I and O, both in inscriptions and in 
the older forms of the language, Thus, on the Duillian Tablet, we have 
exfugiunt, primus, consul, captum. HONG; CONSENTIONT; and several 
others on the tomb of Scipio. So also, CONTIBERNALIS ;* ExRiscvs; 2 for 
contubernalis, Etruscus, and on the Monum. Ancyr., MANIBIIS, RECI- 
PERATIS, for manubiis, recuperatis. So, on the other hand, INFVMO, 3 
SVBi, 4 STVPVLAE, 5 &c., for infimus, sibi, stipulae; and CONSVBRINVS, 6 

EPISTVLA, 7 NVMENCLATVR, 8 SACERDVS, 9 &C., for COllSOlriUUS, epistold, 

nomenclator, sacerdos, &c. In every page of Plautus and the older writers, 
we have Volnus, Voltus, Volgus, Avos, Aequom, Salvos, &c., and in the 
MSS. of writers belonging to all epochs, and inscriptions of all dates, there 
is a perpetual confusion between maximus and maxumus, proximus and 
proxumus, opiimus and optumus, monimentum, monumentwn, and muni- 
mentum, and many others. 

As to the diphthongs, the method recommended by Erasmus seems to 
be founded upon just principles. He would pronounce each letter of the 
diphthong separately in the first place, giving the proper sound to each 
vowel, and then, repeating the word a second time, hurry over the syllable 
containing the diphthong, in such a manner as to run the two vowels 
together, without completely losing either. To practise this with success, 
however, it is necessary that we should, in each case, be acquainted with 
the true sound of the constituent parts. 

We have already seen that, in all probability, ae differed but little 
from long e, and the same may be said of ai, which is, in a vast number of 
instances, substituted for ae. 10 In like manner, we have pointed out the 

1 Gruter. DXL, 9. 2 CCCXLIX., 6. 3 CCIV. 4 DCCLXXVIL, 3. 

5 CXXXVIIL 6 MCVIL, 1. 7 LXL, 4. 8 DCXXX., 5. 9 XXXIV., 5. 

10 This is seen in AIDILIS (Grut. LXIX., 11, CXXIX., 3), &c. ; AIRE (LIL, 12); 
CAISAR (CIX., 7, CXCVL, 4, &c.) QUAISTORES (LIL, 12), for aedilis, acre, Caesar, 
guaestores, not to mention the double form of the genitive of the first declensisn in ai 
and ae. We arrive at the same conclusion in remarking the uncertaintv which 


prevails in the best MSS. between saeculum, paene, caeremonia, glaebaj &c., and 
pene, ceremonia, gleba, &c. 


connection which apparently exists between long V, OI, and OE, which. 

But in addition to the union of e, ae, ai, on the one hand, and oi, oe, u, 
on the other, there is manifestly a close alliance between oe and e, as 
exemplified in EPHOEBUS, FOELIX, and PROSCOENIVM, for epliebus, felix, 
proscenium, and between oe and ae, in the irregularity of spelling in such 
words as coecus, coelebs, coena, moereo, &c., which often appear as caecus, 
caelebs, caena, maereo, &c. 

The only doubt in regard to AY is whether we ought to say Awrum 
(aw as in awl), or Owrum (pw as in oicl). There is little evidence; but 
since we find AY occasionally used for long A, it would appear that the 
first of the above sounds is most likely to be correct. 

All seem to agree in thinking that EI is the same as the i \v\find, mind, 
&c., while EU may either be the English eu in. feud, or the French eu in 
jeu, that is, the Scotch ui in puir, muir (poor, moor). 

H is easily dismissed. As it is merely the mark of a strong breathing, 
the only variation of sound which can arise must proceed from the 
comparative force of the aspirations. It appears from a passage in Cicero 
referred to in the last section, that the Romans at an early period never 
used it except before a vowel at the beginning of a word, and hence always 
said, pulcros, Cetegos, triumpos, Kartaginem. (See pp. 233, 234.) 

In inscriptions we often find it omitted at the beginning of a word where 
it ought to appear, and, on the other hand, inserted where it ought not 
to find place. Thus, ERES; l IBERNA ; 2 ic; oc; 3 OMINI;* OMVKCio; 5 
oxESTVs; 6 ORAS ; 7 vivs ; 8 VMANAE,VM, S &e., for lieres, Jiiberna, Me, hoc, 
homini, homuncio, lionestus, Iwrus, Indus, Jiumanarum, &c. ; and, again, 


IIomvNDVS, 1; &c., for ac, Aretliusa, Eridanus, Illyricum, ornamentis, 
oriundus, &c. 

This may have arisen from the aspiration in certain cases being uncer 
tain, as in our own language both Humble and Bumble, Hugh and ugJi, 
&c., are to be heard from the mouths of well-educated persons ; or it may 
have originated in the impure dialect of stone-cutters, liable to the blunders 
so common among the lower orders in London and various parts of Eng 
land. This is the defect wliicli Catullus ridicules in his amusing Epigram. 
(See above, p. 233.) 

That H was pronounced distinctly in the combination TH, appears from 
Cicero, who tells us that the sound of Otones is more pleasing than that of 
OtJiones ; but whether they divided the T and H between two syllables, so 
as to make it Ot-liones, or used it like the Greek 6 and our own tli, we can 
not tell, but the last seems the more probable opinion. 

C, K, Q, G. We have already pointed out that, in the original Latin. 
alphabet, G alone of these four letters was wanting. 

1 Grutcr. DXXI., 7. ; DXXVL, 7, &c. 2 CXXIL, 1. 3 DCXCVIL, 2 ; MLTII, 11. 

7 DCLXXXIV., 4. 8 XIII., 17. 9 CLIX., 6. 

Gruter. CCLXXXII., 4. n DCCCCLXXVII., 10. LXIL, 12 ; MXLV., 2. 
3 CCCCLL, 6. " CCCXCVL, 1. * DXXIX., 7. 


There seem to be sufficient grounds to conclude that the sound of C 
was always the same as that of the Greek Kappa and of our own K. As 
Latin is read in this country, we retain this pronunciation before the vowels 
A, O, V^and the diphthong AY, as in caput, color, curtus, causa, which 
we enunciate as if they were written Kaput, Kolor, Kurtus, Kausa. But 
before E, I, Y, and the diphthongs AE, EV, OE, we give to C the force of 
S: thus, Cedo, Cicero, Cincinnus, Cyrus, Caesar, coelum, are sounded by the 
English, Scotch, and French, as if they were written Sedo, Sisero, Sinsm- 
nus, Syrus, Saesar, soelum. 

There can be little doubt that this is erroneous, because 
a. The grammarians with one voice pronounce that C, and K, and Q, 
possess the same power, and none of them give any hint that more than 
one sound was attached to C. We may quote again (see p. 228) the 
testimony of Priscian, which is perfectly explicit, " K et Q quamvis figura 
et nomine videantur aliquam habere cum C differentiam, tamen eamdem 
tarn in vocum sono quam in metro continent potestatem." So also Ter^n- 
tianus Maurus 

K perspicuum est litera quod vacare possit 
Et Q similis namque eadem vis in utraque est 
Quia qui locus est primitus unde exoritur C., &C. 1 

1). It is highly improbable that no distinction should have been made 
in pronunciation between such words as cedo, sedo ; cervus and 
servus; cella and sella; Cilicem and silicem; Cyrus and Syrus; and a 
multitude of others. It is still more unlikely that they would have 
pronounced the same letter differently in different parts of the same word ; 
that they would have said Jcapio, sepi, Jcaptum, kapere; DeJcumus and 
Decimus ; have contracted dositum into doctum, arid derived insestus from 

c. Many Latin words written with a C, are taken directly from the 
Greek; and in these, C uniformly represents the Greek K, never 2. 
Thus Cilicia is K/?u/# ; cincinnus is xoctwos ; cetus is xyros ; coelum is 
xoi^ou ; cedrus is xe^gos ; Centauros is Kevrxvoos ; cenotaphium is xsvo- 

TC&QtW, &C. 

Reciprocally, the Greeks, when they spell Latin words in their own 
letters, represent c by K. Thus, Kt%s6)v is Cicero ; Ky/wxiac, is prin- 
cipia, &c. 

d. We must not, however, omit to mention the opinion entertained 
by some eminent scholars, that the Italians have preserved the true 
old pronunciation of c, when followed by E or I. By them ce is 
sounded like che in cherry ; and ci, like chi in chicane. According to this 
method, the two first syllables in Cicero resemble those in Chichester, i. e., 

This idea seems to receive some confirmation from the circumstance, 
that although C, before the vowels A, U, O, is often engraved as K on 

1 De Litt., 204. 

2 See this followed out at greater length in Scheller s Grammar. 


ancient inscriptions, 1 yet we never find the same blunder when C precedes 
E or I ; while, on the other hand, although K is never put for C before 
I, yet in the middle of a word, C is often substituted for T, when fol 
lowed by I and another vowel. Thus, PALACio, 2 QUOCIESCUNQUE, 3 


quotiescunque, constantia, conditioner)!, conditio, solatium; and the oldest 
MSS. and inscriptions vary between Fabritius and Fdbricius, Domitius 
and Domicius, fecialis and fetialis, Martins and Marcius, Munatius and 
Munacius, Umbritius and Umbricius, and the like. Now, if T, in this 
position, have the force of TS, as many suppose, it follows, that C must 
have the same when similarly situated, which approaches very nearly to ch 
or tcli of the Italians. 

When C is preceded by S, and followed by E or I, the Italians pro 
nounce the sc like sh, which is imitated by the Scotch, in reading Latin, 
when they call scelus, scis, Scipio shaylus, shiss, sheepio ; while the Eng 
lish sink the 5 altogether, and say, seelus, sis, Sippio. In this case, Greek 
analogy is our best guide. We ought to remember that sceptrum, scena, 
Sciron, are G^TCT^QV^ ax*jvq, 2#/<y;/, and that Scipio is always written 

G. We have seen, that in the earlier form of the language, the place 
of G was supplied by C ; we may therefore assume, that they never differed 
very materially in sound, but that the Latin G was something between 
our own hard G in legation, and a pure K. How easily C and G are 
interchanged in different dialects, is well known to every philologer* and 
is familiar to all who remember the hig, hag, hog of Sir Hugh Evans. 
There is no reason to believe that G was ever sounded soft by the Romans, 
as in the English magic, logic. 

When G is followed by N", in the middle of a word, as in maynus, the 
Italians pronounce the syllable as if the G were preceded by an N, and an 
I subjoined to the GN, softening down the combination in a manner 
which cannot easily be described. We may be inclined to think, that 
something of this sort took place in Latin, since we sometimes find the 
supplementary I, alluded to above, in inscriptions. Thus, for magnus, 
magna, magno, we find MAGNIUS, MAGNIA, MAGNIO, so ABIEGNIEAS for 
aliegnas, &c. 8 This, perhaps, as Middleton remarks, will explain the 
meaning of Cicero, 9 when he says, u Noti erant, et navi, et nari, quibus cum 
in praeponi oporteret, dulcius visum est ignoti, ignavi, ignari, dicere. 7 
Now, it is not easy to see howignotus, ignavus, &c., pronounced according 
to our method, could be softer than innotus, innavus, although on the 
other supposition it is quite intelligible. 10 We may observe, in passing, 

1 e.g., ARKA (Gruter. DCLXXII., 1); DEDIKAVEKVNT (XXXVL, 9); EVOKA- 
5) ; and many others. 

2 Grut. CCXXXII. 3 Ibid. 4 Fabrett., 103. 5 169. 6 378. 
7 421. &c. 8 See Middleton. 9 Orat., c. 47. 

5 Compare the pronunciation of aj/ccyxjfj, gTrcfcyygXAof&si/o^, &c., in Greek, which 
is established by inscriptions, where they appear as OLVOCVX-YI, ^.-aj/ 
with the observations of Victorinus, Lib. I. de Orthog. on agger, ancile* &c. 


that Cicero s remark, in so far as etymology is concerned, is not worthy 
of much attention. (See above, p. 151.) 

F, Y, B, P. We have already pointed out, that F and Y are the Latin 
representatives of the digamma, and that they are often attenuated into 
the cognate labials B and P. Indeed, these letters are so closely connected, 
that they were continually confounded in ancient as they are in modern 
times. Thus, B is put for Y, when we read BIXIT ; l BERNA ; 2 BERE- 
&c., for vixit, verna, verecunda, violare, severus, servus, provincia, universus ; 
and reciprocally Y for B, in ACERVO; 9 DANWivs; 10 DEVITVM; ll PLACA- 
VILE, 12 VENEMERENTI* ; for acerbo, Danubius, debitum, placabile, bene- 
merenti ; again, P stands for B in APSENS ; 13 APSOLVTVM ; 14 APST VLIT ; 15 
APSTINERE ; 16 OPSIDES ; l7 OPTINIVT ; 18 PLEPS, 19 &c., for obsens, absolutum, 
abstulit, abstinere) obsides, obtinuit, plebs, &c. F being the roughest of 
the group, seldom takes the place of the other three ; but we have AF 
for Ab in the S. C. de Tiburtibus ; and Nonius, p. 531, gives Sijilare as 
the old form of SibiZare, which the French have changed back again to 
Siffler. The interchange of B and P is thus mentioned by QuintiHan, 
ut, quum dico Obtinuit, secundam enim B literam ratio poscit, aures magis 
audiunt P. That this takes place in the best MSS., every one accus 
tomed to consult them very well knows, and Lipsius refers in particular to 
the Florentine copy of the Pandects, one of the oldest in existence. 

The same analogy holds in modern tongues ; in German it is in many 
cases almost impossible to distinguish by the ear F from Y ; and we are 
all familiar with the transformation by which very becomes bery in the 
mouth of a negro, and/e?*?/ when articulated by the organs ofaWelchman. 
But there is still another sound with which Y is intimately allied, especially 
in our own provincial dialects ; namely, that which we attribute to W., 
and this by very many scholars is supposed to have been the real sound of 
the Hebrew Van, of the Greek digamma, and the Latin Y. Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus, in the celebrated passage (A. K. L, c. 20), where he 
describes the digamma, explicitly declares, that it was the syllable oi> written 
in a single letter, giving as an example, Qvzhice, (F&hiu), the Latin Velia. 
In corroboration of this, we find that in a great number of Latin proper 
names beginning with Y, the Greeks of the Augustan age express this 
letter by ov ; thus we have Ovagoz, O^aA^o/o^, QX.TCIWIQV, Qvt^yi hios, 
for Varus, Valerium, Octamum, Virgilius ; and there is no doubt that Y 
Las passed into W, in many words in German, Dutch, and English, as 

Latin. German 

Yinum, Wein, 


Wick, or Wich. 

^/ N_^ ^S -A-P* -A. Jfc. -A- -M. -A- *fc.IA.*.A. \*^S I *--. -* Jh. .& JL V WMM V_X A-^b^bJta 1 J- ^~^f ^0 \~f Vj* _^ ^- j. j^ j. m- _^ J . - V W 

12 XCIL, 11. * CCCXXV., 7; DCCLX., 10; DCCLXIL, 10. 
13 LXL, 1 ; CCCCXXXYI., 3. u CLXXXV., 2 ; MLXXXIIL, 8. 

15 CCCIV., 1 ; MLIV., 1 ; 16 Cenotaph. Cai. Caes. ir Tomb of Scipio. 

IS Gruter. D1I. 19 CCCLIL, 1 ; CDXXXIL, 8, 9 ; CDLXYIL, 2 ; CDXCIV. 


The last being frequently appended as a termination to the names of towns, 
as Keswicky Ipswich, &c. On the other hand, we may remark that the 
Latin V is not uniformly turned into ov by the Greeks; we not only have 
Qvizyfalos, but also B/^y/x/o^, and also "Betppuv, BA^, for Varro, Valere, 
and many others. Hence the conclusion that the Greeks had no sound in 
their, language corresponding exactly to the Roman V, but that it was 
something between Ov and B. 

That the Latin F had a very rough, hard, hissing sound is proved by 
Quintilian 1 Nam et ilia quae est sexta nostrarum, paene non humana 
voce vel omnino non voce, potius inter discrimina dentium efflanda est : 
quae, etiam quum vocalem proxima accipit quassa quodammodo, utique 
quoties aliquam consonantern frangit, ut in hoc ipso frangit, multo fit 
horridior and that this sound was quite distinct from that of the Greek 
4> is evident from the story told by Quintilian 2 of the ridicule cast by 
Cicero on a (Greek) witness who was unable to articulate correctly the 
first letter in the name Fundanius. This, however, must have held good 
with regard to the dialect of the highly educated only, since we find con 
stantly in inscriptions, such blunders as AMFIOX, S BosFORANi, 4 FnYX, 5 
TmuMFATOK, 6 for Amphion, JBosphorani, Phryx, Triumphator. 

D, T. A natural alliance similar to that which unites F, Y, B, P> 
subsists between D and T. Hence, ADQVE/ ADTAMEN, S LIMIDES," 
LIQUID, 10 QvODANNis, 11 &c., for atque, altamen, Unities, liquit, quotannis, 
&c., and reciprocally, ALivx, 12 ATFiNES, 13 APVT, 14 rrcmco, 13 &c., for aliud, 
adfines] apud, idcirco, &c. 

The most important question connected with these letters, is the sound 
which ought to be attributed to T when it occurs in the middle of a word 
before I, followed by another vowel. We have thought fit to give it the 
force of sh in lustitia, Sapientia, Vitium, and the like, which are enun 
ciated as if they were written lustisliia, Sapiensliia, Visliium; while the 
Italians make it equivalent to their Z, that is, to ts or ids, saying lustitsia, 
Sapientsia, Vitsium; and the Germans give it the simple sound of T 
unchanged. Something may be urged on behalf of each of the last two. 

The silence of all grammarians (with a single exception) with regard to 
any change in the force of T when in this position, seems to favour the 

The Italians, in addition to the claim which they urge, of having re 
ceived the true pronunciation direct from their ancestors, refer to a cer 
tain obscure grammarian, named Papirius (see Aid. Orthog., p. 563), and 
to an inscription where CRESCENTSIANUS appears for Crescentianus. 

It is important to observe, that the Greeks make no change in writing 
words belonging to this class, since we find lino;, KaiHrravTios, Mayvev- 
&c., which is in favour of the Germans ; and the English, moreover, 

1 XII., x., 29. 2 L, iv., 14. 3 Grut. CXXVI. 4 CCCLXXXIX., 7. 


7 Gruter, CLII. 3; CLXXIX., 2; CCXLVL, 3, and many other places. 
8 CCCXCL, 5. 9 CXCIX., G. 10 DCLXX., 5. u CCXXVIIL, 8. 

I2 CCCVIIL, 1. 13 CCCLVL, 1; DXXVL, 3. l4 CCCLXX., 3, &c. 


15 XXIII., 12 



are not consistent, for when S precedes T, they give to the latter its natu 
ral sound, as in tristior. 

The question is still further embarrassed by the substitution of C for T, 
and vice versa, in such words as Domicius, Palacium, Fabricius, Fecialis, 
which we alluded to when discussing the pronunciation of C. 

L, M, N, R, S. Concerning these, little need be said. Their sound is 
so uniform in modern languages that we are not led to suppose that we 
have departed widely from the practice of the ancients. The sound of M 
at the end of a word must have been feeble, since it was almost always 
elided in verse before a vowel ; it is also frequently omitted by the stone 
cutters. Thus, in the inscription on the tomb of Seipio, one of the oldest 
which we possess, we find OINO, DVONORO, OPTVMO, VIRO, SCIPIONE, 
CORSICA, ALERIA, YRBE, AEDE, for unum, optumum, virum, Scipionem, 
Corsicam, Aleriam, urbem, aedem, and final M inserted only once, in the 
word LVCIOM. 

The same remark applies to S, and perhaps still more forcibly, since in 
the earlier poets it is frequently elided, or at least not sounded, even 
before a consonant. (See Chapter on Elision.) We cannot fail to remark 
the analogy in modern French, where S is seldom sounded at the end of 
a word. 

X, which was adopted from the Greeks, was used merely as an abbrevia 
tion for CS or GS (qua carere potuissemus ni quaesissemus, Quint. I., 
iv. 9). Hence, in those words where it occurs, we ought to attend to the 
root from which they spring ; we ought to say dues, facs, pertinacs, be 
cause c is the radical letter, as we learn from the genitives duds, facis* 
pertinacis; and on the other hand we should say, legs, regs, coniugs, and 
not lees, recs, coniucs, because in these the radical letter is g. 

Y, Z, being used in those words only which were transplanted directly 
from the Greek, do not demand much attention. We may observe that 
Z ought to be sounded very softly and nearly like S. Of Z and Y Quin- 
tilian. says u apud Graecos nullae dulcius sonant" an assertion which 
ill agrees with the hard dental ids, generally considered equivalent to the 
former. This soft sound is illustrated by the Latin form of certain Greek 
words, thus: 

becomes Atticisso. 







IT is not our intention to enter into any lengthened discussion with 
regard to these topics, upon which many volumes have been written to 
very little purpose ; but merely to explain distinctly the meaning of 
words, and thus to prevent the student from being embarrassed by the 
frequent occurrence of terms which he does not understand. 


All sound depends upon certain tremulous movements or vibrations of 
the body which gives i ? orth the sound, and the action of these vibrations 
upon the air, which conveys them to our organs of hearing. When two 
bodies (A and B) vibrate in such a manner as to produce distinct sounds, 
if A vibrates more frequently in a given time than B, then the sound pro 
duced by A is said to be higher or sharper than the sound produced by B ; 
and, on the other hand, the sound produced by B is said to be lower, or 
graver, or flatter, than that produced by A. When sounds are produced by 
bodies performing the same number of vibrations in the same time, they are 
said to have the same pitch, or to be in unison ; so that the pitch, which 
depends solely upon the frequency of the vibrations of the sounding body, 
must be carefully distinguished from the intensity or loudness of the sound, 
and also from its quality or fineness. 1 The organs of speech, considered as 
a musical instrument, are capable of producing sounds of a considerable 
variety of pitch ; and if we assume any given pitch as the standard of our 
ordinary articulation, it is manifest that, when we deviate from this, the 
pitch of our voice will be either sharper or graver, that is, in other words, 
will be either elevated or depressed. 

But in pronouncing a word we may articulate each syllable in our 
ordinary pitch, or we may elevate or depress that pitch. Any elevation 
or depression of the ordinary pitch, in pronouncing a syllable, is called an 
Accent. When a syllable is pronounced in a pitch sharper or more 
elevated than our ordinary pitch, it is said to receive the Acute Accent* 
When a syllable is pronounced in a pitch graver or more depressed than 
our ordinary pitch, it is said to receive the Grave Accent but when a 
syllable is said to be accented, without any qualification being added, the 
acute is always meant. 


Quantity, again, relates simply to the length of time during which we 
dwell upon a syllable (see p. 4), and has no necessary connection whatever 
with elevation or depression of pitch. 

Much confusion has arisen from the circumstance, that, in English, long 
quantity is always, or almost always, accompanied by an elevation of pitch. 
Hence some have asserted that there is no such thing as quantity in 
English, or indeed, in any modern language a position too absurd to 
deserve confutation, since no one can read five lines of English poetry 
without paying attention to the quantity of the syllables. In the cele 
brated controversy which took place about the middle of the last century, 
on Accent and Quantity, Doctor Gaily altogether denied the existence of 
accent independent of quantity, and affirmed, that it was impossible, in 
any language, to accentuate a syllable without lengthening it. His 
opponent, Foster, succeeded completely in demonstrating, from first 
principles, that accent and quantity are in their nature entirely distinct, 
and that nothing would prevent a people endowed with flexible organs 
from giving effect to each separately ; and this appears to have been done 
by the ancients, if any faith can be reposed in the concurrent testimony of 

1 Note is synonymous with pitch ; and although the word tone is often used in the 
same sense, it ought, strictly speaking, to be employed only to express that character 
of sound which we term quality, and which has no reference to the number of vibra 
tions by which it is produced. 


the grammarians. Indeed, the possibility of the thing is abundantly 
demonstrated by what we hear every day in our own provincial dialects ; 
nor can any doubt be entertained on the subject, by any one who has 
ever caught the sound of such words as leeberty of conscience^ uttered by 
a lowland Scotchman. Foster, however, went too far when he said that 
every language must have both accent and quantity. We have a signal 
instance to the contrary in French, where quantity is unknown. The 
correct pronunciation of that tongue can only be attained by abstaining 
from dwelling longer upon any one syllable than upon any other ; and it 
is precisely this very peculiarity which renders it so difficult for us to 
enunciate it with accuracy. That, the French make great use of Accent is 
clearly perceptible, both in their ordinary conversation, and more espe 
cially in the declamations of their great actors and public speakers. 

Emphasis is perfectly distinct both from Accent and Quantity, and 
signifies the comparative energy or fullness of the voice in pronouncing 
different syllables. " Two men with different voices, or with different 
exertions of nearly the same voice, may pronounce the words of the same 
sentence, with the same accent and quantity, observing the like proportion 
in the elevation and prolongation of the same syllables, and yet use a 
different spirit, the one speaking with emphasis, the other without it. An 
instance of two persons blowing the same notes on a flute, the one 
with more, the other with less breath, will perhaps set this distinction in 
a clearer light." 1 Emphasis is not confined to single syllables, but may 
be employed in the enunciation of words, or sentences, or paragraphs. 

As matter is said to have three dimensions, length, breadth, and height, 
or thickness, so, by a fanciful analogy, the same attributes have been 
applied to the human voice. 

Quantity will represent Length. 
Emphasis Breadth. 

Accent Height or Depth. 

(See Priscian, p. 1286 ; Aristot. Poet. C. XX.) 

Different from any of these, is the Metrical Accent or Ictus Metricus, 
the name given by grammarians to the stress which must be laid upon 
particular syllables in repeating verse, in order that the rhythm of the mea 
sure may be made perceptible to the ear. 

In Dactylic verse, the Ictus falls upon the first syllable of the Dactyl 
and of the Spondee. In Iambic verse it will fall upon the long syllable of 
the Iambus, and on the second syllable of the Spondee ; and in Trochaic 
verse, on the long syllable of the Trochee, and the first syllable of the 

When these feet are resolved, the Ictus still maintains its place ; thus, in 
Iambic verse, since the Tribrach is formed by the resolution of the long 
syllable of the Iambus, the Ictus will fall on the second syllable of the 
Tribrach ; the Dactyl being derived from the resolution of the second 
syllable of the Spondee, and the Ictus falling upon that syllable, the Dac 
tyl will have it on the second syllable ; when the Spondee is resolved into 
an Anapaest, the Anapae-st has the Ictus on the last ; on the other hand, 

1 Foster on Accent and Quantity, Chap. I. 


in Trochaic verse, the Ictus will fall upon the first syllable of the resolved 
feet in each case. 

In all kinds of verse, the syllables upon which the Ictus falls are 
said to be in Arsi (d^vis, an elevating), and the others to be in Tliesi 
(de<ri$, a putting down). 

Rhythm is a combination of sounds, arranged in such a manner as to fall 
gratefully upon the ear. 

Metre is a combination of syllables, arranged in such a manner as to fall 
gratefully upon the ear, and at the same time, restricted both as to their 
quantity, and the order of their recurrence, by some fixed law. 

It will be seen from the above definitions, that metre is connected with 
rhythm as a species with a genus. 

All prose compositions ought to be rhythmical ; that is to say, the words 
ought to be selected and disposed in such a manner as to produce a pleasing 
cadence ; but they are not subject to any law which fixes the precise order in 
which long and short syllables are to follow each other, and the intervals at 
which similar combinations must uniformly recur. Moreover, rhythm may 
be produced without syllables at all, by sounds not articulate. The beat 
ing of hammers on an anvil, which is said to have been the origin of music, 
may be rhythmical ; the noise made by the galloping of a horse, by stamp 
ing with the feet, by clapping the hands, may produce rhythm. But metre 
cannot exist without articulate sounds, and the term is confined to svl- 


tables whose quantity, order, and number, are measured out according to 
an invariable standard. 




THE quantity of a vowel naturally short, when it occurs at the end of a 
word, and the next word begins with S, followed by one or more conso 
nants, has been a subject of keen controversy among metrical scholars ; 
and different writers, after fully discussing the question, have arrived at 
opposite conclusions. 

The principle that a vowel in this situation is always long, was first 
advanced by Terentianus Maurus, a grammarian whose age is uncertain, 
but who, in all probability, belongs to the latter part of the third century. 
Some have utterly denied the truth of the proposition, while others not 
only recognize it in its fullest extent, but would, extend the law to words 
beginning with the double consonants X and Z. The words of Terenti 
anus, as they are found in his treatise, De Syllabis, v., 1058, are 

Quae sibi tres tantum poterit subiungere mutas, 
Si quando SCutum, SPumas, vel STamina, dico. 
Haec sola efficiet, nudo ut remanente trochaeo, 
Spondeum geminae possint firmare sonorae. 
Exemplis, an prava sequar, vel recta, probabo, 
QuisquE SCire cupit, vel quisquE SCribere curat, 


AntE STare decet, cum dico, et separo verbum, 
AntE STesichorum vatem natura creavit : 
Ultima vocalis remanens finisque troehaei, 
Excipitur geminis quis proximus exoritur pes, 
Quae, quamquam capite alterius verbi teneantur, 
Sufficiant retro vires, et tempus oportet, 
Consona quod debet geminata referre priori. 

Although the phraseology in this passage is not very distinct, the mean 
ing is manifestly that a Trochee, that is, a long syllable followed by a short 
one, will become a Spondee, or two long syllables when placed before such 
words as SCutum, SPumas, STamina, and he gives as examples Quisque, 
with the last syllable long before SCire and SCribere, and Ante, before STare 
and STesichorus. 

A little lower down, v. 1073, he adds, 

InclpE si dicas, et SCire, aut SCribere iungas 
Creticus efficitur. 

On which Dawes, in his Miscellanea Critica, founded the following 
canon : 

The Latin poets, after the time of Lucretius, lengthened a naturally short 
vowel at the end of a word, when the following word begins with SC, SP, SQ, 
ST. But this is not observed by the Satirists, in whose compositions, which 
are sermoni propriora, such minute accuracy could not be expected. Miscell. 
Crit. p. 4. 

And this is the canon which has given rise to so many disputes among 
the learned. It is clear, that the only way in which the question can ever 
be set at rest, is by giving a full and fair catalogue of all the authorities 
which bear upon the point, carefully noting the various readings which 
occur in the MSS. and oldest editions. These passages have been almost 
all collected in the notes, by Burgess and Kidd, to the Miscellanea Critica, 
and are to be found also in the first number of the Classical Journal. In 
the former work, they are so mixed with remarks upon various topics of 
classical criticism, that it is a task of considerable toil to disentangle them 
from the extraneous matter with which they are surrounded. In the 
Classical Journal, the various readings are not very fully nor very 
accurately detailed, and, therefore, it may be of some service to the 
student to present them here before his view, accompanied by all the 
information which may be necessary to insure a correct judgment. Before 
commencing the enumeration, two remarks are necessary. 

1. The canon of Dawes is confined to the Latin poets who followed 
Lucretius, and expressly excludes the Satirists. It is essential to draw the 
attention of the student to this point, because it is a common practice to 
quote Ennius, Lucretius, and the Satires of Horace, without considering 
that they have nothing to do with the matter. 

2. Proper names, in the use of which the poets have always very 
naturally allowed themselves considerable license, and the names of 
stones, trees, &c., especially when such cannot be used at all in the metre 
without transgressing the rule, cannot be considered fair exceptions. This 
applies to such words as Smaragdus, Scamander, neither of which could 


be employed in Hexameter verse at all, without a violation of our canon ; 
and it is very well worthy of notice, that these words are frequently 
found in excellent MSS., both Latin and Greek, spelt without the S, 
Mfl60y8aff, Maragdus; Kapa^pos, Kamander ;* which would seem to 
indicate that it was, in certain cases, softened down in pronouncing them. 
We shall now proceed with our catalogue, reviewing the works of the 
Latin poets in succession, marking, in the first place, those passages which 
seem to support the canon of Dawes ; next those which seem to violate it ; 
and, lastly, the examples of a short vowel at the end of a word, before X 
or Z, with a view to settle this question also. 


Si pote stolidum repente excitare veternum. (Priapetan.) XVII., 24/ 
Hoc quid putemus esse ? qui modo scurra. (Scaz.) XXII., 12. 3 
Nee deprecor iam si nefarid scripta. (Scaz.) XLIY., 18. 
Ut apud nivem et ferarum gelida stabula forem. LXIIL, 53.* 
Nulla fugae ratio nulld spes, omnia muta. LX1V., 186. 
Brixia, Cycnaeae suppositd speculae. LXVIL, 32. 5 
Testis erit magnis virtutibus undo, Scamandri. LXIY., 358. 


Ferte citi ferrum, date tela, scandite muros. JE. IX., 37. 6 
Ponite: spes sibi quisque. Sed haec quam angusta videtis. JE. XL, 309.* 
Horridd squamosi volventis membra draconis. Culex. 194. 8 
Nee fuerat : nisi Scylla novo concepta furore. Ciris. 130. 9 

1 See Dawes, Miscel Crit., pp. 6-148. Ed. Kidd. 

2 Some old editions have si potest olldum. 

1 This is an unexceptionable instance. Modo, the adverb, always has the last 
short after the time of Lucretius. (See remarks on Final O, p. 60.) 

4 This is not worth much. It is from the Atvs, a wild dithvrambic strain, the 

r * v 

metre of which is not, in all probability, restrained by severe laws. (See remarks 
on Galliambic Verse, p. 235.) 

5 Some MSS. have suppositur/i in specula ; supposita in specula. (See Doering s note.) 

6 Some MSS. have et scandite, others ascendite. Heyne suspects the line as it 
stands to be corrupt. 

The long pause after Ponite would make the shortening of the vowel appear not 
very objectionable even to the supporters of Dawes s canon. Heyne, however, seems 
to agree with Dawes and his commentators, in thinking that this line stopped at 
Ponite^ and that the rest is an interpolation. (See his note.) 

The text here, and indeed throughout this poem, which is certainly not Virgil s, 
is very confused and corrupt. This line and the three which precede, are all con 
sidered spurious by Heyne. 

This line is generally considered corrupt, and is variously emended by different 
editors. Some MSS. give ra, and so Forbiger. The remark which we made on the 
Culex, applies equally to the Ciris. 




Nothing is to be found in the Lyrics or Epistles of Horace either for or 
against the canon. 1 


Pro segete spicas, pro grege ferre dapem. I., v., 28. 2 
O quantum est auri potius pereatgwe smaragdi. I., i., 51. 
O pereat quicuinque legit viridesgwe smaragdos. II., iv., 27 


lura dare staiuas inter et arma Mari. III., xi., 4G. 3 
Brachia spectavi sacris admorsa colubris. III., xi., 53. 
lam ~bene spondebant tune omina, quod nihil illam. IV., i., 41. 
Tu cave spinosi rorida terga iugi. IV., iv., 48. * 
Consuluit^we striyes nostro de sanguine, et in me. IV., v., 17. 5 
Sed quascumque tibi vestes qnoscumque smaragdos. II., 16, 43. 
Nunc ubi Scipiadae classes? ubi signa Camilli. III., xi., 67. 6 
Tuque O Minoa venumdata, Scylla, figura. III., xix., 21. 7 


. Ista Mycenaea liter a scripta manu. //. Y., 2. 8 
Est in qua nostri litera scripta rnemor. H. V., 2G. 9 
Carmina scripta mihi sunt nulla aut qualia cernis. T, V., xii. ? 35. 10 

1 We find, 

Levare tenta spiritu praecordia. (Iamb. Trim. ) II. E. XVII., 2G. 

But from the position of tenta in the line, it is impossible to tell whether the poet 
intended it to be long or short. 

2 Many MSS. and old editions, Segete et. 

3 This is the reading of many good MSS. and old editions. Kuinoel, however, and 
Hertzberg, have adopted another, also sanctioned by MSS. 

lure dare et statuas inter et arma Mari. 

4 Cave Is a conjectural emendation for cape, which appears in almost all the best 
MSS. and old editions. There are also many variations in other words of this line t 
but not in spinosi. 

5 Many MSS. have Consuluit striges; but the first syllable in striges is short. This 
looks as if there was some corruption in the text. 

6 Burgess would read, "Scipiadae, heu ubi nunc classes , . . ." But this 
seems to be purely conjectural. 

7 Two Harl. MSS. and the edition of 1472 have Sylla. 

8 Facta is the reading now generally received, on the authority of the best MSS. 

9 Many MSS. haveycta. (See Burman on the passage.) 

10 Comparing this with the last two, we are naturally led to read facia. Consult 
Zinzerling. Liatrib* Burman conjectures coepta. 


tamen ignoret quae sit sententia scripto. H. XX., 213. * 
Ergo mutetur nostri sententia scripti. E. P. III., yii., 7. 2 
Ante focos olim longis consider e scamnis. F. VI., 305. 3 
Quicquid ages igitur, magna spectabere scena. E. P. III., i., 59.* 
Oraque fontana fervida spar git aqua. A. A. III., 726. 5 
Quod medio lentae fixum curvamine spinae. M. III., 66. 6 
Manat, et expriinitur per densa foramina spissus. M. XII., 43S. 1 
Addidit et fontes, immensa^we stagna lacusque. M. L, 38. 8 
Hennaeosque lacus et olentia stagna Palici. E. P. II., x., 25. 9 
Ante stetit niveo lucet in ore rubor. A. III., iii., 6. 10 
Ante meos ocnlos tud stat, tua semper imago est. E. P. II., iv., 7. u 
Ilia sonat raucum, quiddamque inamabile stridet. A. A. HI., 289. 12 
Ambiguus fuerit, modo vir, modLofemina, Scython. M. IV., 280. 13 
Occidit ille Scinis, magnis male viribus usus. M. VII., 440." 
Foecundumque genus Maenae, Lanryros^we Sman sque. Hal., 120. 15 
In solio Phoebus, claris lacente smaragdis. M. II., 24. 16 
Tu poteras virides pennis Jieletare smaragdos. A. II., vi., 21. 
Dulicbii Samiique, et quos tulit alta Zacyntlios. H. I., 87. 

1 Most of the older editions have scripto sententia quae sit. 

Three of the oldest editions have scripti sententia nostri. 

3 The Frankfort MS., and several of the oldest editions, have scamnis considers 

* Several MSS., scena spectalere magna. 

The great majority of MSS. have pulsat. Two have lamt. 

6 Many of the best MSS., lentae spinae curvamine fixum; and so the "Bodleian and 
Cambridge MSS. and oldest editions. Others, medio spinae lentae curvamine fixum. 
One, longae, &c. 

7 The common reading in the older editions is succits. A Bodleian MS., densus, 
Generally speaking, this line is very confused and corrupt in most MSS. 

The Bodleian MSS., one Camb. MS., and six of the oldest editions, have et stagna 

9 Many MSS. and two of the oldest editions have olentis. 

A Bodleian MS. and most of the older editions havefuit. 

L Three of the oldest editions, Ante meos oculos %>raesto est tua semper imago; four 
MSS., praesens tua; three MSS., visa est; one MS., vera est. 

12 Stridet is a conjecture introduced by Heinsius. The MSS. and older editions 
have ridet. 

13 A Bodleian MS. and others, St/thon. 

14 Sinis is now almost universallv recognized as the true form, and is supported by 

15 Some write the name of this fish Heryx. Mentioned by Pliny, xxxii., last 

10 A Camb. MS. has maraydis. 


Other examples will be found in some editions of Ovid ; but since the 
passages in which they occur are now read differently in all the more 
esteemed texts of the poet, it is not necessary to give them at full length. 
Such were H. X., 106 ; A. A. ILL, 741 ; T. IV., ii., 20 ; E. P. I, v., 2 ; 
and II., ii., 34. 


Sed teretem inclini mundum comitantia spira. M. III., 364, 2 
Tertia, forma stetit summo iam proxima coelo. M. III., 604. 3 

Has nothing either for or against the canon.* 


Autpretium; quippe stimulo fluctuque furoris. V., 118. 
Tales fama canit tumidum super aequora Xerxen. II., 672. 5 


Immane stridens agitur, crebroque coacta. IX., 575. 6 
Nequa spes fusos pacis vitaeque manere. XII., 209. 7 
Diver sa spatio procul a certamine pugnae. XVII., 546. 8 
Mille Agathyrna dedit perflataque Strogilos Austris. XIV., 259. 9 
Conditus excelso sacravit colle Zacyntlios. I., 275. 
Atque auxit quondam Laertia regna Zacyntlios. I., 290. 
Armaque Dulichia proswis portata Zacyntho. II., 603. 

1 The period when Manilius wrote is still a matter of doubt ; but it will be seen that 
he is not a witness of any importance. 

* Spira is a conjecture of Bentley for semper, the reading of all MSS. and previous 


3 Almost all editions have/^. Bentley has est et. 

4 Dr. Carey, who is a keen opponent of the canon, quotes 

Numque ubi strigandum est, et ubi currendum scio. Phaed. 

He ought to have mentioned that strigandum is a conjectural emendation proposed 
by Gruterus, and also by Salmasius ; but that all modern editors have agreed with 
Bentley in restoring the reading of the MSS., tricandum. 

5 The true reading here is Persen. (See Bentley and Heber on the passage.) 

6 This is the reading of the MSS. Immani, to agree with vulnere in the next line, 
is a conjecture of Livineius. (See Ruperti.) 

7 But we may divide nequa into two words, and consider qua as an adverb, in 
which case it will be naturally long. 

8 So Ruperti : others have diverso. Heinsius conjectured diversae to agree wil 

pugnae. f 

9 Ruperti adopts Tropilos. The editions before his have Strogilos, Strongylos, &c. 
The MSS. exhibit Trogilos, Troglos, Troialos, &c. (See his note on the passage.) 



Ut digna speculo fiat imago tuo. II., lxvi>, 8. 1 
Quid gladium demens Eomana stringis in ora. V., Ixix,, 3. 2 
Pexatus pulchre, rides mea Zoile trita. II., Iviii., 1. 
Sidere percussa subito est tibi, Zoile, lingua. XL, Ixxxv., 1. 
Si tumeat, fiani tune tibi zona brevis. XIV., eli., 2. 

Yadit eques, densa spargens hastilia dextra. VI., 229. 3 


Praeceleres, agile studium, et tenuissima virtus. T. VI., 551. 
Sudor, ibi arcano florentes igne smaragdos. T. II., 276. 4 

For the sake of curiosity we may give the examples in Seneca, Ausonius, 
and Claudian, although their testimony cannot throw any weight into 
either scale. 


Haec membra sparsim spargite, ac divellite. Phoen. 448. 5 
Tuosque manes quodque stetit ante Ilion. Troad. 31. 6 
Enode Zephyris pinus opponens latus. Oedip. 541. 
Tranquilla Zepliyri mollis afflatu tremit. Agam. 433. 
Luteam vestem retinente zona. (Anap. Dim.) Oedip. 421+ 
Secat obliquo tramite zonas. (Anap. Dim.) Thy est. 845. 
Trucis antra Zethi, nobilis Dircen aquae. HercuL F. 916. 


Lumbi sedendo, oculique spectando dolent. (Iamb. Trim.) S, S. Chiton. 1. 
Bruma gelu glacians Mare spiral Capricorni. Eclogar. XV., 12. 

1 A very ancient MS. has dignior ut speculo. 

2 Romano, is a conjectural emendation by Scriverius, for aliena ; but this makes no 
difference in the quantity. 

3 Densa, however, may be the ablative, and so Burman marks it. 
* In addition to these, Dr. Carey quotes 

Sed grates agostrictus: atque tanti est. (JSendecasyll.) S. S. IV., in., 81. 

But he omits to mention that the reading adopted in the standard editions of Statius, 
and supported by the best MSS. and oldest printed copies, is 

Et grates ago, servitusque tanti est. 

Two others may be found in old copies, but are now corrected, viz., Theb. VII., 783 > 
Achill. I., 348. 

5 But Lipsius from the best MSS. corrects passim. 

6 Lipsius found in an ancient MS., quo stetit stante Ilion. 


Quod ius pontificum, quae foedera, stemma quod olim. Profess. XXII., 5. 

Libra Scorpius, Arcitenens, Capricornus et Urnam. Eclogar. III., 8. 

Censor Aristarclius Normaque Zenodoti. S. S. Pref. 12. 

Esset Aristarchi tibi gloria Zenodotique. Profess. XIII., 3. 

Illustrant quintam lovis aurea sidera zonam. Eclogar. V., 9. 

Quin etiam cupio, iunetus quid zelus amori est. Epig. LXXVIL, 3. 

Toxica zelotypo dedit uxor moecha marito. Epig. X., 1. 

Sanxerit et Locris dederit quae iura Zaleucus. Profess. XXII., 11. 


Quisnam audetferro leges imponere stricto. In Ruf. II., 230. 1 
Africa. Resdssae vestes et spicea sparsim. 
Serta iacent. De Bell. Gildon., 136. 2 

The canon, as laid down by Dawes, expressly excludes Lucretius and 
the Satirists : but to show the contrast we shall give examples from these 

also : 


Unde sciat quid sit scire et nescire vicissim. IV., 476. 
Liberd sponte sna cursus lustrare perenneis. V., 80. 
Q.uidve svperlia, spurcitia, ac petulantia, quantas. Y., 48. 
Tenuia sputa, minuta, croci contacta colore. VI., 1187. 
Cedere squamigeris latices nitentibus aiunt. I., 373. 
Inde statu, prior heic gestum niutasse videtur. IV., 774. 
Sudent humore, et .guttis manantibu* stillent. VI., 944. 
Multo antiquius est quam lecti mollia strata. IV., 850. 
Speluncasque velut, saxeis pendentibu 1 structas. VI., 195. 
Inter curaliuni virides miscere smaragdos. II., 805. 
Scilicet, et grandeis viridi cum luce smarag dei. IV., 1122. 


Proceros odisse lupos ? quid scilicet illis. S. II., ii., 36. 
Linquimus, insani ridentes praemia scribae. S. I., v., 35. 

1 The reading now adopted on unexceptionable MS. authority is 
Quisnam audet leges vibrato imponere ferro. 

Some MSS. and old edd. have stricto leges imponere ferro. One MS., leges strict^ 
2 The reading now received on the authority of MSS, and old edd. is passim. 


Contra alius nullam, nisi olente in. fornice stantem. I., ii., 30. 
"Vel&tumque stola, mea quum conferbuit ira? L, ii., 71. 
Quern mala stultitia, et quemcumque inseitia veri. II., iii., 43. 
Saepe stilum vertas, iterum, quae digna legi sint. L, x., 72. 
Haec miJii Stertinius sapientum octavus amico. II., iii., 296. 
Si quod sit vitium, nonfastidire; Strabonem. I., iii., 44. 


Occultd spolia, et plures de pace triumplios. VIII., 107. 1 
Gibbus et acre malum saepe stillantis ocelli. VI., 109. a 
Ponere zelotypo iuvenis praelatus larbae. V., 45. 
Si till zdotypae retegantur scrinia moechae. VI., 278. 

Let us now calculate the result of this investigation. 

In Catullus there are six examples in favour of the canon, but of these 
one is in the Atys, two are affected by various readings, one is in Caesura. 

There is one violation, but this in the word Scamander; so that alto 
gether Catullus affords two unexceptionable passages in favour of the 

Virgil has one example in favour, but the line is probably corrupt. 

Three are quoted from his works against it, but they are all worthless. 

Horace, in his Lyrics and Epistles, has nothing for or against. 

Tibullus has one in favour, but it is in Caesura, and the reading is 
doubtful ; he has two against, but both in smaragdus, which belongs to 
a class of words to which the rule was not intended to apply. 

Propertius has one in favour, but the reading is disputed ; he has seven 
.against, but of these, two occur in lines probably corrupt ; two are in 
proper names, one is in smaragdus, leaving a balance of two against the 

Ovid, at first sight, has eighteen examples against, and not one in 
favour of the canon ; but it is very remarkable, that in seventeen of these 
the MSS. and oldest edd. exhibit various readings which remove the diffi 
culty, even in the proper names, leaving a balance of one only against the 
canon, and that in a word which is found in several other passages to have 
been exchanged for the true reading. 

Manilius presents two against, but both are worthless. 

Silius has three in favour, in one of these the reading is disputed, an 
other can be explained on a different principle ; he has one against, but 
this is founded on a false reading, leaving a balance of one in favour of 
the canon. 

Lucan, Phaedrus, Martial, and Valerius Flaccus, give no unexception 
able example on either side. 

Three MSS. have occulta et spolia. 
2 The reading adopted by Ruperti is semper. 


Statius has one in favour, but in Caesura ; one against, but in the word 

Seneca, Ausonius, and Claudian, need not be taken into account, but 
among them they only furnish one violation of the rule. 
The account then will stand thus 

Catullus, . . 2 in favour. 

Propertius, . . 2 against. 

Ovid, ... 1 against (?) 

Silius, . . . 1 in favour. 

Let us remember, too, that of these, Catullus adhered more closely to 
the Greek writers in the construction of his verse than any of his country 
men, and that the text of Propertius is, generally speaking, very much 
mutilated. We shall then see that there is positively no evidence suffi 
cient to establish or to overturn the canon. 

But on the other hand, when we find no less than nine undoubted 
violations of it in Lucretius, and six in the Satires of Horace, and when 
we find that it is transgressed by modern Latin poets in almost every page 
of their compositions, we shall be fully justified in substituting the follow 
ing rule for the canon of Dawes : 

The Roman poets of the Augustan age, and their successors, in serious 
compositions, carefully avoided placing a ivord ending with a short vowel 
before a word beginning with sc, sp, sq, st, and this collocation ought never 
to be introduced into modern Latin poetry. 

With regard to a short vowel at the end of a word, before a word 
beginning with X or Z, there is no evidence whatsoever that it was ever 
lengthened ; indeed, there is no evidence at all with regard to X, but this 
probably arises from the small number of words beginning with that letter. 
It will be seen from the above examples, that it is left short before Zacyn- 
thus, which could not otherwise have been placed in Dactylic verse, and also 
before such as zona, zelotypus, in writers of the silver age. With regard 
to Zacynthus, we know that it was often written with a simple S 9 Sacynthus, 
without the D, and Greek coins are still extant where the A is used 
alone, &otx,wQiuv. 

If any one wishes for still further information on the subject of this 
article, he may consult the Miscellanea Critica of Dawes, as edited by 
Burgess and Kidd ; Zinzerlingii Criticorum Juvenilium Promulsis, which 
he will find quoted in Not. I. to Dr. Gaisford s edition of Hephaestio ; the 
note of Lennep. on the passage in Terentianus Maurus, quoted above ; 
Monthly Revieio for February and May, 1811 ; Classical Journal, vol. i., 
p. 71 and 233 ; vol. ii., p. 545 ; vol. ix., p. 341 ; vol. xii., p. 10 ; Vulpius 
onTibullus, v., 28 ; Barthius on Claud, de Bell. Gildon., 136 ; in addition 
to which the student will find many remarks on this topic, when consult 
ing the commentaries on the passages quoted. 




DR. HUNTER in the preface to his edition of Virgil, indicated the manner 
in which we might prove the identity of the five declensions of ^ nouns, and 
the inquiry has since that time been followed out by many distinguished 
etymologists, both in this country and in Germany ; particularly by Struve, 
in his treatise Ueber die Lateinische Declination und Conjugation; and 
by Bopp, in his Vergleichende Grammatik. 1 It does not fall within the 
limits of our plan to enter deeply into the discussion of a topic of this 
nature, in which much is necessarily either purely conjectural or deduced 
from intricate analogies ; but we shall give the student a few hints which 
will serve to throw light on some of the rules laid down for the quantity of 
certain syllables. 

1. The terminations of the cases in nouns ranked under the third declen 
sion, approach very nearly to the original form of inflection, and all the 
other declensions may be identified with the third. The terminations of 
the different cases were as follows : 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Norn. EIS, and hence es and is. 

Gen. is. Gen. UM (rum?) 

Dat. i (or ei., or perhaps ibi). Dat. IBUS (or ibis). 

Ace. EM. Ace. same as Nom. 

Abl. E (or same as Dat. I). Abl. same as Dat. 

In neuters, the nom. and ace. were always the same, and in the plural 
these cases always ended in A. 

2. When the noun ended in a vowel or any consonant, except s, the 
genitive was formed by adding is to the nominative. As aviator, ama- 

3. When the noun ended in s, preceded by any consonant or vowel 
except i, then an i was inserted between the final consonant and the pre 
ceding letter, as labos, anciently labors, gen. labor Is ; lex, i. e., legs, gen. 
legls, &c. 

4. When the nominative ended in is, then no change took place in the 


5. All the other cases were formed by changing is of the genitive into 
the terminations arranged in the above table. 

6. In process of time various changes were introduced ; the final s was 
dropped in many words ; of two concurring vowels, one was elided or thrown 
out, the other retaining its proper quantity, or they were contracted into 
one long vowel, and thus the inflections became so much altered, that to a 
superficial observer no common bond of union was perceptible. 

We shall illustrate these principles by taking a word from each of the 
five declensions, and pointing out the stages of transmutation, premising, 
however, that we have no intention of doing more than giving a general 
outline, without filling up the sketch. 

1 See also chapters VIII. and IX. in Dr. Donaldson s Varronianus. 


First Declension. 

The original termination of the nominative seems to have been ae, cor 
responding botli in quantity and sound to v\ or long <?, the termination of 
the corresponding declension in Greek. We shall then have 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Pennae, Penna, f Pennae-ES, 

fPennae-is, Nom.-l Pennaes, 

! Pennae-s, Pennas, ( Pennae, 

j Penmii, T Pennae-um, 

^Pennae, Gen. < Penna-um, 


. 7) * J" Pennae-i, Dat. ( Pennae-ibus. 

( Pennae, and K Pennaibus, Permabus, 

. j Pennae-EM, Abl. ( Pennais, Penni?, 
\ Pcnnam, C Pennae-es, 

( Pennae-E T Ace. < Penna-es, 
AM. <, Penna- e, ( Pennas. 

( Penna. 


The form acs, as the termination of the genitive, is found in inscriptions; 
thus we have LIVILLAES ; l MusAEs; 2 SUAES ; 3 for Livillae, musae, suac, 
and several others in Gruter, while the termination in ai is common in the 
older poets, as we have already seen in the Chapter on Archaisms. The 
termination in s of the genitive is illustrated also by the form pater 
jamilias, for pater familiae. 

The long quantity of the a in the ablative is satisfactorily accounted for 
upon this system, and also the quantity of as and is in the dat. abl. and 
ace. plural. 

The dative plural in abus was Detained constantly in dudbus, ambalws, 
and occasionally mfiliabus, deabus, equabus, &c., and many more examples 
may be collected from inscriptions. 

The most puzzling case is the genitive plural; letters are frequently 
dropped, and syllables contracted, as a language becomes more poiished, 
but the opposite process seldom takes place ; and hence it becomes dillicult 
to account for the appearance of r here and in the second and fifth 
declensions. Hermann 4 has given the most probable solution by suppos 
ing it to be the representative of the digamma. According to this view, 
the genitive plural of the first declension in Greek was originally #/ ^y, 
afterwards auv, which is common in Homer, and finally av. 

In like manner, the dative singular may have originally ended in ibi, as 
in tibi, sibi, where b was the representative of the digamma, which was 
afterwards dropped, and the two i s contracted into i, as we find in the 
third, fourth, and fifth declensions. So also the dative plural in ibus or 

1 Gruter. CCCXIL, 4. 2 DCCCIX., 9. - 3 IV., 12. 

4 Observ. de G. L. dialectis. 


ibis, dropped the digamma in most of those nouns which aro referred to 
the first and second declensions, and retained it in others. 

Second Declension. 

The original termination of the nominative seems to have been os for 
masculine nouns, and om for neuter nouns. 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Servos, ("Servo-Eis, 

C Servo-is, Norn. -\ Servo-ei, Servoi, 

Gen.-\ Servo-i, ( Servl, 

( Servoi, Servi, (Servo-UM, 

ft ( Servo-i, Gen. ^(Servo-r-um,) 

* \ Servo, (Servum, 

A f Servo- EM, Dai. (Servo-iBUS, 

c ( Servom, Servum, and -^ Servo-is, 

.-,-, ( Servo-E, Abl. (Servis, 

"* (Servo. (Servo-Eis, 

Ace. < Servo-es, 

Nom. Regnom, (Regnom-a, 

fRegnom-is, Nom. -jRegno-a, 

Gen. ^Regno-is, (Regn-a, 

(Regno-i, Regnoi, Regni, &c. 



In the Greek declension some of the cases are nearer by one step to the 
original type. Thus, in the genitive singular, and nominative plural, we 
have the diphthongs ov and ot in dovhov, SotAo/, instead of the simple long 
i, and in the dative the i which has disappeared altogether in servo is sub 
scribed in ()o:;A<w. 

The elision of m in the middle of regnomfif, will not appear extraordinary 
when we recollect that circumeo often appears as circueo. 

Third Declension. 

We need give no scheme of the changes which took place in nouns which 
are ranked in the third declension, since they have retained the ancient 
form of the terminations almost without alteration. 

The young scholar may perhaps be embarrassed, however, when he finds 
such words as tier, supellex, senex, which became in the genitive itineris, 
supellectilis, senis, but he will find upon perusing the older writers, that they 
used the nominatives itiner, supellectilis, and made the genitive of senex 
(z. e., senecs), according to our rule, senecis. Other apparent anomalies 
may be explained with equal facility. 

Virgil, Cicero, and various authors of the Augustan age, write Achilli, 
Ulyssi, Pencil, &c., as the genitives of Achilles, Ulysses, Pericles, &c., 
which has sadly confounded grammarians and commentators. But the 


whole will be clearly understood by observing that the elisions and con 
tractions used with regard to the nouns referred to the first and second 
declensions, were extended to these also : 

Nom. Achilles, Ulysses, Pericles, 

fAchille-rs, fUlysse-is, 

I Achille-i, ! Ulysse-i, 

* I Achillei, j Ulyssel, 

LAchilli. ^ 



We have already seen, when treating of poetical licenses, that AcMllei, 
Ulyssei, and also Achillei, Ulyssei, are used by the poets, and these are 
just the intermediate stages between Achille-is, Ulysse-is, and Achilli, 

The original form of the termination of the nom. and ace. plural, in eis, 
accounts for the double shape which they assume in is and es, both of 
which are long. 

Fourth Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Fructus, Nom. ( Fructu-Eis, 

jFructu-is, and -< Fructu-es, 

^Fructus, Ace. (^Fructus, 

Dat. Fructu-i, Gen. Fructu-UM, 

Ace. JFructu-EM, Dat. \ Fructu . ib 

JFructum, , and ^ ruct . ibuSi or Fructubus . 

jiructu-E, Abl. ) 

And this explains the long quantity of the final syllable in the genitive 
and ablative singular, and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative 
plural. The contractions are sometimes carried still farther, thus we fre 
quently find u in the dative. (See p. 135, .) 

Fifth Declension. 

The original termination of the nominative in nouns ranked under this 
declension seems to have been aes, ae, being equivalent to long e. We 
still find DIAEBUS, &c., upon inscriptions, as we have already had occasion 
to remark. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Diaes, Dies, Nom. fDiae-eis, 

TDiae-is, and < Diae-es, 

Gen.-l Diae-i, Ace. ( Dies, 

( Diei, f Diae-um, 

^ C Diae-i, Gen. -< (Diae-r-um) t 

a iDiei, (Dierum, 

A 5 Diae-EM, Dat. ( Diae-ibus, 

<c I Diem, and < Diaebus, 

A11 C Diae-E. Abl. ( Diebus. 
AbL \ Die. 


The contraction of the genitive and dative singular was sometimes 
carried still farther, and hence we find die and fide, as the genitives of dies 
and fides, and fide as the dative of fides. (See p. 136, c.) 



HAVING proved the identity of the five declensions, we now proceed to 
point out that the four conjugations may be reduced to one ; that is to 
say, the different inflections will be obtained by adding certain termina 
tions to the verbal root, these terminations being the same, with some 
limitations, for all verbs whatsoever. 

The verbal roots may either end in a consonant or in a vowel ; thus, 
leg is the verbal root of lego, ama of amo, doce of doceo, audi of audio, ru 
of ruo. 

When the verbal root ends in a consonant or u, the addition of the 
terminations arranged in Tables 1 and 2, will give at once, with few 
exceptions, the different parts of the verb in their proper form. 

When the verbal root ends in a, e, or i< then the vowel at the end of 
the verbal root frequently absorbs the short vowel at the beginning of the 
termination, and a long syllable is the result of the contraction ; or, the 
initial vowel of the termination is elided by the final vowel of the verbal 
root, but this is comparatively rare. (See Remark 1.) 

To exemplify this, let us take one or two of the terminations from 
Table 1 in the next page, and apply them to verbs belonging to the 
different conjugations. It will be seen that the terminations of the Indi 
cative Present Active are, 

Ind. Pres. Act. -o, -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -unt. 

Uncontracted Verbs. 

{ Leg-o, leg-is, leg-it, leg-imus, leg-itis, leg-unt. 
( Ru-o, ru-is, ru-it, ru-Imus, ru-itis, ru-unt. 

Contracted Verbs. 

J Ama-o, ama-is, ama-it, ama-imus, ama-itis, ama-unt. 
( Amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant. 

j l)oce-o, doce-is, doce-it, doce-imus, doce-itis, doce-unt. 

( Doceo, doces, docet, docemus, docetis, docent. 

J Audi-o, audi-is, audi-it, audi-imus, audi-itis, audi-unt. 

( Audio, audis, audit, audlmus, auditis, audiunt. 

In like manner we may take the 
Subj. Imperf. Pass, -erer, -ereris, (e)-eretur, -eremur, -eremini, -erentur. 



J Leg-erer, leg-ereris(e), leg-eretur, leg-eremur, leg-eremini, leg-erentur. 
{ Lu-erer, lu-ereris (e), lu-eretur, lu-eremur, lu-eremmi, lu-erentur. 

^"Ama-erer, ama-ereris (e), ama-eretur, ama-eremur, ama-eremini, ama- 

Amarer, amareris, amaretur, amaremur, amaremini, amarentur. 

( Doce-erer, doce-ereris (e), doce-eretur, &o. 
\ Docerer, docereris, doceretur, %c. 

( Audi-erer, audi-ereris (e),audi-ereter, &c. 
( Audlrer, audireris (e), audlretur, &c. 

The two following tables Yvill give the complete scheme of the Latin 
verb : 


In d. Pres. \ Ol "? . 7\ LS " u ? . 

( -or,-ens (e),-itur, -imur, -immi, -untur. 

-ebam, -ebas, -ebat, -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 
Ind. Imp. -^ -ebar, -ebaris (e), -ebatur, -ebamur, -ebammi, 


-ebo, -ebis, -ebit, -ebimus, -ebitis, -ebunt. 
Ind. Fut. -<j -ebor, -eberis (e), -ebitur, -ebimur, -ebimini, 


f" f -am, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant. 
< -em, -es, -et, -emus, -etis, -ent. 
Sub. Pres. <J C ~^ ~ ls i -^ -Imus, -itis, -int. 

-ar, -aris (e), -atur, -amur, -amini, -antur. 
-er,-eris (e), -etur, -emur, -emini, -entur. 

-erem, -eres, -eret, -eremus, -eretis, -erent. 
Sulij. Imp. -^ -erer, -ereris (e), -eretur, -eremur, -eremini, 


-e, -ito, -ito, -ite, -itote, -unto, 
-ere, -itor, -itor, -imini, -untor. 

Inf. Pres. I ~^ ...... 

1 -erier, -eri (-ei, -i.) 

Par tic. 

. ,. 

j -o 

f -ens. 



In the preterite of all verbs, the verbal root undergoes a modification; 
and it is to the verbal root, thus modified, that we must add the ter 
minations of the preterite, pluperfect, &c. 

The preterite is formed in various ways, e. g., 
1. By reduplication, as morde-o, momord-i; 



2. By lengthening the short vowel of the root, as ZeJ/o, 

3. By adding s to the verbal root, as rep-o, reps-i; 

1 But, as indicated, p. 97, these were originally reduplications. 


4. By adding v or u to the verbal root, as ama-c, amav-i ; doce-o, 
docev-i, doceu-i, docu-i ; audi-o, audiv-i ; &c, 


When we have ascertained the termination of the preterite, the 
inflections of the different tenses connected with it are indicated by the 
following table : 

f 1. Momord- find. Perf. -i, -isti, -it, -imus, -istis, -erunt(ere.) 
| 2. Leg- | Ind. Plup. -eram, -eras, -erat, -eranms, -eratis, -erant. 
<j 3. Reps- J Ind. Fut. Perf. -ero, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint. 
| 4. Amav- j Sub}. Perf. -erim, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint. 
^5. Docu- | Subj. Plup. -issem,-isses, -isset, -issemus, -issetis, -issent. 
[.Inf. Perf. -isse. 

If, therefore, we divide the verbs into classes, we should make one class 
comprehend all the uncontracted verbs; and a second, all contracted verbs. 
The first will comprehend all those verbs whose verbal root ends in a 
consonant, or u ; the second will comprehend all those verbs whose verbal 
roots end in cr, e, i ; the contractions in each being made upon the principle 
that the root vowel absorbs all others. 


I. We should have expected such words as amcfr, docffi, audit, to have Tiacl 
the final syllable long, since they are contractions for ama-it, doce-et, 
audi-it; but this anomaly may be accounted for in different ways. We may 
suppose that, in this case, elision and not contraction took place, the i being 
dropped or thrown out altogether, instead of being absorbed by the final 
vowel of the verbal root. Or we may suppose that this syllable was really 
long in the earlier stages of the language, and afterwards became short in 
consequence of being assimilated in pronunciation to other words ending 
in t. The last mentioned opinion receives confirmation from the assertion 
of Martianus Capella, 1 who says that this syllable in verbs is doubtful ; 
and if any trust can be put in the fragments of some of the early poets, they 
afford evidence in favour of this doctrine ; thus 

Cum socios nostros mandisset impiu Cyclops. Livius Andronicus? 
Omnis cura viris uter esset Induperator. Ennius Ann. 3 
In/it, O cives quae me fortuna ferox sit. Ennius Ann.* 

We may observe also, that on referring to the list of short syllables 
lengthened by Caesura, in pp. 108, 109, it will be seen that a very great 
cumber of the examples are verbs in the third person singular. 

1 Quoted by Vossius Aristarch. II., c. xxxiii. 

2 Quoted by Priscian, p. 817. In some copies the \vord appears as mandidisset^ 
and in all probability this is not an Hexameter line at all, for it is generally 
believed that the Heroic measure was unknown in Latium before the time of Ennius. 

3 Quoted by Cic. de Div. I, c. 48. 4 Quoted by Priscian, p. 891. 


II. The initial vowel in the termination ebam, ebar, of the indicative 
imperfect, was absorbed by the vowel of the verbal root in verbs referred 
to the first and second conjugations ; thus ama-ebam, doce-ebam, became 
amabam, docebam; it was left open, however, in verbs referred to the 
fourth conjugation, as audi-ebam, audiebam. In these also, however, it 
was anciently absorbed by the i : many examples of this are to be found 
in Plautus and the older writers ; and the contracted form being more 
convenient in Dactylic verse, was used occasionally by the poets of the 
Augustan age ; thus nutribat, vestibat, for nutriebat, vestiebat, &c. Several 
instances will be found in page 136, b. 

III. There is reason to believe that the termination of the future in ebo, 
which is preserved in verbs of the first and second conjugations only, was 
common to all. Nonius Marcellus quotes exsugebo 1 from Plautus, and 
dicebo, 2 vivebo, 3 from Novius ; a number of examples are still extant of this 

^"* __ f* J.T ,. .* . J_1 * i * 7 *T Til m TTTT 

11., 48 ; and a great many others. Some of these were used as Archaisms, 
even by the later poets, as lenibunt in Propertius. (See p. 136, c, 137.) 

The more recent form of the future in am, es, et, &c., adopted in verbs 
of the third and fourth conjugations, arose in all probability from the use 
of the subjunctive present instead of the future, the two tenses being 
closely allied in signification, and frequently interchanged in all languages. 

IV. Three terminations are assigned in the scheme to the subjunctive 
present, that in am, as, at, &c., which was ultimately adopted in all verbs 
referred to the second, third, and fourth conjugations ; that in em, es, et, 
adopted in verbs referred to the first conjugation ; and finally, that in im, 
is, it, which is still found in sim, in velim, malim, nolim, &c. ; of this we dis 
cover many remnants in the older specimens of the language, and perhaps 
it was the original form. Thus, edim, comedim, edis, edit, edimus, coma- 
dint, are common in Plautus ; and we find also temperint for temper ent, 
carint for careant, effodint for effodiant, and very frequently duim, duis, 
duit, duint, perduint, &c., from duo, and perduo, which are the same as do 
and perdo. 

The student will obtain full information upon this and upon all other 
points connected with the Latin verb, in the treatise of Struve, alluded to 
above ; and a very elegant work upon the same subject by Mr. Alexander 



IT sometimes happens, that from the same root two verbs have been 
formed bearing the same signification, but belonging, one to the contracted, 

1 P. 479, ed. Mercer. In some editions of Plautus the reading is exsorbebo. Epid. 
II., ii., 5. 

8 P. 507. 3 P. 509. 4 Analysis of Latin Verbs 183G. 


and the other to the uncontracted conjugation. Hence have arisen several 
apparent anomalies. We have already alluded to this circumstance in p. 
45 (III.), and again in p. 100 (I.), when discussing the compounds of 
citus. We shall now give a list of the most important verbs belonging to 
this class, confining ourselves to those in which confusion seems to prevail 
with regard to quantity : 

Clueo-ere and Cluo-ere. 
Of these the former only is found in good writers, e. g., 

C Atridae duo fratres cluent fecisse facinus maximum. Plant. Baccli. IV. , ix. , 1. 
JQuae post mihi clara et diu clueant. &c. Plant. Pseud. II., i., 17. 
J Per genteis Italas hominum quae clara clueret. L. I., 120. 
(^Nec minus atque homines inter se clara cluere. L. II., 351. 

Magnae sed auctor qua duo sententiae. A. S. S. C., 2. 


Ferveo-ere and Fervo-ere. 

( Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. V. G. IV., 169. 
< Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus. H. E. L, i., 33. 
( Et fervent multo linguaque corque mero. 0. F. II. , 732. 

fFervit aqua et fervet ; fervlt nunc fervet ad annum. Lucilius. 1 
| Fervere quom videas, belli simulacra cientis. L. II., 41. 
{ Fervere, non ilia quisquam me nocte per altum. V. G. I., 456. 
I Incipit et siccofervere terra cane. P. II., xxviii., 4. 
[^Stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis. V. G. IV., 556. 

Fulgeo-ere and Fulgo-ere. 

( Fixa corona foret ; sed nos quoque fulgeremus. C. LXVL, 61. 
< Int&minsitis fulget honoribus. (Ale. Hendec.) H. 0. III., ii., 18. 
Cum voluit, puTofulget in orbe dies. 0. A. I., viii., 10. 

f Fulgit item, nubeis ignis quom semina multa. L. VI., 159. 
I Fulgere quom coeli donavit plaga vapore. L. V., 1094. 
j Proximus Hydrochoei/w^ere^ Oarion. C. LXVL, 94. 
Illae autem paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis. V. ^E. VI., 827. 
Fervere Leucaten, auroque effulgere fluctus. V. JE. VIIL, 677. 

viris, altas ejfulgere matribus aedes. C. de VI., Cons. Honor., 546. 

Scateo-ere and Sea to -ere. 


Quae mi interbibere sola, si vino scatet. Plant. Aul. III., vi., 22. 
Amas, pol, misera : id tuus scatet animus, &c. Plant. Pers. II., i., 9. 

The contracted form is common in Pliny. The uncontracted form 
occurs frequently in Lucretius, 

Nunc etiam scatit, et trepido terrore repleta est. L. V., 41. 

1 Quoted by Quintilian, L, vi., 8. 



Largifluum fontera sealer e, atque erumpere lumen. L. V., 597. 
Et scatere illa foras in stuppam seminar quae quom. L. VI., 896. 
To these add scatit, VI., 891. 

Strideo-ere and Strido-ere. 

(Sanguine terra madet stridentque hastilibus aurae. 1 V. JE. XII,, 691. 
-<Quam segnis Scythicae strideret arundinis aer. L. P. IX., 827. 
(Cogaris, pressoque diu stridere molari. /. S. V., 160. 

f Ut mare sollieitum stridit refluentibus undis. V. G. IV., 262. 
f Stridere apes utero, et ruptis effervere costis. V. G. IV., 556. 
| Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros. H. S. II., viii., 78. 
^Nunc quoqtie eontenti stridunt Aquilone rudcntes. 0. T. L, xL 19. 

Tergeo-ere and Teryo-ere. 

f Lavari, aut fricari, aut tergeri, aut ornari. Plant. Poen. L, ii., 10. 
! Pars leves clypeos et spicula lucida Urgent. V. JE. VII., 626. 
j Hoc potius quam gallina tergere palatum. H. S., II., ii., 24. 
LHic leve argentum, vasa aspera tergeat alter. /. S. XIV., 62. 

Spissaque de nitidis tergit amoma comis. 0. H. XXL, 166. 

In the above passage from Virgil, many MSS. give tergunt, and this 
form is common in prose. Priscian notices both, p. 894. 
We may also notice the double form, 

Tueor-eri and Tuor, tui, 
although no confusion is likely to arise regarding their quantity : 

nimio quoiquam posses ardore tueri. L. VI., 1162. 
^Talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur. V. JE. IV., 362. 

Nee validos aestus tuimur, nee frigora quimus. L. L, 301. 
Denique iam tuere hoc circum supraque quod omne. L. V. r 310. 
Tuor, malasque furis arceo manus. C. XX., 5. 
Nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque torque. Epic., 137. 
Vestra tuor? sic vos extreme in fine ligavit. S. T. III., 152. 
Contuimur miras simulacraque luce carentum. L. IV., 39. 
Nam mihi infestos utero modo contuor enses. S. A. I., 131. 

Cupo-ere and Cupio-ire. 

f Intra fortunam qui cupis esse tuam. P. III., ix., 2. 

-<Si quantum cuperem possem quoque Sed neque parvum. H. E. H., 

( [i. r 257. 

?N"aturae primus portarum claustra cupiret. L. L, 72. 

(Mars videt hanc, visamque cupit, potiturque cupltam. O. F. III., 21. 

1 In this passage many of the best MSS. have stridunt, and it appears doubtful if 
the contracted form was ever used by the purer classics. 


Orlor of the tMrd conj., and Orior-oriri. 

All the parts of this verb, used by the poets, belong to the third or 
uncontracted conjugation, with the exception of the infinitive, which is 
always oriri. Oriretur is used by the best prose writers, as may be seen 
from the examples quoted in Scheller s Dictionary. In Lucilius and 
Lucretius we find the compound adorltur : 

f Tu toties oreris viridique in cespite vernas. O. M. X., 166. 
Nostrorum obruimur, oriturqno, miserrima caedes. V. JE. II., 411. 
Ml orilurum alias nil ortum tale fatentes. H. E. II., i., 17. 
Namque aliis aliud praestantius exoreretur. L. II., 507. 
Quod si de nihilo fierent, subito exorerentur. L. I., 181. 

Unde refert nobis victor quid possit oriri. L. I., 76. 
Conturbare animam potis est quicumque adorltur. Lucilius. 1 
Commutare animum quiquomque adorltur et infit. L. III., 51 4 

Potior-poti and Potior-iri. 

Sed quia multorum potitur primordio rerum. L. II., 652. 
Subnixus, rapta potitur, nos munera templis. V. ^E- IV. 
Liber ut innuptae poteretur flore novercae. C. LXIY., 403. 
Cum capite hoc Stygiae iam poterentur aquae. P. II., ix., 26. 
Tuque tuis armis, nos te poteremur, Achille. 0. M. XIII., ISO. 
Et captum potimur mundo nostrumque parentem. Manil. IV., 884. 
^Fortis praegressis ut potereris equis. A. E. H. XXXV., 4. 

("Ille ferox solus solio sceptroque potitur. 0. H. XIV., 113. 

| Non nasci esse bonum, natum aut cito morte potlri. A. Eid. XV., 56. 

\ IvTec dissentit, eum mortis letique potltum. L. IV., 768. 

| Coniugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potltum. V. jE. III., 296. 

LVirgineumque Helicona petit, quo monte potlta. O. M. V., 254. 

Observe that Potitur is much more common than potitur; potltus, again, 
seems to have the penult always long in good writers. 

We might increase the above list considerably, if we were to admit all 
the varieties of form which occur in the early dramatists; but this does 
not fall within the limits of our present undertaking. 



ALTHOUGH an examination of the Roman comic metres, and of tho 
numerous complicated and much vexed questions connected with them, 

1 Quoted by Priscian, p. 880. 

The student who desires to enter fully into the discussion with regard to Satur- 
nian Verses, may consult Hermann s Ekmenta Doctrinae Metricae, Cap. IX., Lips., 
1816, and his Epitome Doctrinae Metricae, Cap. IX., 525, ed. sec., Lips., 1844; 
De Versu, quern vacant^ jSaturnio, by H. Duntzer and JL. Lersch, Bonn., 1838; Der 


does not fall within the limits of the present work, we can scarcely avoid 
saying a few words on the celebrated Saturnian Measure, which is generally 
believed to have been the national metre of the Romans, and of which 
scholars, especially of late years, have spoken with such confident 
familiarity, that the incautious might be led to imagine that all points 
connected with its form and structure are clear and well ascertained. 
Before proceeding to inquire how much we really know, it may be proper 
to state distinctly the popular belief upon the subject, that is, the idea 
entertained with regard to Saturnian Verses, or Saturnian Metre, by those 
who have not bestowed close and particular attention on the topic. This 
belief may be enunciated in two propositions : 

1. That Ennius was the first writer who imparted to his countrymen an 
accurate knowledge of Greek versification, and who obeyed in his produc 
tions the laws by which the different kinds of Greek verse, especially the 
Heroic Hexameter, were regulated. 

2. That up to the time of Ennius, poetical feeling among the Romans 
was expressed in a measure purely national, denominated Versus Satur- 
nius, or Numerus Saturnius; that this measure, although certainly rude, 
was subject to definite rules ; and that the translation of the Odyssey by 
Livius, and the celebrated poem of Naevius, on the first Punic war, were 
composed hi Saturnian Verse. 

The first of the above propositions may be admitted without doubt or 
difficulty, but we must carefully examine the evidence adduced in support 
of the second. This evidence may be divided into two portions, each of 
which must be considered separately. These are 

1. The testimony of the classical writers, properly so called; and, 
2. The testimony of the grammarians. 

1. The Testimony of the Classical Writers. 

The oldest writer who affords any available information is Cicero, who 
says in his Brutus XIX., 71 

Quid ? nostri veteres versus ubi sunt ? 

. . . quos olim Fauni Vatesque canebant 
Quum neque Musarum scopulos quisquam superarat 
Nee dicti studiosus erat: . . . 
Ante hunc . . . 

Saturnische Vers in Plautus, by C. H. Weise, Quedlingb., 1839 ; De Inscriptionibus 
quae ad numerum Saturnium referuntur, by G. T. Streuber, Turic., 1845 ; History 
of Rome, by Niebuhr, Engl. Trans, by Hare and Thirlwall, second ed., vol. i., 
pp. 253-257, and notes No. 684-688; vol. ii., p. 589, note No. 1297 ; Lectures on 
the History of Rome, by Niebuhr, translated from the German of Isler, by Dr. Schmitz, 
p. 11 ; or, as translated by Chepmell and Demmler, vol. i., p. 89 ; Varronianus, by 
Dr. Donaldson, second ed., p. 222, seqq. ; Preface to the Lays of Ancient Rome, by 
Lord Macaulay. See also Bentley s Dissertation onPhalaris, XL, p. 162, ed. 1817. 
It will be observed, that one of the above essays is the joint production of two 
German scholars, who have, however, divided their task into two portions entirely 
distinct. Lersch undertakes to demolish the existing notions on Saturnian Verses ; 
Diintzer to erect a new edifice. The former has, according to my views, been 
perfectly successful, and I agree in most of his conclusions ; the attempt of the 
latter is, to my mind, an absolute failure. 


ait ipse (sc. Ennius) de se : nee mentitur in gloriando : sic enitn sese res 
habet. Nam et Odyssea Latina est sic, tamquam opus aliquod Daedali, 
et Livianae fabulae non satis dignae quae iterum legantur. 

Again, a little lower down, 75^- 

. . . utinam exstarent ilia carmina, quae multis seculis ante suam 
aetatem in epulis esse cantita a singulis convivis de clarorum virorum 
laudibus, in Originibus scriptum reliquit Cato. Tamen, illius quern in 
Vatibus et Faunis enumerat Ennius, bellum Punicum, quasi Myronis opus, 
delectat. Sit Ennius sane, ut est certe, perfectior: qui, si ilium, ut 
simulat, contemneret, non, omnia bella persequens, primum illud Punicum, 
acerrimum bellum, reliquisset. Sed ipse dicit cur id faciat . . . 
scripsere, inquit, alii rem Versibus . . . et luculente quidem scripse- 
runt, etiamsi minus, quam tu, polite, &c. 

In the Orator. 41, 171 Ergo Ennio licuit vetera contemnenti dicere, 

Versibus quos olim Fauni Vatesque canebant 

and he quotes the line yet again in De Divin. I., 50 ; indeed this line of 
Ennius seems to have made a great impression on his countrymen, for our 
next authority, Varro L. L. VII., 36, brings it up once more 

Versibus quos olim Fauni Vatesque canebant, 

and thus comments upon it : Fauni dei Latinorum, ita ut Faunus et 
Fauna sit : hos versibus, quos vocant Saturnios, in silvestribus locis tradi- 
tum est solitos fari futura. .... 
In Horace, Epp. II., i., 56 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes 
Intulit agresti Latio : sic horridus ille 
Defluxit numerus Saturnius, et grave virus 
Munditiae pepulere, sed in longum tamen aevum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruris. 

Lastly, Festus, who, we shall assume, here closely followed Yerrius 
Flaccus, s. v. Saturnia, p. 325, ed. Muller 

Versus quoque antiquissimi, quibus Faunus fata cecinisse homimbus 
videtur, Saturmi appellantur : quibus et a Naevio bellum Punicum scriptum 
est, et a multis aliis pltira composita sunt. 

Let us recapitulate the statements made in the above passages, in so far 
as they bear upon the point at issue. 

Cicero does not employ the word Saturnian, but speaks of those ancient 
Roman verses which the Fauns and Seers of the olden time were wont to 
sing, adding, that Ennius ranked his predecessor Naevius among these 
rude bards. 

Varro, in explaining the line of Ennius, says, that the Seers and wood 
land Fauns were wont to prophesy versibus quos vocant Saturnios, but, as 
Lersch fairly remarks, although he speaks of Saturnian Verses, he says 
nothing of Saturnian Verse or Saturnian Metre. 

1 Compare Aurel. Viet. Orig. gent. Rom. 4, who has evidently followed this 
passage of Varro. 


Horace rejoices that Greek literature had banished Jiorridus ille numerus 
Saturnius, where the expression numerus Saturnius does not necessarily 
imply one particular species of verse. 

Festus tells us that Saturnii Versus were those most ancient strains in 
which Faunus appears to have given utterance to oracles, and in which 
the history of the first Punic war was written by Naevius. 

Lastly, Virgil and Livy 1 refer to the versus incomti, versus inconditi, 
versus incompositi, carmina incondita, &c., i. e., rude extemporaneous 
strains, which rustics and soldiers used to pour forth on occasions of festi 
vity and triumph. 

Now, any one who considers these passages without having already formed 
a decided opinion on the subject, and who is therefore in no way disposed 
to force them into accordance with a preconceived theory, may fairly arrive 
at the conclusion adopted by Lersch, that the epithet Saturnius is employed 
as equivalent to primitive, or very ancient, and that the expressions Saturnii 
Versus, and Saturnius Numerus, were terms intended to indicate generally 
the rude effusions in which the old Italians found vent for their poetical 
feelings, and were not meant to designate any one particular species of 
metre, regulated by a definite Jaw. 

2. The Testimony of the Grammarians. 

Here the matter assumes a very different aspect. Three grammarians, 
Terentianus Maurus, Maximus Victorinus, and Atilius Fortunatianus, all 
included in the collection of Putschius, enter into minute details with 
regard to Saturnian Verse. Of these, Terentianus Maurus, whom many 
believe to have flourished in the early part of the second century, but who 
probably belongs to the end of the third, is a writer of considerable 
authority on metres ; Maximus Victorinus is generally supposed to have 
taught as a rhetorician in the age of Constantine, although we cannot fix 
his epoch with any certainty, while Atilius Fortunatianus is usually set down 
as belonging to a much later period, although critics are by no means at 
one on this point. However, the question of the comparative ages of these 
two writers is of no importance in the present case, since they cannot be 
regarded as independent witnesses, for one has evidently copied from the 
other, and, indeed, transcribed whole sentences verbatim, while both seem, 
to a considerable extent, to have followed Terentianus. This being the 
case, we shall proceed, as before, to give their evidence in full, premising, 
for the information of the young scholar, that Terentianus, in treating of 
the different kinds of verse, employs, in each case, the very metre which 
he wishes to describe and illustrate. 

1 Virg. G. II., 385. Uv. IV., 20, 53 ; V., 49^ X., 30. Comp. VII.. 2. 


TEEENTJAXUS MAURUS de Saturnio Carmine. 

Aptum videtur esse 

Nunc hoc loco monere, 

Quae sit fi^ura versus, 

Quern credidit vetustas 

Tanquam Italis repertum 

Saturnium vocandum. 

Sed est origo Graeca 

lllique metron istud 

Certo modo dederunt ; 

Nostrique mox poetae 

Rudem sonum secuti, 

Ut queinque res ferebat, 

Sic disparis figurae 

Versus vagos locabant. 

Post rectius probatum est, 

Ut tale colon esset 

lunctum trlbus trochaeis, 
Ut si vocet Camenas quis novem sorores 
Et Naevio poetae sic ferunt Metellos, 
Cum saepe laederentur esse comminatos : 
Dabunt malum Metelli oSTaevio poetae. 
Dabunt malum Metelli clauda pars dimetri; 

Dabunt malum Metelli, 

Adest celer Phaselus, 

Memphitides puellae, 

Tinctus colore noctis. 

Post Naevio poetae tres vides trocliaeos ; 
Nam nil obest trocnaeo longa quod suprema est. 

MARI-US VICTORIOUS 2 de Saturnio Versu. 

Et quoniam sub occasione versus huius se tempestiva etiam nobis^ alia 
suggerit species, consentaneum reor hoc loco dicere de natura et origine 
huius versus, cui prisca apud Latium aetas, tanquam Italo et indigenae, 
Saturnio sive Faunio nomen dedit, sed falluntur ; a Graecis enim varie et 
multiformiter inductus est, nee tantum a comicis, sed etiam a tragicis. 
Nostri autem antiqui usi sunt eo, non observata lege, nee uno genere custo- 
dito, sed praeterquam quod durissimos fecerunt, etiam alios longos, alios 
breviores inseruerunt, quorum est hie 

Turdis edacilus dolos comparas amice. 

Ferunt pulcras creterras aureasque lepistas. 

Et apud Naevium 

Novem lovis Concordes Jiliae sorores. 

1 V. 2497, p. 1439, ed. Putsch; p. 115, ed. Lsnnep. 

2 P. 2586, ed. Putsch. ; Lib. III., cap. xviii., ed. Gaisford, whose text we have 
generally adopted. Victorinus has an incidental and not very intelligible remark on 
Saturnian Verse in p. 2591, ed. Putsch. ; Lib. IV. } cap. i., 21, ed. Gaisford. 


Videtur tamen e duorum versuum membris compositus, Dimetri et 
Quadrati. Constat autem pedibus sex et semipede. Nam primes tres 
pedes et seinipedem habet ex parte prima Dimetri; reliquos vero tres 
pedes, qui sunt ultimi, habet a parte prima Quadrati tragic! trochaici, 

Cum victor Lemno classem Doricam appulisset. 

Est autem duabus primis syllabis longior ab Hendecasyllabo, nam uno 
pede in capite Hendecasyllabi posito, Saturnius versus fiet: cuius exem- 
plum Metelli proposuerunt de Naevio, aliquotiens ab eo lacessiti, ita 

Malum ddbunt Metelli Naevio poetae. 

Nam Malum ddbunt Metelli clauda pars Dimetri iambici est, dehinc 
Naevio poetae tribus Troehaeis constat, quod Phallicum 1 vocamus : nee 
quicquam oberit Trochaeo, quod suprema longa est quod semper in metris 
indifferenter, sicut superius diximus, ponitur. Tres lambos cum syllaba 
et tres Trocnaeos. Ergo erit prima pars (id est, Malum ddbunt Metelli) 
talis, qualis est Adest celer Phaselus^ item, Memphitides puellae ; sequens 
(Naevio poetae) talis ut est Bacche plaude Bacche. Sane ut in Deca- 
syllabo, primus pes incertus est, ita ut in hoc duo proni pedes variantur - 

lam nunc vocet Camoenas quis novem sorores, 

qui ut terminus a Spondeo incipit. Quidam volunt hunc feriri sexies et 
recipere pedes septem, hoc est, Spondeum, lambum, Pyrrhichium, Pari- 
ambum, Dactylum, Trochaeum, Anapaestum, e quibus est Thacomestus, 
et nasci a Trimetro Scazonte ; alii vero omnes duodecim pedes admittere, 
neque semper eum, ut illi asserunt, nasci e Trimetro Scazonte. UNDE 



De Saturnio versu dicendum est, quern nostri existimaverunt proprium 
esse Italicae regionis, sed falluntur. A Graecis enim varie et multis modis 
tractatus est, non solum a comicis, sed etiam a tragicis. Nostri autem 
antiqui (ut vere dicam, quod apparet) usi sunt eo, non observata lege, nee 
uno genere custodito inter se versus, sed praeterquam quod durissimos 
fecerunt, etiam alios breviores, alios longiores inseruerunt, ut vix invene- 
rim apud Naevium, quos pro exemplo ponerem. Apud Euripidem et 
Callimachum inveni tale genus 

Turdis edacibus dolos comparas amice. 

Apud Archilochum tale 

Quern non rationis egentem vicit Archimedes. 

Et tertium genus 

Consulto producit eum quo sit impudentior. 

Apud nostros autem in tabulis antiquis, quas triumphaturi duces in 

1 The common reading is Phalaecium. 

2 P. 2679, ed. Putsch. ; Pars. I., cap. viii., ed. Gaisford. 


Capitolio figebant victoriaeque suae titulum Saturniis versibus proseque- 
bantur, talia reperi exempla. Ex Regilli tabula 

Duello magno dirimendo, regibus subigendis^ 
qui est subsimilis ei, quein paulo ante posui 

Consulto producit eum quo sit impudentior. 

In Acilii Glabrionis tabula 

Fundit fugat prosternit maximas legiones, 
Apud poetam Naevium hos repperi idoneos 

Ferunt pulchras pateras aureas lepidas. 1 

Et alio loco 

Novem lovis Concordes Jiliae sorores. 

Sed ex omnibus istis, qui sunt asperrimi et ad demonstrandum minime 
accommodati, optinms est, quern Metelli proposuerunt de Naevio, aliquoties 
ab eo versu lacessiti 

Malum ddbunt Metelli Naevio poetae. 

Hie enim Saturnius constat ex Hipponactei quadrati iambici posteriors 
commate et Phallico 2 metro. Hipponactei quadrati exeinplum 

Quid immerentibus noces? Quid invides amicis? 

Nam Malum dabunt Metelli simile est illi Quid invides amicis f Cui 
detracta syllaba prima facit Phallicum metrum Invides amicis, ex quibus 
compositus est hie Saturnius, ut sit par huic 

Quid invides amicis ? Invides amicis. 
Hoc modo 

Malum dabunt Metelli Naevio poetae. 

Again, p. 2698, 3 Saturnio metro primum in Italia usi ; dictum autem 
a Saturnia urbe vetustissima Italiae. Et hie versus obscurus quibusdam 
videtur, quia passim et sine cura eo homines utebantur, maxime tamen 
triumphaturi in Capitolio tabulas huiusmodi versibus incidebant, id est sic 

Summas opes qui regum regias refregit. 

Habet autem prima parte lambicon dimetron catalecticon, in secunda 
Trochaicon dimetron brachycatalecticon, quod et Ithyphallicum diximus, ut : 

Dabunt malum Metelli Naevio poetae. 

Cetera [sc. metra] partim in Horatio recognosces, partim in archetypis 
auctorum libris, unde haec excerpsimus. 

It will be seen that, while the authors of the above passages contradict 

1 There can be little doubt that lepi&tas is the true reading. 

2 The common reading is Phalaecio, and below Phalaecion. 

3 Pars II., cap. xxvii, ed. Gaisf ;rd. 


each other and themselves in many particulars, there are others in which 
they exhibit a close correspondence. They all seem to agree 

1. That there was a distinctly defined species of verse called Versus 
Saturnius or Metrum Saturnium. 

2. That it was a mistake to assert that this was purely a national Ita 
lian measure, for that it was well known to the Greeks, and frequently 
employed by them. 

3. That the Saturnian Metre in its proper form consisted of an Iambic 
Dimeter Catalectic, followed by three Trochees, according to the follow 
ing scheme : 

or, according to another view, which comes to the same thing, that it was 
an Iambic Trimeter Hypercatalectic, 1 with a Spondee invariably in the 
fourth place. Terentianus indeed affirms that originally the Saturnian 
metre was simply an Iambic Dimeter Catalectic, such as 

Dalunt maltim Metelli, 
and that the form in which the three Trochees were subjoined 

Dalunt malam Metelli Naevio poetae 

was of later invention. 

4. That the early Roman poets roughly catching up the mere rhythm 
(rudem sonum secuti) composed lines in imitation which were not merely 
harsh but altogether irregular and of different lengths. 

We may further remark, that Victorinus concludes his observations by 
admitting that great difference of opinion prevailed among grammarians 
with regard to Saturnian Verse, that some alleged that seven different 
feet might be introduced, while others allowed any one of the twelve 
dissyllabic and trisyllabic feet to find a place. 

Atilius curiously enough asserts that he could scarcely produce an 
example of Saturnian Yerse from Kaevius, although he afterwards quotes 
two, both of which are given by Victorinus. 

The extreme uncertainty which prevailed with regard to the latitude 
allowed in the composition of this verse is sufficiently proved by the differ 
ent specimens fabricated as examples by Atilius in imitation of various 
Greek measures. 

If we refer to those grammarians who have mentioned the Saturnian 
measure in a more cursory manner, we shall not find our ideas become 
more clear, although most of them adopt the view of Terentianus. Iri^the 
Fragmentum de Metris ascribed in the collection of Putsch, to Censorinus 
we read (p. 2727) 2 

1 So Diomedes, p. 512, Saturnium in honorem del Naevius invenit addita una 
svllaba ad lambicum versum sic 

Summas opes qui regum regias refregit, 

liuic si clcmas ultimam syllabam, erit lambicus, de quo saepe memoratum est. In 
p. 47G he says that the Palimbacchius was also named Latins and Saturnius. 
* Cap. !!.* 11, ed. Gaisford. 


Numerus Saturnius 

Magnum numerum triumpliat liostibus devictis. 

Sunt qui hunc Archebotion vocant. Recipit pedem Spondeum, lamburu, 
Pyrrhichium, Chorium, Dactylum, Brachysyllabum, Anapaestum. 

Plotius de Metris, p. 2650. 1 Ex hoc metro Trochaico scilicet et lambico 
constat mctrum Saturnium quod mixtum ideo nee inter species lambicas 
posui nee inter Trochaicas. Constat autem ex lambico dimetro catalectico 
Hipponactio amphicolo et tribus Trocnaicis (1. Trochaeis), id est, Ithy 
phallico. Quo metro usi sunt Cyrides et Callimachus, et apud nos Naevius. 

De Metro Saturnio. 

Saturnium compositum vel mixtum ex lambico metro et Trochaico, 
lambico dimetro amphicolo Hipponactio catalectico, et Trochaico dimetro 
brachycatalectico Ithyphallico, hoc est, tribus Trochaeis, composuit 

Nuevius hoc modo 

Ferunt pulcliras creterras, 

hue usque, Hipponactium ampliicolum dimetrum catalecticum lambicum 
est: nam quod sequitur Trochaicum dimetrum brachycatalectum Ithy- 
phallicum, tale est 

Aureas lepistas, 

novissima syllaba indifferens. Totus versus sic 

Ferunt pulcliras creterras aureas leplstas ; 

Malum dabunt Metelli Naevio poetae; 

Tralmntque siccas multas macliinae carinas. 

So also Mallius Theodorus de Metris (cap. v., 12, ed. Gaisford) 

Metrum lambicum Saturnium habet lambicum tetrametrum colobon et 
trcs trochaeos. Huius exemplum 

Merulae quodos vetustae mane dulce cantat; 

where it is to be observed that he uses the term Tetrameter where other 
metrical writers employ Dimeter. (See above, p. 160). Lersch calls 
attention to the circumstance which may, however, be accidental that 
Mallius speaks of the Metrum lambicum Saturnium, as if there were other 
Metra Saturnia, such as Metrum Anapaesticum Saturnium, and the like. 

Exactly to the same effect are the words in the tract entitled, Ars de 
Centum Metris, which bears the name of Servius, p. 1825 2 

Saturnium constat dimetro lambico catalectico et Ithyphallico, ut 
est hoc 

Isis per err at orbem crinibus profusis. 

^ Servius, the commentator on Virgil, probably a person altogether 
different from the Servius just quoted, mentions Saturnian metre twice. 
In his note on Faunique pedem (G. I., 11), he quotes the passage from 
Varro given above; but his words, when expounding versibus incomptis 
ludunt (G. II., 385), are very remarkable : id est, carminibus Saturnio metro 
composite. Quod ad rhytlimum solum vulgares componere consueverunt. 

1 Cap. V., 13, 14, eel Gaisfwd. * Cap. IX., 12, ed. Gaisford. 


Aero, Porphyrio, and the scholiast of Cruquius, in their remarks on the 
passage in Horace, all agree in representing the Saturnius Numerus as the 
measure which the ancient Latins employed " sub rege Saturno" thus 
throwing it back to the Mythic period. 

Cicero, in the first Action against Verres (X., 29), says, when address 
ing Metellus Nam hoc Verrem dicere aiebant, te non fato ut ceteros ex 
vestra familia, sed opera sua consulem factum ; on which we have a note 
of the scholiast who goes by the name of the Pseudo-Asconius (p. 14.0, 
ed. Orelli) : 

Dictum facete et contumeliose in Metellos antiquum Kaevii est 
Fato Metelli Romaefiunt consules. 

Cui tune Metellus consul iratus versu responderat senario hypercatalccto, 
qui et Saturnius dicitur 

Dabunt malum Metelli Naevio poetae. 

De qua parodia subtiliter Cicero dixit Te non fato ut ceteros ex vestra 
familia where it will be observed that the line ascribed to Naevius is not 
a Saturnian Verse, but an Iambic Trimeter. 

Lastly, Cicero, in his speech for Archias (XL, 27) Decimus quidem 
Brutus, summus vir et imperator, Accii, amicissimi sui, carminibus tem- 
plorum ac monumentorum aditus exornavit suorum on which we find 
the following note in the Scholia BoHensia (p. 359, ed. Orelli) : Hie 
Brutus Gallaecus fuit cognomento ob res in liispania non minus strenue 
quam feliciter gestas. Eius etiam nomini ..... l poetae tragici 
exstat liber, cuius plurimos versus, quos Saturnios appellaverunt, vestibulo 
templi Martis superscripsit Brutus. 

We may now pass on to the opinions of modern critics who, until a 
comparatively recent period, bestowed little attention on the matter; and, 
when they did advert to it, seem, generally speaking, to have acquiesced in 
the statements of Terentianus Maurus. Even the prince of English 
scholars, Bentley, had inquired so little into this subject, that he not only- 
accepted the doctrine of Terentianus, that Saturnian Verse was borrowed 
from the Greek, but maintained that it was identical with the Asynartete 
Archilochian measure described by Hephaestio at the commencement of 
his xv. chapter (p. 91, ed. Gaisf.), consisting of an Anapaestic Dimeter 
Brachycatalectic followed by three Trochees, of which we have a specimen 
in its pure form in the lines 

Remeabat ab arce tyrannus | vultibus cruentis, 
and with a Spondee in the first place in 

Quern non rationis egentem | vicit Archimedes, 

and even went so far as to assert u The_/rs that used Saturnian Verse 
among the Latins was Naevius, an old poet, before Ennius s time." 

Hermann, in his Elementa Doctrinae Metricae, published in the early 
part of the present century, entered much more fully into the question 

1 There is a small blank here in the MS., which Orelli proposes to fill up with the 
words dicatus Accii. 

2 Dissertation upon Phalaris. XI., p. 162, ed. 1817. 



than any of his predecessors. He held that the Romans derived this 
measure from the Etruscans, and that it was employed by the Roman 
poets before they had become acquainted with the literature of the 
Greeks. After reviewing the leading passages in the old grammarians, 
quoted above, he arrives at the conclusion that Saturnian metre, in its 
pure form, might be represented by the following scheme : 

which, it will be observed, exactly accords with the views of Terentianus. 
Hermann, however, admitted that the early bards employed it under a 
rude form -(nietrum illud quum satis rude ab antiquis vatibus et poetis 
fusum essef) and that the following licenses were indulged in freely : 

1. A Spondee was admitted in any place. 

2. A Dactyl was admitted in any place, except the last. 

3. The verse was Asynartete, that is, as already explained (p. 212J, the 
last syllable of the first half of the verse might be long or short, at 

4. Not only was the verse Asynartete, but, contrary to the usage of the 
Greek poets in like cases, the last syllable of the first half of the line might, 
if considered long, be resolved. According to this view, the original 
scheme would be thus modified: 

He then proceeds to adjust, according to these views, the Chaunt of 
the Fratres Arvales (see above, p. 243) ; the Prophecies of Marcius (Liv. 
XXV., 12, Macrob. S. I., 17); the " Tabula Regilli" (Liv. XL., 52); 
and the prophecy brought from Delphi in the time of the war against Yeii, 
(Liv. V., 16), which he supposes was translated into Saturnian Verse by 
some of the earlier writers of Roman history. It appears to me evident, 
however, that Hermann regarded his " restorations" and arrangements of 
these ancient documents merely as an exercise of ingenuity, and did not 
himself seriously believe, and expect others to believe, that he had actually 
succeeded in exhibiting them under their primitive shape. He then 
undertakes what might have been regarded as a more hopeful task to 
examine and adjust the scattered remains of Livius Andronicus and 
JSTaevius, who were unquestionably distinguished as writers of Saturnian 
Verse. But, after a great display of learning, acuteness, and dexterity, he 
has serious misgivings as to the real amount of success achieved ; for he 
winds up by the acknowledgment Nemo non videt, quam incerta 
dubitationisque plena res sit tarn brevia, tamque corrupta fragmenta in 
numeros suos redigere. 

Niebuhr, deeply impressed with the truth of his own theory, that the 
materials for the early history of Rome had been derived from a series of 
old national ballads, was indefatigable in his search for poetry of this 
description, and confidently propounded the somewhat startling doctrine, 


that the epitaphs 1 upon the tombs of the Scipios were ancient Naeniae, 
expressed in verse, and that this verse was, and could be no other than 
the ancient Saturnian. He proceeds to correct (?) the inscriptions, and to 
arrange them, so as to suit his own views. 2 His idea was caught up, and 
his example was followed by many of the leading scholars of the age, who, 
carrying out the principles of their master, seized upon every scrap of old 
Latin which could anywhere be found, and strove to torture what had 
previously been regarded as plain, honest, vigorous prose, into a shadowy 
semblance of halting verse. We have seen that the Chaunt of the Fratres 
Arvales had been subjected to this process by Hermann ; he was followed 
by Grotefend and Klausen, each of whom, as might have been anticipated, 
gave a metrical version different from that of Hermann and cf each other ; 3 
but this kind of absurdity reached a climax when the gibberish found in 
the MSS. of Varro (L. L. VII., 26), as a fragment of the song of the 
Salii, and which stands in the edition of Miiller as 


was gravely remodelled, so as to form what was considered to be an intel 
ligible sentence, the words distributed into lines, the syllables properly 
accentuated, and the whole presented as an undoubted specimen of Satur 
nian Verse, 

But although it has become the fashion to speak of various productions as 
couched in Saturnian Verse, as if this were an indisputable fact, few stop 
to inquire into the evidence for the numerous assumptions upon which this 
assertion rests, or to ascertain whether the scholars who use the term 
understand the same thing when they employ the same words. Let us then 
pursue the investigation, and for this purpose we shall confine ourselves to 
the epitaphs on the Scipios, because these have been pronounced, upon the 

That is Nos..l, 3, 4, 5, as given above, p. 246-249. 

These views varied at different periods of his life ; for the arrangement presented 
in his first edition differs somewhat from that given in the third. 

3 To give one example of the discordant views entertained by Niebuhr and some of 
his most distinguished followers, we may notice the inscription placed by T. Quinctius 
on the base of the statue of Jupiter, brought by him to Rome after the capture of 
Praeneste. The words upon this "Tabula," according to Livy (VI., 29), were 

Iiipitcr a.tque Divi omnes hoc dederunt ut T. Quinctius dictator oppida novein 

Niebuhr, combining these with a passage in Festus (s.v. Trientemtertium, p. 3G3, 
ed. Mull.), thus reproduces them in a metrical form 

luppiter atque Divi omnes hoc dederunt 
Ut Titius Quinctius dictator Romanus 
Oppida Novem diebiis novem caperet. 

But K. O. Miiller adjusts them u paullo aliter," to use the words of a German critic 

lovis atque divoe conctoe hoc dederunt Tito 
Quinctio dictatori ut per dies novenos 
Novem urbes capsit atque 
Turn deeumam Praenesten. 
(See Getting., Gekhrte Anx-eigen, 1820, No. 138, p. 1376.) 


highest authority, to be the most unquestionable specimens of Saturnian 


1. The supposition of Niebuhr that these epitaphs are Naeniae, is not 
only unsupported by any evidence that such funeral songs were ever 
inscribed upon tombs, but is entirely, in the present case, at variance with 
all which we know regarding the ancient Roman dirges, which are repre 
sented as having been rude and frivolous wails, chaunted to the music of 
the flute by the hired mourning women (Praeficae) a description alto 
gether inapplicable to the simple dignity which characterize these epi 

2. There is no external evidence that these epitaphs were written in any 
kind of verse. It is urged indeed by Niebuhr 

(1.) That the four short horizontal scores or hyphens, noticed above, as 
occurring in No. 1, indicate a division into lines ; and 

(2.) That in the epitaph on Lucius and on the flamen, u there are as 
many lines as verses, which may be recognized with as much certainty 
from the great difference in the length of them, as the elegies on more 
recent monuments." 

But as far as No. 1 is concerned, the first part of the inscription, upon 
this view, becomes entirely impracticable ; for the words preceding the 
first ( ) are, 



which he is obliged to cut up into two lines, and at the same time hns 
resorted to the strong measure of throwing out the word PATRE altogether 
as an interpolation of the stone-cutter. Moreover, he does not in any 
way notice that a whole line and a-half of the inscription has been delibe 
rately chiselled out at the commencement. 

Again, if the sculptured lines in Nos. 3 and 4 indicate the division into 
verses, it is remarkable that, as far as No. 4 is concerned, neither Niebuhr 
himself, nor Muller, nor Hermann, have attempted to preserve these lines 
in their metrical arrangement. 

3. It is, a priori, highly improbable, that if a metrical epitaph had been 
inscribed upon the tomb of the son of the elder Africanus (No. 4), Satur 
nian Verse would have been employed. By this time Greek versification 
had been introduced, and was viewed with favour, whilo Ennius, who 
first freely employed Greek metres, and who spoke with undisguised 
contempt of the rude measures of his predecessors, was, as is well known, 
the chosen friend of the Scipios, and his remains were allowed to rest in 
their family sepulchre. 

4. While many distinguished scholars have assumed that three of these 
inscriptions (Nos. 1, o, 4) are in Saturnian metre, they all differ from 
each other as to the division into verses, and as to the mode in which 
these verses are to be scanned ; and all are obliged to have recourse to 
changes in the text. Niebuhr arranges 1, 3, 4, in lines, 1 and gives some 
hints as to the prosody of particular words, but he does not indicate his 

1 History of Pome, vol. i., third edition, notes 684, 685, 686, 687, pp, 253-255, of 
translations by Hare and Thirl wall, 1831. 


views with regard to the structure of the verse. Elsewhere l he says that 
the real Saturnian Verse is quite different from that described by Teren- 
tianus, and that he intended to prove this in a distinct treatise. He then 
goes on to observe "The pervading character of the Saturnian Verse is 
this, that it must consist of a fixed number of trisyllabic feet. Generally 
speaking, there are four of them, in which either Bacchics or Cretics 
interchange with Spondees. Sometimes the Cretics and sometimes the 
Bacchics predominate. When kept distinct, they have a very fine move 
ment, but they are usually very much mingled together, so that it is 
difficult to make them out." 

K. O. Miiller has given an arrangement of No. 4 differing altogether 
from that of Niebuhr, and which he must therefore have scanned upon a 
different principle. 

Dr. Donaldson, in his Varronianus, agrees nearly with Niebuhr in the 
arrangement of Nos. 1 and 3, but follows Miiller in No. 4. His views, 
with regard to the metre, we shall give in his own words : u It is, perhaps, 
not too much to say, that this metre, which may be defined in its pure form 
as a brace of Trochaic Tripodiae, preceded by an Anacrusis, is the most 
obvious and natural of all rhythmical intonations." 

It is to be remarked, that the above account, as far as structure goes, 
is identical with that propounded by Terentianus and Hermann ; accord 
ing to the latter, the Saturnian Verse, in its pure form, is represented by 
the scheme 

I ^ 1 ^ II ^ I ^ I 
According to Dr. Donaldson, by 

^~^ \ - v / I 

which comes to the same thing, although the rhythm, in the two cases, 
would be different. 

Lastly, Hermann, who, as observed above, has a chapter on Saturnian 
Verse in his Elementa Doctrinae Metricae, but who, in that work, makes 
no allusion to the epitaphs on the Scipios; in the second edition of his 
.Epitome Doctrinae Metricae, published at Leipsic in 1844, not long before 
his death, ranks these inscriptions among the most indisputable examples 
(certissima) of this measure. It is true that he extends still farther the 
ample latitude granted in his original work to the early Roman bards, and 
in fact his words imply that they were completely unfettered by the laws 
of prosody, but he still clings to the notion that their lines might be 
connected with the Greek metrical system Sic igitur composita fuerunt 
etiam Latinorum antiquissima carmina, ut aliquo quocumque modo 
numerum referrent lambici dimetri catalectici, quern sequeretur Trochai- 
cus dimeter brachycatalectus. 

If any importance can be attached to a name in a matter so intricate 
and doubtful, the opinion of Hermann, who combined great critical 
sagacity with profound scholarship, and who, during a long life of study, 

1 Niebuhr s Lectures on the Origin of the Early History of Rome, from the German 
of Dr. Isler, p. 11 of Dr. Schmitz s translation, and vol. i., p. 89, of the translations 
by Chepmell and Demmler. 


had directed his attention specially to ancient metres, is deserving of the 
greatest respect and deference. We shall therefore give the three (1, .3, 4) 
inscriptions as arranged and accentuated by him, and, after having pointed 
out the violence to which we must resort before we can force them to 
accord u aliquo quocumque modo" with the standard set up by himself, 
we shall leave the reader to draw his own inference. It must be 
remembered, that whatever license we admit with regard to resolved feet, 
although we may allow a Spondee, a Dactyl, or a Tribrach, to be substi 
tuted for the proper foot in any place, even the last, we can never 
introduce a Trochee into the first naif of the line, nor an Iambus into the 
second half, without violating at once the natural principles and the 
artificial rules recognized in the structure of Iambic and Trochaic Verses. 
We have numbered the lines of the three inscriptions continuously for 
convenience in referring to them 


Epitaph on Scipio Barbatus, see above, p. 247. 
(1.) Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus 
(2.) Gnaevo patre prognatus fdrtis vir sapiensque 
(3.) Cuiiis forma virtu ti parissuma fuit. 
(4.) Consul censor aedilis qui fuit apud vos. 
(5.) Taurasiam Cesaunam Samniumgwe cepit. 
(6.) Subigit omnem Lucanam dbsidesque abducit. 


Epitaph on Lucius Scipio, son of Barbatus, see above, p. 248. 

(7.) Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt Romani 

(8.) Romae bonorum optumum fuisse virum 

(9.) Lucium Scipionem fflium Barbati, 
(10.) Consul censor aedilis hie fuit apud vos. 
(11.) Hie cepit Corsicam Aleriamque urbem. 
(12.) Dedit dicavit Tempesta tibus aedem merito. 


Epitaph on Publius Scipio, Flamen Dialis, see above, p. 249. 

(13.) qui dpicem insigne 

(14.) Dialis flaminis gessisti, mors perfecit, 
(15.) Tua ut essent omnia brevia, honos, fama, 
(16.) Yirtusque gloria atque ingenium quibus si 
(17.) In longa licuisset tibi utier vita, 
(18.) Facile superasses gloriam maiorum 
(19.) Quare lubens te in gremium Scipio recepit 

(20.) Terra" Publi prognatum Publio Cornell. 



(1.) We must pronounce the praenomen Lucius in this and in (9.) Lucius. 

(2,) We must lengthen the last syllable in patre, and pronounce sapiens 
as a dissyllable, sapyens. 

(3.) We must lengthen the last syllable in. forma, we must lengthen the 
first and third syllables in parissuma, and write fuvit-a.t least I see no 
other way of scanning the line. 

(4.) We must lengthen the last syllable in censor, and the last syllable 
in fult, or rather fuvit. 

(5.) This line is unexceptionable, but it has been made so by adding 
the word que on conjecture. 

(6.) We must lengthen the second syllable in subigit. 

(7.) This line is unexceptionable, if we admit that the concluding word, 
Romani, has been correctly supplied. 

^(8.) To make up this line, a whole word, Romae, has been inserted 
without a shadow of authority ; the urn in lonorum is not elided ; and the 
first syllable in virum is made long. 

(9.) Here, as in line (1.), the second syllable in Lucium is lengthened. 

(10.) The same remarks apply to this as to line (4.), with the addition, 
that the concluding words, apud vos, have been inserted upon conjecture. 

(11.) The last syllable in Corsicam is not elided, and is considered long; 
and the que at the end of Aleria is also left without elision. 

(12.) A whole word, dicavit, has been inserted here upon pure con 
jecture; and, even with this addition, the line appears to me most 

(13.) There is not the slightest appearance in the original tablet of any 
portion of it having been broken off or obliterated ; and it is obvious that 
nothing can be more unlikely than that a metrical inscription should have 
commenced in the middle of a line. It appears, moreover, from Hermann s 
accentuation, that he intended the first syllable of apicem to be regarded 
as long. 

(14.) This line, picked out in this manner, is unexceptionable. 

(15.) As I gather from Hermann s accentuation, he intends the last 
syllable in tua to be long, and not to be elided: omnia to be pronounced 
as a dissyllable, omnya ; the first syllable in ~brevia to be made long, and so 
also the first syllable in lionos. 

(16.) The second syllable in ingenium must be lengthened. 

(17.) The first syllable in licuisset and in fibi must be made long, and 
utier pronounced as a dissyllable, utyer. 

(18.) Here the second syllable in facile, and the first in superases, must 
be lengthened. 

(19.) We may scan this line, either by admitting a Dactyl in the third 
place, or by pronouncing gremwm as a dissyllable, gremyum. 

(20.) The last syllable in terra must be lengthened. 

Upon reviewing the result of this examination, we may well ask whether 
Streuber was in jest when he exclaims 

" Quis est, qui nunc obloquatur Hermanno revocanti tarn facile ad 
metrum vulgare versiculos, neglecto quidem accentu naturali, sed minime 
contorte, paucis tantum supplements adiectis" although a good deal is 
certainly implied in the expression neglecto quidem accentu naturali. He 
speaks more plainly, however, in another passage 


Quid enim mirum, si versificatores isti ex libidine hiatu utebantur, 
syllabas in arsi producebant, breves pro longis usurpabant, longas in 
breves solvebant, et alia huiuscemodi, cum antiquioribus poetis Romanis 
omnem prosodiae et artis metricae licentiarn dandam esse omnes uno ore 

Hermann himself admits almost as much 

Sic igitur composita fuerunt etiam Latinorum antiquissima carmina, tit 
aliquo quocumque modo numerum referrent lambici dimetri catalectici, 
quern sequeretur Trochaicus dimeter brachycatalectus, nee iusta mensura 
syllabarum observata, neque hiatu vitato, nee nullis admissis elisionibus, 
aliquando etiam Tribracho vel Dactylo in Trochaei locum recepto, idque in 
ipso ultimo pede (p. 221, Epit. D. M.) 

It is remarkable that it should not have occurred to -writers upon this 
subject that, if we take a verse which, in its pure form, is supposed to 
consist of three Iambi and a Catalectic syllable, followed by three 
Trochees, and if we allow 

1. The substitution of a Spondee for the proper foot in any place, even 
the last ; 

2. The resolution of either of the long syllables of the Spondee in any 
place, even the last ; 

3. The Catalectic syllable to be long or short, or even, if considered 
long, to be resolved into two short ; 

4. Elision to be admitted or dispensed with, as may suit our convenience ; 

5. A short vowel to be made long, when necessary; 

6. A word to be inserted here and there upon a pinch 

there could be no difficulty in cutting up any page of Livy, Cicero, or 
Tacitus, into a system of unexceptionable Saturnians; and this is what 
Hermann, misled, probably, by Atilius For tunati anus, has actually done in 
the case of the Tabula Regilli (Liv. XL.,52). 1 Niebuhr himself, if we can 
trust to the reports published of his lectures, repudiated the notion that 
Saturnian Verse had any connection with Greek metres. 

"The ancient Romans, before they adopted the Greek poetic system, 
made use of the Saturnian Verse. Horace says of it, 

. . . . Jiorridus ille 
Defluxit numerics Saturnius, . . 

and several old grammarians have given accounts of it. Atilius Fortuna- 
tianus, and others among them, who knew nothing about its structure, 
stuck to a couple of verses which had been preserved, particularly to the 
following, in which, according to the views which then prevailed, a hyper- 
catalectical Senarius makes its appearance 

Malum dabunt Metelli Naevio poetae. 

Terentianus Maurus, who belongs to the end of the third century, spoke 
of it when treating of the Anacreontic Verse, because the first division of 
the Saturnian bears some resemblance to it. But the real Saturnian 
Verse is quite a different one, which I intend shortly to prove in a detailed 

1 Hermann, in his larger work (1816), calls this " Memorabile Saturnii carminis 
exemplum ;" but in the second ed. of his Epitome (1844) fairly gives it up " Abstineo 
manum a Tabula Regilli, quam Livius XL., 52, exbibuit, quoniam nimis corrupta 
scriptura est, quam ut sine melioribus libris videatur restitui posse." 


treatise. It has many forms, and is altogether distinct from Greek metres. 
The Latin term for Rhythmus, which in later times only was applied to 
Greek metres, is Numeri. But the Greek metre is based on music and 
quantity ; while in theirs, the Romans really counted, the syllables being 
little measured, or rather, not at all : a certain degree of rhythm was, 
however, kept. Our ancestors, in the same way, had no idea of short and 
long syllables in the Greek manner ; and in the Old Latin Church hymns, 
likewise, short syllables are made long, and vice versa. Plautus and 
Terence, also, in their Iambic and Trochaic verses, really observed the 
rhythmical measure only, and not the quantity. This is the case with all 
northern people;" and then he goes on, as appears to me, with great 
inconsistency, to speak in the words quoted above (p. 304) of the Satur 
nian Yerse as made up of Bacchics, Cretics, and Spondees, thus carrying 
us back again to the idea of Greek metres. 

What, then, are the conclusions which we are justified in forming with 
regard to this much perplexed question ? They may be briefly stated as 
follows : 

1. That the Romans had national poetry, more or less rude, before 
they became acquainted with Greek literature, is indisputable. 

2. That this poetry was expressed in what, in the age of Cicero, were 
called Saturnian Yerses, seems to be equally certain. 

3. There is no evidence, in so far as we can appeal to the testimony of the 
classical writers, to support the supposition that the terms Satumii Versus, 
as used by Yarro, and Saturnius Numerus, as employed by Horace, were 
confined to one single species of verse. On the contrary, it is highly pro 
bable that the old ballads of Rome, as of our own and other countries, 
were composed in a variety of measures. This opinion is distinctly ex 
pressed by Niebuhr, who, when quoting what he regards as the " verses " 
of the Lex horrendi carminis found in Liv. I., 26 

Duumviri perduellionem iudicent. 
Si a duumviris provocarit 
Provocatione certato ; 
Si Vincent, caput obmibito ; 
Infelici arbore reste suspendito : 
Yerberato intra vel extra pomoerum 

remarks, "Livy has here preserved a fragment of the poem, 1 in the lyrical 
numbers of the old Roman verse," and adds in his note, "The description 
of the nature of the old Roman versification, and of the great variety of 
its lyrical metres, which continued in use down to the middle of the 
seventh century of the City, and were carried to a high pitch of perfec 
tion I reserve, until I publish a chapter of an ancient grammarian on 
the Saturnian Yerse, which settles the question. 1 


1 The epopee which, according to the supposition of Niebuhr, included Tullus, the 
story of the Horatii, and the destruction of Alba. 

: Niebuhr did not live to fulfil the promise given here and elsewhere. " The 
chapter of an ancient grammarian " here alluded to is understood to be the fragment 
of Charisius, afterwards published from the Neapolitan MS. by Schneidewin (Gotting., 
1841), but which, after all, throws no new light upon the subject. 


4. Hence, even if we have plausible grounds for believing that some 
given specimen of old Latin is couched in Saturnian Verse, we have no 
right to take it for granted that it must be expressed in that one particu 
lar species of Saturnian Verse with which we suppose ourselves to be 

5. The grammarians of the Empire, having found one or two scattered 
lines ascribed to Naevius, which they conceived might be scanned accord 
ing to the laws of Greek versification, and knowing that the great work of 
Naevius was written in Saturnian Verses, rushed to the conclusion that 
the Romans had borrowed the Saturnian measure from the Greeks, and 
that these lines exhibited the model upon which they were constructed. 
But the assertion was scarcely hazarded ere they found themselves in 
volved in inextricable confusion. They had the greatest difficulty in 
finding examples, and such as could be procured proved altogether 
refractory. Hence the numerous inconsistent forms proposed by them 
for this Protean verse ; hence their contradictions of each other and of 
themselves ; hence the complaints of the rudeness of the early Roman 
bards, whose lines, sometimes too long and sometimes too short, could 
not be made to correspond with the imaginary standard set up ; hence 
the extorted acknowledgment that the whole subject was involved in 
obscurity and doubt, 1 and hence the desperate expedient of admitting all 
dissyllabic and trisyllabic feet without distinction. Indeed, Terentianus 
at the outset is obliged to allow, that the early Roman poets in copying" 
the Greek measure could be regarded as having only rudem sonum secuti r . 
that is, as having merely caught up a rough notion of the rhythm, an , 
admission which in reality amounts to an unconditional surrender of his 
position, since it implies that it was impossible to scan these ancient lines 
according to the received laws of prosody. Hence, whatever may be the 
character of Saturnian Verses, we must entirely dismiss the idea that they, 
are in any way connected with or subject to the laws of the Greek metri 
cal system. 

G. We believe that the early Roman bards, in their Saturnian Verses, 
never advanced beyond the first stage in poetical composition, when lines 
are formed and modulated by the ear alone, which, in all nations, acknow 
ledges the pleasing effect produced by certain cadences, and by the 
recurrence of certain combinations of sound at regular intervals. The 
second stage, in which these pleasing effects are analyzed, and the com 
binations which produce the most pleasing effects ascertained and denned, 
and rules deduced by observing which similar effects may be produced 
with certainty, they never reached ; for as soon as their literature began 
to receive development, they adopted the metrical system of another 
country, that system which the Greeks had, in a long course of ages, and 
during centuries of high mental cultivation, elaborated and brought ta 
perfection. What Quintilian says upon this matter is well worthy of being 
remembered (IX., iv., 114) : 

"We must remind tlio reader of the expressions of Victorinus in the passage al 
ready quoted Nostri antiqni usi snnt eo non observata lege nee uno genere custodito, 
sed praeterquam quod dnnssimos fecerunt, eliam alias longos, alios breviores inserue- 
runt and his concluding words, Unde apud omncs yrammatlcos super hoc adhuc non 
parva lis est. 


poema nemo dubitaverit imperito quodam initio fusum, et 

aurium mensura, et similiter decurrentium spatiorum observatione essa 
generatum ; mox in eo repertos pedes . . . ante enini carmen ortum est 
quam observatio carminis, ideoque illud 

Fauni vatesque canebant. 

To this we may add the remarkable observation of Servius in his note 
on the words Versibus incomtis, in Virg. G. II., 385 : 

Nee non Ausonii, Troia gens missa, colon! 
Versibus incomtis ludunt risuque soluto. 

" Id est carminibus Saturnio metro compositis, quod ad rhythmum soluni 
componere vulgares consueverunt." It is curious that Hermann, after he 
had endeavoured to arrange the chaunt of the Fratres Arvales, should quote 
both of the above passages as applicable to the case he had been consider 
ing, and yet, with the truth before him, should go on pertinaciously 
struggling to force the prophecies of Marcius and historical inscriptions 
into accordance with the laws of Greek verse. In the second edition of 
his Epitome Doctrinae Metricae, in which he must be regarded as express 
ing the deliberate opinions formed during a long life of study, in addition 
to the passages already quoted, we find the following : 

u Quia veterrimi satis habuisse videntur, si versus aliquo modo his 
numeris (i.e., the Saturnian of Terentianus Maurus) similes esse videren- 
tur. Pronuntiant illi verba sic, ut in quotidiano sermone consueverunt, 
includuntque etiam nuniero eo qui illius sermonis proprius est, hoc est vel 
iambico vel trochaico, idque sic, ut fere numerent magis syllabas quam 
ponderent." 1 

7. Since, therefore, all the most able scholars who have closely investi 
gated the character of Saturnian Verse have been obliged some of them 
with great reluctance to acknowledge that it has no connection with 
Greek metres, and cannot, without manifest violence, be scanned according 
to the laws of Prosody observed by the later Roman poets, but depended 
for its effect upon the rhythm resulting from the pronunciation of a certain 
number of syllables in a certain cadence; since, moreover, we know 
absolutely nothing of the ordinary pronunciation and accentuation of 
Latin words independent of their quantity as deduced from the works 
of the poets ; and since we possess no unquestionable specimen of an 
ancient composition in Saturnian measure, divided into lines, it seems 
to follow that we have no data whatever which might enable us to form 
an idea or express an opinion with regard to the nature of these primitive 
Italian rhythms. 

8. It will be urged that we ought to make an exception in favour of 
that rhythm which results from pronouncing such a line as 

Malum dabunt Metelli Naevid poetae, 

according to the rules of quantity as observed in later times, and the 

1 If I understand the meaning of this expression aright, it is entirely incompatible 
with the idea of resolved feet, which result from "weighing" syllables instead of 
" counting " them, and therefore renders nugatory the system proposed by Hermann 


rather because the rhythm in question may fairly be said to be naturally 
pleasing. Lord Macaulay has pointed out that it is to be found in the 
poem of the " Cid," and in the lay of the Niebelungs, and that it may at 
once be recognized in our own nursery rhyme 

The Queen was in her chamber eating bread and honey ; 

but the evidence to prove that this was really one of the Saturnian 
rhythms is very feeble. It is a most suspicious circumstance that Atilius, 
who speaks as if he had consulted the work of Naevius for the express 
purpose, should state that the measures of that poet were so irregular 
that he could scarcely find any examples to suit his purpose, and even 
tually gives one, which is adduced by Yictorinus also : 

Novem lovis Concordes filiae sorores; 

and another, also found in Victorinus, but not ascribed by him to Kae- 
vius : 

Ferunt pulchras creterras aureas lepistas. 1 

It must appear very strange, that if the great work of Naevius was really 
composed in a rhythm which even " aliquo quocunque modo" resembled 
that described by Terentianus and his followers, the grammarian should 
have with difficulty (vix) been able to discover a single line which he 
could quote in illustration. 

As to the favourite example 

Malum dabunt Metelli Naevio poetae, 

which certainly presents the Saturnian Verse of the grammarians in a 
polished and perfectly pure form, 2 I quite agree with Lersch, in thinking 
that both it and the well-moulded comic Iambic Trimeter by which it 
is accompanied 

Fato Metelli Romae fiunt consules, 

belong to an age subsequent to that of Cicero, and were fabricated to 
explain his allusion (see above, p. 300) to the unlucky lampoon which cost 
Naevius so dear. 

1 So the line is given, and probably correctly, by Plotius, p. 2650. Victorinus 
presents it as 

Ferunt pulchras creterras, aureasque lepistas ; 
And Atilius 

Ferunt pulcras pateras, aureas, lepidas ; 

but neither of these forms would suit. 

5 Lord Macaulay says " The most perfect Saturnian line which has been preserved 
was the work, not of a professional artist, but of an amateur." I wonder that this 
very circumstance did not excite his suspicions. Nothing could have been less in 
accordance with old Roman feelings than for the haughty Metelli to have engaged in 
a war of epigrams with their humble antagonist. 



There still remains the epitaph on Naevius preserved by Aulus Gellius, 
wlio tells us that it was written by the poet himself 

Mortalis immortalis flere si foret fas 
Flerent divae Camoenae Naevium poetam 
Itaque postquam est Orcino traditus thesauro 
Obliti sunt Romae loquier Latina lingua. 

The difficulty in respect to these lines, supposing them to be genuine, is 
that they are too good. When "we remember that Naevius was strictly the 
contemporary of Lucius Scipio, son of Barbatus, and compare the language 
as it appears in the above verses with that in the inscription on the tomb, 
we must feel convinced, either that the epitaph on Naevius was the work 
of a later hand, or that it had undergone so many changes before it 
assumed its present aspect, that it cannot be received in evidence. 
Indeed, the numerous variations in the MSS., both as to the words and 
their arrangement, prove that it must have been frequently tampered 



A. Acatalectic ; B. Brachycatalectic ; C. Catalectic ; H. Hypercatalectic. 
The small numbers refer to the pages where each species is described. 

Iambic Dimeter A, 197 

Iambic Dimeter H, 198 

Iambic Dimeter C, 198 

Iambic Tetrameter C, 199 

Trochaic Tetrameter C, 200 

Trochaic Dimeter C, 201 

Mixed Verses. 

Greater Archilochian, 202 

Alcaic Decasyllabic, 203 

Phalaecian Hendecasyllabic, 20i 
Pseudo-Phalaecian, 204 <+- 

Choriambico-Trochaic Tetra 
meter B, 204 
Alcaic Hendecasyllabic, 205 
Alcaic Enneasy llabic, 205 

~M-_ * 

Dactylic Hexameter A, 



-f- " 

Dactylic Pentameter A, 




Dactylic Tetrameter A, 




Dactylic Trimeter C, 




Dactylic Trimeter H, 




Dactvlic Trimeter with a base, 






Dactylic Dimeter A, 



Choriambic Tetrameter A, 



Choriambic Trimeter A> 




Choriambic Dimeter A, 




Choriambic Dimeter C, 



>w<oc/ x ii 

Epichoriambic Trimeter C, 




Epichoriambic Tetrameter C, 




Aristophanic Choriambic Di 

meter C, 




Anapaestic Dimeter A, 




Anapaestic Dimeter C, 



Anapaestic Monometer A, 



Ionic a maiore Tetrameter B, 




Ionic a minore Tetrameter A, 




Iambic Trimeter A, 




Iambic Trimeter Scazon, 



Comic Iambic Trimeter, 



Iambic Trimeter C, 



Asynartete Verses. 

Elegiambic, JSTo. 1, 
Elegiambic, No. 2, 

Polyscliematistic Verses. 



TABLES. 313 


1. Carmina Dicola Distropka. 

xii. Metrum Elegiacum, composed of i. and ii. 

xiii. Metrum Alcmanium primum, i. followed by iii. 

xliii. Metrum Archilochium primum, i. followed by iv. 

xliv. Metrum Pythiambicum primum, i. and xxiv. 

xlv. Metrum Pythiambicum secundum, i. and xx. 

xlvi. Metrum Archilochium secundum, i. and xxxviii. 

xlvii. Metrum Alcmanium secundum, iii. and iv. 

xlviii. Metrum Asclepiadeum secundum, x. and ix. 1 

xlix. Metrum Sapphicum maius, xiv. and xiii. 

1. Metrum Anapaesticum Tragicum, xv. and xvii. (and sometimes xvi.) 

li. Metrum lambicum secundum, xx. and xxiv. 

Hi. Metrum Archilochium tertium, xx. and xxxvii. 

liii. Metrum lambicum tertium, xxi. and xxiv. 

liv. Metrum Trochaicum secundum, xxviii. and xx. a 

Iv. Metrum Trochaicum tertium, xxix. and xxiii. 

Ivi. Metrum Archilochium quartum, xxx. and xxiii. 

2. Carmina Dicola Tristropha. 

Ivii. Metrum Anapaesticum secundum, xv.; xv. ; and viL 

3. Carmina Dicola Tetrastropha. 

Iviii. Metrum Asclepiadeum tertium, ix. ; ix. ; ix. ; and x. 
lix. Metrum Gh 7 conium, x. ; x. ; x. ; and xi. 
Ix. Metrum Sapphicum, xii. ; xii. ; xii. ; and vii. 

Ixi. Metrum Trochaicum quartum, xxvi. ; xxvi. ; xxvi. ; and xxxiv. (See p. 

4. Carmina Dicola Pentastropha. 

Ixii. Metrum Glyconium secundum, x. ; x. ; x. ; x. ; and xi. 

5. Carmina Tricola Tristropha. 

Some rank in this class the metres of Hor. Epod. xi. and xiii. by considering the 
two members of the Asynartetes as separate verses. According to the usual arrange 
ment, the former belongs to Iii. and the latter to xlvi. 

6. Carmina Tricola Tetrastropha. 

Ixiii. Metrum Asclepiadeum quartum, ix. ; ix. ; xi. ; x. 
Ixiv. Metrum Alcaicum, xxxv. ; xxxv. ; xxxvi. ; xxxi. 

1 The Metrum Asclepiadeum primum is ix., in a system by itself. 

2 Observe, however, that the Anapaestic Monometers and Paroemiacs do not recur at regular 

3 The Metrum Trochaicum primum is xxviii., in a system by itself. 






LUCRETIUS, De rerum natura Libri 


CATULLUS, Carm. 1, 2, 3, ~) 
o, G, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, j 

15, 1G, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 


-w, *,-, , , , , ,, 

41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, I 
49, 50, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, j 


Carm. 55, 




Carm. 4, 20, 29, 52, 

Carm. 8, 22, 31, 37, 39, 44,\ 

59, 60, j 

Carm. 11, 51, Ix. 

Carm. 17, 18, 19, xxxix. 

Carm. 25, xxvii. 

Carm. 30, viii. 

Carm. 34, lix. 

Carm. 61, Ixii. 

Carm. 62, 64, i. 

Carm. 63, J^CJL^O^^^ xl. 

Carm. 6 5... II 6, xli. 

The different pieces are numbered as 
they stand in the edition of Doering. 
VIRGILIUS, Bucolica, Georgica,) 

JEneis; (Ciris), (Culex)^ 

(Moretum), ) 

(Copa), (Catalect.), 1, 6, 9,\ 
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, j 

(Catalect.), 2, 7, 

(Catalect.), 3, 4, 8, 

(Catalect.), 5, 
HORATIUS, Satirae, Epistolae, \ 

Ars Poetica, j 

Od. Lib i. 1; Lib. iii. 30: 
Lib. iv., 8, 

Od. Lib. i. 2,10, 12,20,22, 
25, SO, 32, 38, 

Od. Lib. ii. 2, 4,6,8,10,16, 

Od. Lib. iii. 8, 11, 14, 18, 
20, 22, 27, 

Od. Lib. iv. 2, 6, 11, Car 
men Seoul. 








} Iviii. 



Od. Lib. i. 3, 13, 19, 36. 

Od. Lib. iii. 9, 15, 19/24, 
25, 28; Lib. iv.. 1, 3, 

Od. Lib. i. 4, 

Od. Lib. i. 5, 14, 21, 23;) 

Od. Lib. iii. 7, 13; Lib.V 
iv. 13, ) 

Od. Lib. i. 6, 15, 24, 33; "I 

Od. Lib. ii. 12, 

Od. Lib. iii. 10, 16; Lib. , 
iv. 5, 12, j 

Od. Lib, i. 7, 28 ; Epod. 12, " 

Od. Lib. i. 8, 

Od. Lib. i. 9, 16, 17, 26, 
27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37, 

Od. Lib. ii. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 

11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19,20, \ Ixiv 

Od. Lib. iii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, | 
17, 21, 23, 26, 29, 

Od. Lib. iv. 4, 9, 14, 15, 

Od. Lib. i. 11, 18; Lib. iv., 10, 

Od. Lib. ii. 18, 

Od. Lib. iii. 12, 

Od. Lib. iv. 7, 

Epod. 1, 2, 3,4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9,10, 

Epod. 11, 

Epod. 13, 

Epod. 14, 15, 

Epod. 16, 

Epod. 17, 

TIBULLUS, Eleg. Lib. iv., 
PROPERTIIJS, Eleg, Lib. iv., 
OVIDIUS, Met. Halieut. frag. 

In ceteris operibus, 

Pedo Albinovanus, Elegiac tres, 
Publius Syrus, Sent., xx. et xxvii. 

Marcus Ma?iilhis, Astronomi-) 

con Libri quinque, j" 

Gratius Fatiscus, Cyneg. Lib. i. 

Aulus Sabinus, Epistolae tres, xli. 

Caesar Germanicus, i. 

PHAEDRUS, xxii. 

SILIUS ITALICUS, Pun. Lib. xvii., i. 






























PKRSIUS, In Praefatione Satir. 
Satirae sex, 

LUCANUS, Pharsaliae Libii decem. 
IEUVNALIS, Satirae Sexdecim, 

MARTI ALIS, Epig. Lib. i., 1, 11, 
67, 78, 85, 90, 97, 114; ii. 
11, 17, 57. 65, 74; iii. 7, 
20, 22, 25, 41, 47, 58, 64, 
82, 93; iv. 17, 37, 61, 65, 
70, 82; v. 3, 14, 18, 27, 29, 
36, 38, 42, 52, 55; vi. 26, 
39, 74; vii. 7, 20, 26; viii. ) 
10, 19, 44, 61; ix. 2, 7, 28, 
34, 76, 99; x. 3, 5, 22, 30, 
62, 74, 92, 100; xi. 62, 81, 
99, 101; xii. 10, 13,32,51, 
67, 65, 82, 88; xii. 61, J 
Lib. i. 50 ; iii. 14; ix. 78, 
Lib. i. 54 ; ii. 73 ; iv. 90; vi.) 
61 ; vii. 98, > 

Lib. i. 62, 
Lib. iii. 29, 
Lib. vi. 12 ; xi. 78, 
Cetera Martialis Epigrammata Metrum, 

vel xxxii. vel xii. exhibent. 

PETRONIUS ARBITER, Satyr, c. 5, xxi. 
Satyr, c. 15, 79, 93, 109, xxxii. 

Satyr, c. 132, 
Sat} r r. Inter Fragmenta, 
In aliis locis, vel i. vel xii. 

ticon, Libri octo, j 

TATIUS, Silv. Lib. i. 6 ; ii. 7 ; 
iv. 3, 9, 
Silv. Lib. iv. 5, 
Silv. Lib. iv. 7, 
In ceteris operibus, 


AUSONIUS, Epig, i. et plurimis) 

aliis locis, ) 

Epig. 2, et plurimis aliis locis, 

Epig. 17, 25, 26, 50, 68.) 

Parentalia, 13. Profess. 2, V- 

4,5,26. Epistolae, 15,22,) 

















Epig. 30, 96, 146. Ephe-"] 
raeris, 2, 4. Epist. 4. | 
a vers. 71, ad vers. 81. [^ 
Epist. 16. Eidyll. 13, tres 1 
vers. sub. fin. J 

Epig. 48, 67, 116, 117,140,^ 
142, 143. Ephemeris, 5. j 
Parentalia, 17, vers. 1. i 
Profess. 15. Epitaph. 29. ! v 
Lud. S. S. Prol. et Sent. 

5, S. 2. Epist. 6, vers. 

6, 7. Epist. 7, vers. 20- 
23. Epist. 21, J 

Epig. 51, 

Epig. 78. Parentalia, 28. 
Epig. 128. Epist. 7, vers. 19, 
Ephemeris, 1. Profess. 7, 8. 
Parentalia, 17, a vers.. 2, ad) 

fin. / 

Parentalia, 25, 
Parentalia, 26, Eidyll. 6, 

carm. 3, 
Parentalia, 27. 1 
Profess. 6, 
Profess. 10, 
Profess. 11. Sept. Sap. Sent.) 

5. Eidyll. 6, carm. 2.> 

Eclog. 18, ) 

Profess. 19, 
Profess. 21, 
Sep. Sap. Sent. 3. Epist. 7, 

a vers. 36, ad fin. 
Sep. Sap. Sent. 4. Epist. 4, 1 

a vers. 82, ad fin. Epist. > 

11. Praefat. 3, ) 

Sept. Sap. Sent. 6. Eidyll.) 

7, carm. 2, ) 
Sept. Sap. Sent. 7, 

Epist. 3, 10, 
CL AUDI ANUS, Carm. 1, et aliis) 


Carm. 2, et aliis plurimis, 
fin Nupt, Hon. Aug. et, 
j Mar. Fescenn. 1, 

{ ... ... 2, 

*** O 

x ^ 



















i This little piece is composed in PYEKHIC VERSE, and consists of an unbroken succession of 
snort syllables : 

Et amita Veneria properiter obiit 
Cui brevia mela modifica recino 
Cinis uti placidula supera vigeat 
Loca tacita celeripes adeat Erebi. 

Bracb -^faf 11 ? f Urth HneS & Tetrameters Catalectic; the second and third, Tetrameters 


A, final, 37 

final in ablatives of first 
declension, 37, 39 

final in imperatives of 
first conjugation, ..87, 39, 42 

final in indeclinable 
words, 37, 39 

final in vocative of Greek 
nouns, 37, 39 

Abiegnus, 1 25 

Abies Abiete Abietibus, .125 

Abiicio Abicio, 129 

Abscidit, 97 

Abstraxe, 139,140 

Academia, 26 

Acatalectic, 1 60 

Accent, 268-271 

Acccsstis, 139 

Accitus, 100 

Achaia *. ...237 

Achaias, 237 

Achaicus, 237 

A ch aides, 237 

Achais, ..237 

Achaius, 237 

Achati, 136 

Achille 45, 146 

Achillei, 10, 146, 284 

Acliilli, 136, 146, 284 

Achillis, 146 

Achivi, 237 

Adhuc, 63 

Adiicio Adicio, 129 

Adoneus, 146 

Aerei, 118 

Agnitus, 92 

Ai in the genitive of the first 

declension, 17,20, 136 

Aiax, ....237 

Ain , 34, 148 

Aio, 237 

Aio Ais Ait Aiunt Aie- 

barn, 22 

Alcaic Decasyllabic 203 

Enneasyllabic, 198 

- Stanza, 205, 212 

Alibi, M 

Aliqitando, 60 

Alms, 17 

Alphabet, Latin, 1 

Etruscan., 242 

Greek, 221 

Hebrew 219 

Latin, history of, 


Phoenician, 220 

Samaritan, 221 

Alterius, 17 

Alvearia, 118 

Alveo, 118 

Ambitum, 98 

Ambitus, 7, 92 

Ambo, 52, 54 

Amice, 43,47 

An, ....................... 32 

, quantity of accusative 
in, ...................... 66 

Anapaestic Dimeter, ...... 187 

--- Monometer, ....189 

-- Verses, .... 1 87, 1 89 

Anas, .................... 68 

Anchises, .................. 72 

Annuvi, ................. ..)52 

Anomalous Verse?, ........ 215 

Antea, ................. 37,39 

Anteacta. <fec., ............. 118 

Anteambulo, .............. 118 

Antehac, ................... 118 

Anteire, &c., ............... 118 

Antithesis, ................ 1 54 

Antium, .......... . ....... 118 

Aperio, .......... . ......... 81 

Aphaeresis, . ............... 153 

Ajpocope, ................... 153 

Apulia, .................... 151 

Apulicus, .................. 151 

Apulus, .................... 151 

Aquileia, .................. 143 

Arabs ..................... 131 

Arabia, .................... 131 

Arabus, .................... 131 

Aranei, ...................... 118 

Archaisms, ................ 1 35 

Archilochian, greater, ....202 

Argui,. .................... 152 

Aries Arietis Ariete, ....125 

Arietat, ...................... 125 

Arsis ....................... 271 

Arum, genitives in, con 
tracted ................. 138 

Arvales Fratres, Hymn of, 243 
As, final, .................. 68 

final in Greek words ..... 69 

final in accusative plural, 70 

final in nominatives sin 
gular, ................... 70 

final in verbs, 


Asclepiadean, greater, .... 1 78 

Asclepiadean, lesser, ...... 1 78 

Asia, ...................... 131 

Asis ....................... 131 

Asius, .................... 131 

Aspirates, ................ 2, 3 

Asynartete Verses, ........ 212 

Aulai, .................. 17, 20 

Aurea, .................... 118 

Aureis, ..................... 1!8 

Aures, .................... 113 

Authority, ................ 5 

A vi, preterite in, contracted, 1 39 

Baltei, .................... 118 

Bene, ..................... 43 

Bibi, ............ ........ 97.98 

Biduum, ...... ,*. .......... 87 

Biiugus, .... .............. 15 

Biraus, ...4 . ............... 87 



Bipes, 90 

Bis 32, 35 

Bis and Bi (in composition), 87 
Brachycatalectic, 160 

C, letter, 223 

C, final, 63 

Caesura, 105,109 

Caesura, lengthening of a 

syllable by, 107, 109 

Caesura! syllable, 105 

Caius, 17,21 

Calefacio, 92 

Calefacto, 92 

Calpe, 42 

Castor, 67 

Catalectic, 160 

Causidicus, 92 

Cave, 45 

Ce (enclitic), ? 32 

Cecidi, 93 

Celtiber, 67 

Cerea, 118 

Cesse, 140 

Chalcedon, 67 

Charisin 109 

Choliambus, 1 95 

Chorea, 25 

Choriambic Dimeter, 1 79 

Tetrameter, .... 1 78 

Trimeter 178 

Trochaic Tetra 

meter, 204 

Verses, ...178, 1ST 

-, combi 

nations of, 181 

Chrysoplirys, 79- 

Ci (enclitic), 32 

Cinefacio, 95 

Ctrcumago, 64 

Circuineo, 64 

Cis, 32, 35 

Cito 52 

Citum, 98- 

Citus, 100 

Clueo and CIuo 289 

Clytemnestra, 12 

Cognitus, 92 

Column a Rostrata, 244 

Commoda, 42 

Compos, 7(1 

Compound feet, 150 

Comprehendei e, 119 

Comprendere, 119 

Concitus, 100 

Confervefacio, 95 

Confluxet, 1,40 

Conjugations, ancient form 

of, 285, 2S8 

Connubiis, 518 

Connubio, r 118 

Conopeum, 24 

Consilium, 12(> 

Consonants, 1 

Consonants, classification 

of, 2,3 

, double, ...... 1 

Cor.statura, .....101 

Consumse, 140 

Consumsti, 1 39 

Contra, .37, S9, 40 

Contracted syllables, 6, 8 

Cor, 32, 35 

Corcodilus, 154 

Cornicen, 92 

Cornu, 62 

Credo, 56 

Crocodilus, 154 

Cui, 124 

Cuius, 15 

Cupo and Cupio, 290 

CuiTuum, 126 

Cycnus, 12 

Cy thereia, 1 42 

D, final, 63 

Dactylic Dimeter, 1 77 

Hexameter, . . 1 62, 1 69 

Pentameter,.. 170, 175 

Tetrameter, ......175 

Trimeter, 176, 177 

Verses, 161, 177 

Baedaleus, < 25 

Daedalus, 25 

Daemon, 67 

Daphne, 12 

Datum, 98 

Debilis Positio, 12,15, 16 

Declensions, ancient form 

of, 281, 285 

Dedi, 97,98 

Dedicationis Formula, .... 254 

Deerrarunt, 119 

Deerraverat, 119 

Deest, Deesse, &c., 119 

Dehinc, 119 

Dei Deis, ..120 

Deiero 92 

Dein Deinde, 1 19, 1 24 

Deinc, 119 

Denariis, 118 

Dentals, 2, 3 

JDeorsum, 119 

Deprehendere 119 

Deprendere, 119 

Derivatives, quantity of, . . 2 , 

pi (in composition), 87 

Diaeresis, 114 

Diana, 17, 22 

Diastole, 147, 148, 150 

Dicare Dicere, 29 

Dicolon, 216 

Die 136 

Diei 17, 20 

l^iffldit, 97 

Digamma, 221, 229 

Dii Diis, 120 

Diphthongs, 8 

Diplasiasmus, 153 

Dipode, 160 

Direxti, 139 

Dis (in composition), 87 

Dispar, 90 

Dissoluo, &c., 130, 137 

Dissyllabic feet, 155 

Distrophon, 217 

Disturbat, 80 

Din, 62 

Diuturnus, 148 

Division of a Verse, 1 06 



Dixti, 13S 

Donee, 63 

Doubtful syllables, defini- 

tionof, 4 

Dryasin, 109 

Ducis, 29 

Duellica, 119 

Duillian Column, 244 

Dummodo, 52 

Duo, 52 

Duxti, 139 

E, final, 42 

in ablatives of the 

fifth declension, 42, 45 

in adverbs, 43 

in contracted Greek 

plurals, 42, 43, 45 

in Greek nouns, 

42, 43, 45 

in imperatives of se 
cond conjugation, ..43, 45, 47 
Ea, Greek accusatives in,.. 21 

Eadem, 119 

Eaedem, 119 

Earinus, 147 

Ecthlipsis 140 

Educo, 29 

Ego, 52, 60, Gl 

Eheu, !7, 23 

Ei in the genitive and dative 

of fifth declension, 17 

Eia, 37 

Eiicio eicio, 129 

Eius, 15 

Elegeia, 142 

Elegiac Distich, 174 

Elegiambic, No. 1, 212 

No. 2, 213 

Elision, 110, 114 

Of 772, 113 

Emphasis, 270 

Enclitic particles, 32 

Endo, 52 

Enneemimeris, 105 

Eodem, 119 

Eosdem, 119 

Eous, 24 

Epenthesis, 152 

Epichoriambic Dimeter, . , 1 86 
Tetrameter, 186 
Trimeter, ..182 

Episynaloepha, 140 

Epitaphs on the Scipios, ....246 

Equotuticum, 148 

Erepsemus, 139,140 

Ergo, 52, 58, 59 

j^rinnys, 79 

Erui, 152 

Es, 32, 35 

Es, final, 70 

in. Greek words, 

70, 71, 72 

in plural cases of 

nouns, 72 

in verbs, 72 

Esuris, 74 

Etymology, definition of, . . 1 
us^ proper names ending 

in 143, 144 

Evasti, 140 

Evi, preterite in, contracted, 139 

Evoluam, 136 

Evoluisse, J37 

Examen, 30 

Excitus, ....100 



Exos, 76 

Expergefacio, 95 

Exsoluo, 137 

Extinxem, 1 39, 140 

Extinxti, 140 

Extorque, 47 

F, letter, 229 

Fac, 32, 34 

Fatidicus, 92 

Fave, 47 

Feet, Compound, 1 56 

Dissyllabic, 155 

Metrical,Tableof,155, 156 

Quadrisy llabic, 1 56 

Trisyllabic, 155 

Fer, 32 

Fere, 43,47 

Ferme, 43 

Ferrei, 118 

Ferveo and Fervo, 289 

Fide 136, 137 

Fidei 17, 18,20 

Fides and its derivatives, . . 30 

Fidi, 97, 98 

Fido and its derivatives, ... 30 
Fio and its tenses, . ..17, 20, 21 

Fluitant, 119 

Fluo, Fluviiis, Fiuvidus,.... 30 

Fluviorum, 125 

Foris, 73, 75 

Formiano, 118 

Fortuitus, 126 

Fratres Arvales, Hymn ot, . .243 

Fulgeo and Fulgo, 289 

Futum Futurus, 98 

Future perfect indicative, 

104, 105 
Fuvi, 152 

G, letter, 223 

Gabii, 119 

Ganymedes 72 

Genetrix, 16 

Genitum, 102 

Genua, 126 

Genui, 102 

Genuvi, 152 

Geryon, 27 

Glomero, Glomus, 30, 31 

Glyconian, 179 

Grains, 21, 22 

Grammar, divisions of, .... 1 
Grammatical figures, 140 154 

Gratis, 73,75 

Graveolens, 7, 118 

Gutturals, 2, 3 

H, letter 232 

, power of, 3, 6, 10, 14 

-, when occurring 

between two vowels, .... 11 

Hamadryasin, 109 

Have, 47 

Hector, 67 

Hendecasyllabic, Phalae- 

cian, 203 

, Alcaic, ..205 

Hendecemimeris, 106 

Hepthemimeris, 1 05 

Herculei, 146 

Herculi, 146 

Heroic Hexameter, ...162 169 

Hiatus, 114 

Hie (pronoun and adverb), 

U2, 35 



Hipponactean, 195 

Hoc,... 35,36 

Hodie, 88 

Hodiernus, 88 

Homo, 55, 56 

Huic, 124 

Huius, 15 

Hypercatalectic, 160 

I, letter, 1,235 

, double power of, 2, 1^5 

I, final, 47 

in Greek nouns, . .48, 50 

in the dative of 

Greek nouns, 48, 50 

Jacio, compounds of, 1 29 

Iambic Dimeter, 197, 198 

Tetrameter, 199 

Trimeter, .. ..191 197 

5 comic,. ...i 96 

Verses, 1 90-200 

lapetides, 2^6 

lapetionicles, 236 

lupetus, 236 

lazyges, 119 

Ibam, in the imperfect 
of the fourth conjuga 
tion, 136, 137 

Iber, 67 

Ibi, 48, 51 

Ibidem, 51 

Ibunt, in the future of the 

fourth conjugation, 136 

Ichneumon, 12 

Ictus Metricus, 270 

Idem, . .. , 29 

Ideo, 52, 54 

Idomenios, 118 

ler as the termination of the 
infinitive passive, ..136, 152 

lidem, 119 

lisdem, 119 

Illic,... 63 

Illius, 17 

Illuc, 63 

Immo, 52, 54, 59 

Impar, SO 

In 32 

Incitus, 100 

Indicative future perfect, 

104, 105 

perfect, third 

person plural, 102, 104 

Indu 52, 56 

Inferius, 118 

Inferne, 43 

In gratis, 73, 75 

Inimice, 43, 47 

Innuba, 92 

Inscriptions, ancient, 242 

Interea, 37, 39 

Interne, 47 

Involuo, 137 

lo (interjection), 17, 23, 24 

(proper name), .... 1 7, 23, 24 

lones, 131 

Ionia, 131 

loniacus, 131 

Ionic Verses, 1 89 

. a maiore Verses,.. 189, 190 

lonicus, 131 

lonis, 131 

lonius, 131 

1 1 i LI &^ ***** * * 1 1 

Ipsius, 17 

Is, 32 


Is, final, 72 

in Greek nouns,.. . . 72 

in plural cases, ..72, 74 

in older poets, .... 48 

in verbs, 72, 74 

Istius, 17 

It, 80 

Ita 37 

Italia, 131 

Italides, 131 

Italia, 131 

Italus, 131 

Itum, 98 

ludaea, 236 

ludaei, 236 

ludaeus, 236 

ludaicus, 236 

Jam, genitives in, 118, 119 

lus, genitives in, 17, 20 

lusso, 136 

I vi> preterite in, contracted, 139 

J, letter, 2,14, 15,235 

K, letter, 225 

Koppa, 220, 221, 223, 226 

L, final, 63 

Labare Labi 29 

Labefacio 92 

Labefacto, 92 

Labials, ......2, 3 

Lacrima, 16 

Laqueo, 118 

Last syllable in a verse, .... 1 14 

Latiuni, 98 

Legare Legere, 29 

Legis 29 

Lemniasin, 1 09 

Leo 55,56 

Letters, pronunciation of 
the different Latin, 258268 

Liquare, 29 

Liquefacio, ..29, 93, 94, 95, 150 

Liquefi o, 1 50 

Liquens, 29, 150 

Liquesco, 29, 150 

Liquet, 29, 150 

Liquids, - 2 

Liquidus, 29, 150 

Liquitur, 29 

Liquo, 150 

Liquor, 29, 150 

Litum, 98, 100 

Logaoedic Verses, 202 

Long syllables, definition of, 4 
Lyristes, 72 

M, final, 64 

Macedo, 131 

Macedonia, 131 

Madefacio, 92 

Maeotis, 8 

Magnopere, 7 

Maia, 237 

Maior, 15 

Male 43 

Malea 24 

Maledicus 92 

i Mane, 47 

; Medials, 2, 3 

; Mentio, 55, 56 

J Metathesis, 154 

.i_iO ti 6j * * * 

, definition of,... 159, 160 

Metrical Accent 270 

Metrical feet, table of, 155, 156 

Mi, 119 

Mihe, 51 

Mihi, 48, 56, 119 

Miluo, 137 

Misce, 47 

Misti, 140 

Miurus, 161 

MixedVerses, 202 

Modo, ,e.. 52,60,61 

Monocolon, 216 

Monosyllables in composi 
tion, 81 

, quantity of, 32 

Multimodis, 92, 149 

Multiplex, 1 (> 

Mutes, 2 

N, final, 64 

in Greek words, .... 65 

Naiades, 142 

Naides, 142 

Nais, 142 

Nasidienus, 125 

Ne (enclitic), 32, 34 

Ne (in composition), 87 

Nee, .32 

Sec (in composition), 87 

Necesse, 87 

Necopinus, 87 

Necubi, 51,87 

Nefandus, 87 

Nefarius, 87 

Nefas, 87, 89 

Nefastus, 87 

Nemo, 55, 56 

Nenu, 61 

Ne-qua, 36 

Neque, 87 

Nequeo, ...87, 89 

Nereides, 24,25, 142 

Nereis, 142 

Nescio, 52, 56 

Nescis, 74 

Nestor, 67 

Nihil, 6,64 

NihilandNil, 119 

Nil, 6,64 

Nisi, 48,50,90 

Nonaginta, 41 

Nullius, 17 

Num-qua, 36 

0, final, 52 

in nominatives of 

third declension, ...52, 55, 56 

in verbs, 5-?, 56, 57 

in gerunds, ... 52, 57, 58 

Ob (in composition), 81 

Obiicio Obicio, 129 

Obit, 80 

Oblitus 98, 99 

Obstatura, 101 

Octo 5-^ 

Odi, Odium, 30 

Ohe 17,22,4:5 

Omitto, 81 

Omnia, 119 

Omnipotens, 91 

I Omnium, 118 

Operio, 81 

Oronti, 136 

Orion, 26,27,67 

I Orior, double form of, *9 1 

j Oriundi, U9 

i Orpheus, H6 

Orthography, ancient, 255258 

, definition of,.. 1 

Orurn, genitives in, contrac., 138 

Os, 32,34 

Os, final, 76 

,. . in accusative plural, 77 

in the nominative of 

Latin words 77 

. in Greek words, .... 76 

Ovi, preterite in,contracted,139 

Paeoniis, 118 

Paeonium, 126 

Palatals, 2, 3 

Palus, 77, 79 

Paragoge, 152 

Paridi, 50 

Paries, 125 

Patefacio, S3 

Patrui 119 

Pavefacio, 92 

Pegaseius, 142 

PegaseT**. 142 

Peiero,...- ,, 92 

Peior, .., 15 

Pelopeius, ., * 142 

Pelopeus, 142 

Pelopius, 142 

Penes, 71 

Penthemimer, 160 

Penthemimeris, 105 

Pepedi, 96 

Per, 32 

Percense, 47 

Percitus, 1 00 

Percusti, 140 

Perfect indicative, third 

person plural, 102, 10i 

Pericli, , 284 

Perseus, 146 

Persoluo, 137 

Pervenis, 74 

Pervoluent, 136 

Petit, 80 

Phalaecian Hendecasylla- 

bic 203 

Pherecratean, 180 

Phoebeius, 142 

Phoebeus, 142 

Pituita, 126 

Placare Placere,, 29 

Platea, 25. 26 

Pleiades, 142 

Pleias, 142 

Pluvi, 152 

Poetical licenses, 116, 139 

Polypus, 79 

Polyschematistic Verses, ..215 
Polysyllables in composi 
tion, 91 

Pompei, 118 

Pompeius, 17, 21 

Porro, 52, 54 

Positum, 102 

Position, 10 

weak, 12, 15, 16 

Possis, 75, DO 

Postea, 37, 39, 40 

Postilla, 37,39, 40 

Postmodo, 52 

Postremo, 52, 59 

Posui, 102 

Potior, double form of, .. ..291 

Potui, 102 

Prae (in composition), 8 

Praeetse, 8 



Praeiret, 8 

Praeoptare, 8 

Praeoptarit, 119 

Praepes, 90 

Praestatum, 101 

Praestatura, 101 

Praestitum, 101 

Praeterea, 37, 39 

Precantia, 119 

Prehendo, 119, 233 

Prendo, 119, 233 

Preterites, dissyllabic, 97 

, polysyllabic, ,...10i 

, reduplicating,.. 96 

Priameis, 131 

Priameius, 131 

Priam ides, 131 

Priamus, 131 

Priapeian, 213 

Principimn, 1*6 

Pro (in composition), 81, 82, 87 

Procella, 82 

Procello, 82, 85 

Procne, 12 

Procumbo, 82, 84, 85 

Procurator, 85 

Procure, 82, 85 

Profano, 82 

Profanus, 82 

Profari, 82,84 

Profecto, 82, 84 

Profectus, 82, 84 

Profestus, 82 

Proficiscor, 82,84 

Profited, 82 

Profudi, 86 

Profugio, 82 

Prof uguo, 82 

Profundo, 82,86 

Prof undus, 82 

Profusus, 86 

Proin, 124 

Proinde, 119, 324 

Promisse, 140 

Promisti, 140 4 

Promontorium, 118* 

Pronepos, 82, 85 

Proneptis, 82 

Pronuba, 92 

Pronunciation of Latin. 258-2C8 

Propago, . ..82,86 

Propello, 82,86 

Propino, 82, 84 

Propontis, 84 

Prosody, definition of, ....1,4 

Prosthesis, 151 

Protervitas, 82 

Protervus, 82 

Protraxe, 140 

Prout, 119 

Puta, 42 

Puto, 52, 56 

Putrefacio, 93, 94 

Q,letter, 226 

Qwa (in composition), 87 

Quadriiugus, 15 

Quadrisyllable feet, 156 

Quando, 52, 59 

Quan documque, 60 

Quaridoque 60 

Quandoquidem, 60 

Quantity, 209 

Quantity, definition of, 4 

Quapropter, 87 

Quure, 87 



Quasi, , , 48, 50, 90 

Quatenus, , ... 87 

Quater, 149 

Quatuor, 149 

Que (enclitic), 82 

Quia, 37, 41 

Quiris, 73 

Quis, 32 

Quitum, 98, 100 

Quo (in composition), 87 

Quocirca, 87 

Quocunque, 87 

Quominus, 87 

Quomodo, 52, 60, 87 

Qucque, 87 

Quotidianus, 150 

R, letter, 238 

R, final, 67 

Rarefacio, 95 

Ratum, , 98 

Re (in composition), 87 

Recepso, 136 

j. 1 1/ c* o tv^ c ^ * * * x^\/ 
Recidere Reci limus, 

133, 134, 135 
Reducit Reducunt 

Reducere, 133, 134, 1 35 

Roperit, 133, 1 34, 1 35 

Refert, 87,89 

Regis, 29 

Rei, 17, 20 

Reiicio reicio, 12i> 

Relanguit, 137 

Relatum,, 133, 134, 135 

Relicuas, 136, l- JS 

Relicuo, 1 36, 138 

Religio and its cases, 133, 134 
Reliquiae and its cases, 133, 134< 

Remotum, 133, 134, ! *> 

Responde, 45, 4t> 

Respondeamus, .., US 

Repulit, 1 33, 1 34, 1 3f> 

Retulit, 133, 134, 13-5 

Rhea 21 

Rhythm, 271 

Ris final, in the indicative 

future perfect, &c., ?& 

Rogo, oG 

Rubefacio, 92 

Rutum, 98, 10 J 

S, letter, 23S 

S final, dropped before a 
word beginning with a 

consonant, 48,62, 91, 26S 

Salamis, 7:> 

Salve, 45, 4f> 

Samnis, 73, 75 

Sapphic, greater, 186 

Sapphic, lesser, 184 

Sapphic Stanza, .184 

Satin , 34, 66, 148. 

Saturnian Verse, 292 

c, sp, sg, st, at the begin 
ning of a word, 11, 271 

Scan, to, definition, 15i> 

Scateo and Scato 280 

Scazon, 161, 195 

S. C. de Bacchanalibus, .. ..250- 

S. C. de Tiburtibus 253 

Scidi,... 97, 93 

Scio 52, 5G 

Scipios, epitaphs on, 246 

Se (in composition), 87 

Sedare Sedere ... 29 


Sedes (noun and verb), .... 29 

Sedile 29 

Semen, 30 

Semi, words compounded 

with, 118 

Semianimis, 7,118 

Semisopitus, 92 

Semivir, 91 

Semi-vowels, 2 

Senarius, 191-195 

Seorsum, 119 

Seorsus, 119 

Sero, 52 

Sexaginta, 41 

Short syllables, definition of, 4 

iSz (in composition), 87 

Sibe, , 51 

Sibi, 48, 51 

Sibilants, 2, 3 

Sicania, 131 

Sicanis, , 131 

Sicanius, 131 

Sicanus, 131 

Sicelides, 131 

Sicelis, 131 

Sicilia, 131 

Sicubi, 51, 87 

Siculus, 131 

Sicuti, 5! 

Siet 136 

Siluae, 137 

Simois, 73 

Si-qua, 30 

Siquidem, . 87 

Smaragdus, 12 

Solius, 17 

Soluit, 136 

Solutum, 102 

Soluunt, 136, 137 

Sopitus, 92 

Sotadean 189 

Spei, 17,20 

Spondeo, 56 

Statim, 101 

Statio, 101 

Stator, 101 

Statum, 101 

Statura, 101 

Status, 101 

Stellio, 126 

Stesichorean, 213 

Steti, 97, 98 

Stipendium, 149 

Stipo, 149 

Stiti, 97,98 

Strideo and stride, 290 

Stupefacio, 92 

Suadent, 136 

Suadet, 9 

Suaveolens, 7, 118 

Subiicio Subicio, 129 

Subjunctive perfect, 75, 76 

Suemus, 136 

Suerit, <fca, 136 

Suetae, 137 

Sueti, &c., 136 

Suetus, 9 

Sueyos, 137 

Supines, dissyllabic, 98 

. polysyllabic, 101 

Superne, 43 

Surrexe, 1 40 

Suspicio, 29 

Syllables, contracted, 6, 8 

, doubtful, defin. of, 4 


Syllables, long, definition of, 4 

naturally short, ... 14 

, short, definition of, 

Synaeresis, 140 

Synaloepha, 14U 

Synapheia, 115 

Syncope, 140, 153 

Synecphonesis, 1 40 

Synizesis, 140 

Syntax, definition of, 1 

Systole, 147, 148, 150 

T, final, 80 

Taeniis, 118 

Talipedans, 150 

Tantummodo, 52 

Tecmessa, 12 

Tern ere, 43 

Tenues, 2, 3 

Tenuis and its cases, 12P 

Tepefacio, 93, 94 

Ter, 32 

Tergeo and Tergo, 290 

Terrai, 17, 20 

Tethyn, 07 

Tetrastrophon, 217 

Tetuli, 98 

Tetulit, 136 

Thales, 72 

Therapne Therapnaeus, 12, 13 

Thesis, 271 

Theseius, 142 

Theseus, 142 

Thetidi, 50 

Thyniasin, 109 

Tibe, 51 

Tibereia, 143 

Tibi, 48,51 

Time, in Prosody, 4 

Tmesis, 153 

Torreat, 119 

Totius, 17 

Trans (in composition),.. .. 81 

Tremefacio, 92 

Tricolon, 216 

Triduum, 87 

Triemimeris, 105 

Trigesimus, 87 

Triginta, 45,87 

Trimus, 87 

Trinacria, 87 

Trinus, 87 

Tris and Tri (in composi 
tion), 87 

Tristrophon, 217 

Trisyllabic feet, 155 

Trochaic Dimeter, 20i 

Tetrameter, 200 

Verses, 200, 202 

Trees, 237 

Troia, 237 

Troiadea, 237 

Troianus, 237 

Troicus, 237 

Troiugena, 237 

Troius 142, 237 

Tros, 237 

Trous, 1 4.2, 237 

Tueor and Tuor, 290 

Tuli, 97,98 

Tumefacio, 92 

Tuticanus, 147 

Tyndaridi,.... 50 

U, final, 61 


U final, In the dative and 
ablative of the fourth de 
clension, 62 

U in the dative of the fourth 

declension, 135, 137 

Ua, ue, ui, uo,uu, 9 

Ubi, . 48,49,51 

Jbicunque, 51 

Ubique, 51 

Ubivis, 51 

Ullius, 17 

Ulyssei, 10,146,284 

Ulyssi, 146,284 

Union of different kinds of 

verse, 216 

Unius, 17 

Us final, 77 

in Greek words, . . 78 

in nouns of the 

third declension, 77, 78 

in nouns of the 

fourth declension, 77, 78 

. in the older poets, 62 

Uti, 51 

Utinam, 51 

Utique, 51 

Utrius, 17 

V, letter, 1 2,6,229 

, double power of, ..2, 126, 136 

Vacillo, 150 

Vale, 45, 46 

Vas 32,34 

Vaticanus, 151 

Ve (in composition), 87 

(enclitic), 32 


119, 233 

Veii, 143 

Veius, 17,21,143 

Veluti, 51 

Vemens,Vementer,&c.,119, 233 
Verbs which appear under a 

double form, 288 

Veridicus, 92 

Vero, 52, 55 

Verse, definition of, 159 

Verses, classification of, ....159 

mixed, 202 

Versification, 155-217 

Vide, 45, 4C 

Viden , 34, 47, 66, 148 

Videsis, 47 

Vietis, 119 

Vindemiator, 118 

Vir, 32,35 

Vixet, 139, 140 

Voces, 29 

Volo, 52, 56 

Volutum, 102 

Vowel before a rowel, 17 

before a vowel in 

Greek words, 18, 24 

Vowels, 1 

-, classification of,.... 3 
naturally short, .. . . 12 

Vulteius, 17,21 

Weak position, 12, 15, 16 

X, letter, 238 

Xiphias, 70 

Y, letter, 1,241 

final, 62 

li final, 79 

Z, letter, , !, 241 




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13. SCOFFERN S Chemistry of the Inorganic Bodies . .30 

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15. SCOFFERN and LOWE S Practical Meteorology . .16 

16. SMITH S Introduction to Botany : Structural & Systematic 2 o 

17. TWISDEN S Plane and Spherical Trigonometry . .16 

18. TWISDEN on Logarithms i o 

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22. YOUNG S Plane Geometry . . . . . .16 

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Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7/6. Fifth Edition, revised and 


I. HISTORY of the ART. 


the Process of COATING with 




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" The fact of Mr. Napier s Treatise having reached a FIFTH EDITION is good 

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NAPIER (James, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.) : 

CEIPTS. Illustrated by Diagrams and Numerous Specimens of Dyed 
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Edition, thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. 


Their effects upon Colours, and the changes they produce in 
many Dyeing Operations. 

reference to Dyeing : 

Elements of Matter, their physical and chemical properties, 
producing in their combination the different Acids, Salts, &c., 
in use in the Dye-House. 


Their composition, properties, and action in fixing Colours 
within the Fibre. 

PART IV. VEGETABLE MATTERS in use in the Dye-House : 

ist. those containing Tannin, Indigo, &c. ; 2ndly, the various 
Dyewoods and Roots, as Logwood, Madder, Bark, &c. 


Cochineal, Kerms, Lac, &c. 

Their Discovery, Manufacture, and Introduction to the Dyeing- 
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Bleaching; Removing Stains and Dyes; Dyeing of different 
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PHILLIPS (John, M.A.,F.R.S., F.G.S., late Pro- 

fessor of Geology at the University of Oxford). 

A MANUAL OF GEOLOGY: Practical and Theoretical. Revised 
and Edited by ROBERT ETHERIDGE, F.R.S., F.G.S., of the Museum of 
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PHILLIPS (J.Arthur,M.Inst.C.E.,F.C.S.,F.G.S., 

Ancien Eleve de PEcole des Mines, Paris) : 

ELEMENTS OF METALLURGY: A Practical Treatise on the 
Art of Extracting Metals from their Ores. With over two hundred Il 
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Royal 8vo, 764 pages, cloth, 34/- 


II. A Description of the principal METALLIFEROUS MINERALS, with 

III. STATISTICS of the amount of each METAL annually produced 
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IV. The METHODS of ASSAYING the different ORES, together with 

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Late Regius Professor of Civil Engineering in the University of Glasgow. 


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OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE from the Norman Conquest. 
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In two vols. Royal 8vo. Handsomely bound in cloth, 25/- ; full calf, 
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II. SECOND ENGLISH commonly called Semi-Saxon. 
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With numerous Excerpts and Specimens of Style. 

11 Anyone who will take the trouble to ascertain the fact, will find how completely 
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LITERATURE, for the Use of Colleges, Schools and Civil Service 
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CRUTTWELL (Charles Thomas, M.A.) : A 

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CURRIE (Joseph, formerly Bead Classical Master 

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D ORSEY (Rev. Alex. J. D., B.D., of Corpus Christi 

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AND METAPHYSICAL. With Quotations and References for the Use of 
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AND PAINTERS. Illustrated by Sixty-four superb Engravings on 
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PA Ramsay, William, 1806-1865. 

2329 A Manual of Latin prosody.